English literature - The literature of World War II (–45) | omarcafini.info
In Art Labor, Sex Politics Siona Wilson investigates the charged relationship of sex and labor politics as it played out in the making of feminist art in s Britain . At the same time, their poetry, like Expressionist art of the period, is full of such . pathbreaking novel on the genesis of Nazism and its relation to the aesthetic, . In Flugasche (Flight of Ashes), written in East Germany during the s but not. In s and '80s New York, the artists were working class and the glamor The following is a list of 11 books that recall the subterranean art world After a long term relationship with a woman, she met her husband in Italy;.
The artists I admired reflected the roughness of the city around them, and as I recount in my new book, Girls Gone Oldwhen I moved to New York City, I sought out what remained of that roughness. Perhaps it was because of their art that I was never afraid. Join this August and get a free set of Literary Witches postcardselectricliterature. Living in a series of cheap motel rooms, government subsidized apartments, and on the street, Solanas hung out at the 11th St. Over sixty contributors reflect on the vagaries of low-budget, no-budget filmmaking in New York City.
My Face for the World to See is an amalgamation of journal entries, notes, and photographs. You have a right to expect that there will be a special place for you.
The Case for Feminist Revolution. It would be almost thirty years before the publication of her next and final book, Airless Spaces. Driven and ambitious, she supplemented her art world earnings by dealing drugs out of her Bleecker St.
Traditionally skill of execution was viewed as a quality inseparable from art and thus necessary for its success; for Leonardo da Vinciart, neither more nor less than his other endeavors, was a manifestation of skill. In conceptual art, Marcel Duchamp 's " Fountain " is among the first examples of pieces wherein the artist used found objects "ready-made" and exercised no traditionally recognised set of skills. Emin slept and engaged in other activities in her bed before placing the result in a gallery as work of art.
Hirst came up with the conceptual design for the artwork but has left most of the eventual creation of many works to employed artisans. Hirst's celebrity is founded entirely on his ability to produce shocking concepts. However, there are many modernist and contemporary artists who continue to excel in the skills of drawing and painting and in creating hands-on works of art. Spain, late 10th century Art has had a great number of different functions throughout its history, making its purpose difficult to abstract or quantify to any single concept.
This does not imply that the purpose of Art is "vague", but that it has had many unique, different reasons for being created. Some of these functions of Art are provided in the following outline. In this sense, Art, as creativity, is something humans must do by their very nature i. Art at this level is not an action or an object, but an internal appreciation of balance and harmony beautyand therefore an aspect of being human beyond utility. Imitation, then, is one instinct of our nature.
Relationship between avant-garde art and American pop culture
Next, there is the instinct for 'harmony' and rhythm, meters being manifestly sections of rhythm. Persons, therefore, starting with this natural gift developed by degrees their special aptitudes, till their rude improvisations gave birth to Poetry. Art provides a way to experience one's self in relation to the universe.
This experience may often come unmotivated, as one appreciates art, music or poetry. The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all true art and science. Art provides a means to express the imagination in non-grammatic ways that are not tied to the formality of spoken or written language.
Unlike words, which come in sequences and each of which have a definite meaning, art provides a range of forms, symbols and ideas with meanings that are malleable. Jupiter's eagle [as an example of art] is not, like logical aesthetic attributes of an object, the concept of the sublimity and majesty of creation, but rather something else—something that gives the imagination an incentive to spread its flight over a whole host of kindred representations that provoke more thought than admits of expression in a concept determined by words.
They furnish an aesthetic idea, which serves the above rational idea as a substitute for logical presentation, but with the proper function, however, of animating the mind by opening out for it a prospect into a field of kindred representations stretching beyond its ken.
In many cultures, art is used in rituals, performances and dances as a decoration or symbol. While these often have no specific utilitarian motivated purpose, anthropologists know that they often serve a purpose at the level of meaning within a particular culture.
This meaning is not furnished by any one individual, but is often the result of many generations of change, and of a cosmological relationship within the culture. Most scholars who deal with rock paintings or objects recovered from prehistoric contexts that cannot be explained in utilitarian terms and are thus categorized as decorative, ritual or symbolic, are aware of the trap posed by the term 'art'.
These may be to bring about political change, to comment on an aspect of society, to convey a specific emotion or mood, to address personal psychology, to illustrate another discipline, to with commercial arts sell a product, or simply as a form of communication. Art, at its simplest, is a form of communication. As most forms of communication have an intent or goal directed toward another individual, this is a motivated purpose. Illustrative arts, such as scientific illustration, are a form of art as communication.
Maps are another example. However, the content need not be scientific. Emotions, moods and feelings are also communicated through art. Art may seek to bring about a particular emotion or mood, for the purpose of relaxing or entertaining the viewer.
Liverpool University Press: Books: All-women art spaces in Europe in the long s
This is often the function of the art industries of Motion Pictures and Video Games. Art for political change. One of the defining functions of early twentieth-century art has been to use visual images to bring about political change.
Art movements that had this goal— DadaismSurrealismRussian constructivismand Abstract Expressionismamong others—are collectively referred to as the avante-garde arts. By contrast, the realistic attitude, inspired by positivism, from Saint Thomas Aquinas to Anatole France, clearly seems to me to be hostile to any intellectual or moral advancement.
I loathe it, for it is made up of mediocrity, hate, and dull conceit. It is this attitude which today gives birth to these ridiculous books, these insulting plays. It constantly feeds on and derives strength from the newspapers and stultifies both science and art by assiduously flattering the lowest of tastes; clarity bordering on stupidity, a dog's life.
