How CD4 and viral load are related | Training manual | HIV i-Base
HIV viral load correlated with s1 of CD4 and CD8 effector memory cells, as well marker for mortality or disease progression that is independent of viral load (VL). . The relationship between lymphocyte turnover and immunologic or virologic. As current CD4 and duration on ART increased and viral load suppression advanced World Health Organization (WHO) clinical disease stage, low body mass explored the interactive relationship between CD4 count, viral load and time. The CD4 count is one measure of HIV progression; the other is viral The 'dance ' between viral load, CD4 count and disease progression.
If you have an undetectable viral load and your CD4 cell count is overyour CD4 cell count will normally be checked once a year. If you have had an undetectable viral load and a CD4 cell count over for at least a year, then CD4 cell counts are not needed — so long as your viral load remains undetectable.
This is because, in these circumstances, CD4 results are not relevant for decisions about your treatment. However, if your viral load increased, or you had HIV-related symptoms, then your CD4 cell count would be monitored again. Variations in CD4 cell counts CD4 cell counts can vary a lot between people.
Your own CD4 cell count may go up and down in response to different factors such as exercise, lack of sleep or smoking. Rather than attach too much significance to an individual test result, it makes good sense to monitor any trends in changes to your CD4 cell count over time.
It is best to have your CD4 count measured at the same clinic and at roughly the same time of day wherever possible. If you have another infection, such as the flu or an outbreak of herpes, talk to your clinic about whether it is best to delay your CD4 count until you are feeling better. If you get a result that is very different to that expected, your doctor may want to repeat the test to check whether the first result was a laboratory error.
CD4 percentage In addition to using a test to count the number of CD4 cells, doctors sometimes measure the proportion of all white blood cells that are CD4 cells.
The lower the viral load, the likelier it is that HIV therapy is working. How often might someone be tested? A healthcare provider will likely conduct CD4 counts and viral load tests more often at the beginning of HIV therapy or with any changes in medications. Most people living with HIV should have lab tests performed every three to four months, according to current lab test guidelines. Less frequent testing may be needed for people who take daily medication or have maintained a suppressed viral load for over 2 years.
- CD4 cell counts
- CD4 vs. Viral Load: What’s in a Number?
- 2.14 How CD4 and viral load are related
They may only need to be tested twice a year. Why is it important to get tested regularly?
A single CD4 or viral load test result only represents a snapshot in time. Keep in mind that these values may vary for many reasons, even throughout the day. The time of day, any illnesses, and recent vaccinations can all affect CD4 count and viral load.
CD4 vs. Viral Load: What They Mean for People with HIV
The goal of HIV therapy is to reduce or suppress the viral load to an undetectable level. The exact number depends on the lab that analyzes the tests. Blips Some people may experience blips.
These are temporary, oftentimes small increases in viral load. Although reverse causality cannot be excluded, more intense antiviral treatment appears to decrease the risk of progression in immunocompromised patients Although highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART has noticeably and significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with human immunodeficiency virus HIV type 1 infection [ 12 ], virologic treatment failure is frequent [ 34 ].
On the other hand, a treatment benefit independent of both CD4 cell count and virus load was observed when patients receiving protease inhibitors PIs were compared with patients not receiving PI-containing therapies, although both virus load and CD4 cell count remained significant independent factors associated with disease progression [ 10 ]. Furthermore, treatment discontinuation in patients with virologic failure leads to rapid increases in virus load and declining CD4 cell count, which provides further evidence of a treatment benefit despite virologic failure [ 1112 ].
However, continuation of antiretroviral treatment in the presence of detectable levels of viral replication carry the risk of further viral evolution toward higher levels of resistance [ 13 ] and the development or worsening of existing drug toxicities.
Thus, it is important to investigate the relationship between plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, treatment modality, and disease progression in greater detail. In another study, the incidence of AIDS-defining illnesses was significantly lower if patients were receiving HAART in each CD4 cell strata examined, and this was confirmed for 7 of 8 individual diagnoses [ 17 ]. Details of the study have been published elsewhere [ 1720 ].