The relationship with Britain and America | Australia Explained
Australia inherited from the war an inflationary economy and a large debt, and its Australia's key economic relationship was with Britain, a reality . Australians at the Movies, to the Present Day, North Ryde , pp. Movies · TV & Radio · Music · Celebrity · Books · Comedy · Dance · Musicals . The Australian and British crew of 32 were taken as prisoners of war. as an amateur, barely trained force in April, learned its trade on Gallipoli. Gallipoli wasn't Australia's first engagement in WWI - or even the campaign. Gallipoli has become a symbol of Australia's national identity, national identity has returned to affirm the connection between Gallipoli and nationhood. The anniversary has generated books, films, ceremonies and pilgrimages. some aspects and boost others, often with a distinctly anti-British spin.
These needed an elaborate infrastructure, especially good roads and reliable electricity.
Gallipoli: Cheat Sheet | Movie News, Anzac Day | SBS Movies
In this way, overseas loans supported suburban expansion and improved living standards in town and country, more than they underwrote productive capacity. If commodity prices collapsed and loan money dried up — as would happen in — the result was likely to be dire. Some of the investment, such as that in electricity, did support industrialisation, but governments also spent big on repatriation of World War I servicemen — in the form of pensions, healthcare and housing, and educational support.
On the eve of the Second World War, well over a quarter of a million Australians were being supported by war pensions, almost as many as were being paid old age and invalid pensions. Not only did they require spending on infrastructure such as roads and irrigation, they also led to bad debt owed to increasingly hard-pressed governments, as well as financial, social, physical, and psychological distress for settlers and their families.
The British government established an Empire Marketing Board to promote imperial goods to British consumers.Born On The Shores Of Gallipoli - ANZAC in WW1 I THE GREAT WAR Special
Nonetheless, the British economy was sluggish in the aftermath of the war, and the growth of world trade slow during the s. Demand for wheat — which accounted for a fifth of Australian exports — was mainly flat during the s, but Australia benefited from rising British demand for meat, dairy goods, fruit, nuts, and wine.
As a response to the depression of the early s, the British Empire sought by preferential arrangements to maximise trade within it. While the war itself had not been an engine of industrialisation, it had diversified Australian production as enterprises filled gaps left by the disruption of world trade and shipping shortages.
The war boosted the chemicals industry, zinc refining, and steel production; these areas formed the foundation of interwar industrialisation. Manufacturing still only represented 11 percent of gross domestic product inbut it expanded rapidly until aboutwhen over-production of consumer goods began to create difficulties.
By manufacturing had grown to 18 percent of GDP. The growing American dominance of the global cinema industry, and the enormous enthusiasm of Australian audiences for the Hollywood product, squeezed the local industry. Automatic cost-of-living adjustments were introduced to respond to price increases in Unemployment, which had never dipped below seven percent fromalso climbed in the late s.
Employers looked to wage rates in their efforts to cut costs, and they found an ally in the federal government. Australia, with its exposure to international fluctuations in trade and investment, would have experienced a depression irrespective of the nature of its development in the s. But war debts and post-war borrowing greatly increased its vulnerability to external shocks, such as the collapse of commodity prices and the virtual cessation of international lending.
When Australia was indeed hit by these problems init experienced a catastrophic balance of payments problem and strong pressure from creditors. The government reduced pensions and spending and cut interest rates for local bondholders — but it did not default on its overseas debts. The federal Arbitration Court, which determined conditions for many Australian workers, cut wages by 10 percent in addition to automatic adjustments to account for deflation, although some tribunals in the states increased wage rates.
To promote industrialisation and absorb the unemployed, who probably accounted for a quarter of the workforce during the worst period of the depression aroundthe government encouraged British and foreign multinational firms to set up operations in Australia, behind its high tariff wall. Local manufacturing contributed to helping Australia out of its balance of payments problems by reducing dependence on imports.
It would take another world war to usher in a new prosperity. In contrast with World War I, Australia in managed to avoid excessive overseas debt, partly through financing the war via taxation and bonds sold locally. It also benefited from its greater level of industrialisation, which placed it in a strong position to supply its own forces and eventually, the Americans as well. Australia had developed defence industries between the wars, motivated in part by the sense of isolation and vulnerability it had experienced during World War I.
The War at Home. South Melbournep. Australia and the Great Depression.
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A Study of Economic Development and Policy in the s and s: Sydney , p. Hughes and the Treaty of Versailles,in: A Pound of Flesh: There was excitement and a sense of purpose, especially among young women and children, and a thrill that some social constraints could be ignored in a national emergency.
There was also unemployment and rising prices, and wartime restrictions on old pleasures like drinking and gambling, or watching horse races and football matches. There was growing resentment among the poor and some trade union members, even a gradual defection from the war effort. There was the military service performed near homes and factories in case the fighting came close, and internment behind barbed wire of Australians considered potential or actual enemies.
On the eve of victory in there were weary calls for a negotiated peace.
Why does Gallipoli mean so much? - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
By the end of the war Australians at home were nearly as exhausted as Australians in the front line. As a newspaper predicted when the war began, every Australian was tested in those years, including those who had never heard a shot fired.
It was also very different from Australia today. Nearly all were descended from English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish colonists, so they spoke a single language and largely agreed on how life should be lived.
Most adults married for life and raised large families, and sex before marriage was said to be disgraceful. Almost everyone went to a Christian church at least twice a year. Beer, tea and tobacco were the standard drugs, all of them legal. Men worked five and a half days a week, many were active members of a trade union, and most supported strikes launched to improve working conditions.
Most women did no paid work, to the frustration of a few and the relief of most. Like today, nearly all adults could vote.