Unlike the avant-garde movements, which wanted to erase cultural differences in order to produce new universal values, contemporary art has enhanced its tolerance towards cultural differences as well as its critical and liberating functions social inquiry, activism, subversion, deconstruction While similar to art for political change, subversive or deconstructivist art may seek to question aspects of society without any specific political goal.
In this case, the function of art may be simply to criticize some aspect of society. Spray-paint graffiti on a wall in Rome Graffiti art and other types of street art are graphics and images that are spray-painted or stencilled on publicly viewable walls, buildings, buses, trains, and bridges, usually without permission. Certain art forms, such as graffiti, may also be illegal when they break laws in this case vandalism. Art for social causes.
Art can be used to raise awareness for a large variety of causes. A number of art activities were aimed at raising awareness of autism   cancer,    human trafficking  and a variety of other topics, such as ocean conservation,  human rights in Darfur murdered and missing Aboriginal women,  elder abuse,  and pollution.
Art for psychological and healing purposes. Art is also used by art therapists, psychotherapists and clinical psychologists as art therapy. The Diagnostic Drawing Seriesfor example, is used to determine the personality and emotional functioning of a patient. The end product is not the principal goal in this case, but rather a process of healing, through creative acts, is sought. The resultant piece of artwork may also offer insight into the troubles experienced by the subject and may suggest suitable approaches to be used in more conventional forms of psychiatric therapy.
Art is often utilized as a form of propaganda, and thus can be used to subtly influence popular conceptions or mood. In a similar way, art that tries to sell a product also influences mood and emotion. In both cases, the purpose of art here is to subtly manipulate the viewer into a particular emotional or psychological response toward a particular idea or object.
It has been argued that the ability of the human brain by far exceeds what was needed for survival in the ancestral environment.
One evolutionary psychology explanation for this is that the human brain and associated traits such as artistic ability and creativity are the human equivalent of the peacock 's tail. The purpose of the male peacock's extravagant tail has been argued to be to attract females see also Fisherian runaway and handicap principle.
According to this theory superior execution of art was evolutionary important because it attracted mates. For example, art for the purpose of entertainment may also seek to sell a product, i. Louis Le Vau opened up the interior court to create the expansive entrance cour d'honneurlater copied all over Europe.
Since ancient times, much of the finest art has represented a deliberate display of wealth or power, often achieved by using massive scale and expensive materials. Much art has been commissioned by political rulers or religious establishments, with more modest versions only available to the most wealthy in society. In many different cultures, the ceramics of indigenous peoples of the Americas are found in such a wide range of graves that they were clearly not restricted to a social elite though other forms of art may have been.
Reproductive methods such as moulds made mass-production easier, and were used to bring high-quality Ancient Roman pottery and Greek Tanagra figurines to a very wide market.
Cylinder seals were both artistic and practical, and very widely used by what can be loosely called the middle class in the Ancient Near East.
Printed books were initially very expensive, but fell steadily in price until by the 19th century even the poorest could afford some with printed illustrations. Egyptian temples are typical in that the most largest and most lavish decoration was placed on the parts that could be seen by the general public, rather than the areas seen only by the priests.
The British Royal Collection remains distinct, but large donations such as the Old Royal Library were made from it to the British Museumestablished in The Uffizi in Florence opened entirely as a gallery inthough this function had been gradually taking the building over from the original civil servants' offices for a long time before.
Museums in the United States tend to be gifts from the very rich to the masses. The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, for example, was created by John Taylor Johnstona railroad executive whose personal art collection seeded the museum.
But despite all this, at least one of the important functions of art in the 21st century remains as a marker of wealth and social status. Everyone an artist — On the way to the libertarian form of the social organism There have been attempts by artists to create art that can not be bought by the wealthy as a status object. One of the prime original motivators of much of the art of the late s and s was to create art that could not be bought and sold.
It is "necessary to present something more than mere objects"  said the major post war German artist Joseph Beuys. This time period saw the rise of such things as performance artvideo artand conceptual art. The idea was that if the artwork was a performance that would leave nothing behind, or was simply an idea, it could not be bought and sold.
Artists broadly identified under the heading of Conceptual art Many of these performances create works that are only understood by the elite who have been educated as to why an idea or video or piece of apparent garbage may be considered art. The marker of status becomes understanding the work instead of necessarily owning it, and the artwork remains an upper-class activity. Iconoclasm is the destruction of art that is disliked for a variety of reasons, including religious ones. Aniconism is a general dislike of either all figurative images, or often just religious ones, and has been a thread in many major religions.
It has been a crucial factor in the history of Islamic artwhere depictions of Muhammad remain especially controversial. Much art has been disliked purely because it depicted or otherwise stood for unpopular rulers, parties or other groups. Artistic conventions have often been conservative and taken very seriously by art criticsthough often much less so by a wider public. The iconographic content of art could cause controversy, as with late medieval depictions of the new motif of the Swoon of the Virgin in scenes of the Crucifixion of Jesus.
The Last Judgment by Michelangelo was controversial for various reasons, including breaches of decorum through nudity and the Apollo -like pose of Christ. Strong incentives for perceived originality and publicity also encouraged artists to court controversy. In the twentieth century, Pablo Picasso 's Guernica used arresting cubist techniques and stark monochromatic oilsto depict the harrowing consequences of a contemporary bombing of a small, ancient Basque town.
Leon Golub 's Interrogation IIIdepicts a female nude, hooded detainee strapped to a chair, her legs open to reveal her sexual organs, surrounded by two tormentors dressed in everyday clothing. Andres Serrano 's Piss Christ is a photograph of a crucifix, sacred to the Christian religion and representing Christ 's sacrifice and final suffering, submerged in a glass of the artist's own urine.