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Philosophy of language in the analytical tradition explored logic and accounts of the mind at the Philosophy of Language may investigate the relations between language, language users, and Of specific interest is the grounds for successful translation of words and concepts into their equivalents in another language. Relationship Between Language and Communication - Download as Word Doc ( .doc), Though, language is not the only means of communication. . Some teachers may explain a concept in one language and explain it again in another . attitudes, actions, and identities of partners in a relationship. Julia T. Wood is Associate Professor at the Department of Speech Communication, The University of North Carolina, and elaborate the concepts of communication and relational .
By definition, communication is the transfer of information from one place to another. In relationships, communication allows to you explain to someone else what you are experiencing and what your needs are. The act of communicating not only helps to meet your needs, but it also helps you to be connected in your relationship.
Communicating clearly in a relationship Talk to each other. We need to communicate clearly to avoid misunderstandings that may cause hurt, anger, resentment or confusion.
It takes two people to have a relationship and each person has different communication needs and styles. Couples need to find a way of communicating that suits their relationship.
Healthy communication styles require practice and hard work, however communication will never be perfect all the time. Be clear when communicating with your partner, so that your message can be received and understood.
Likewise, ongoing work in the study of language has underscored just how much effort is needed to bring palpable fact within systematic statement.
This article proposes simply to give a brief outline of the way language or languages can be considered and described from different points of view, or at different levels, each contributing something essential and unique to a full understanding of the subject.
A more detailed treatment of the science of linguistics can be found in the article linguistics. Phonetics and phonology The most obvious aspect of language is speech.
Speech is not essential to the definition of an infinitely productive communication system, such as is constituted by a language. But, in fact, speech is the universal material of most human language, and the conditions of speaking and hearing have, throughout human history, shaped and determined its development.
The study of the anatomyphysiologyneurologyand acoustics of speaking is called phonetics ; this subject is dealt with further below see Physiological and physical basis of speech.
Articulatory phonetics relates to the physiology of speech, and acoustic phonetics relates to the physics of sound waves—i.
Communication accommodation theory
Created and produced by QA International. But, from a rather different point of view, speech sounds are also studied in phonology. Spoken language makes use of a very wide range of the articulations and resultant sounds that are available within the human vocal and auditory resources. Far fewer general classes of sounds are distinctive carry meaning differences in any language than the number of sounds that are actually phonetically different.
The English t sounds at the beginning and end of tot and in the two places in stouter are all different, though these differences are not readily noticed by English speakers, and, rightly, the same letter is used for them all.
Similar statements could be made about most or all of the other consonant and vowel sounds in English. What is distinctive in one language may not be distinctive in another or may be used in a different way; this is an additional difficulty to be overcome in learning a foreign language. In Chinese and in several other languages loosely called tone languages, the pitchor tone, on which a syllable is said helps to distinguish one word from another: Languages differ in the ways in which consonant and vowel sounds can be grouped into syllables in words.
English and German tolerate several consonants before and after a single vowel: Italian does not have such complex syllables, and in Japanese and Swahili, for example, the ratio of consonant and vowel sounds in syllables and in words is much more even. Grammar Another component of language structure is grammar.
There is more to language than sounds, and words are not to be regarded as merely sequences of syllables. The concept of the word is a grammatical concept; in speech, words are not separated by pauses, but they are recognized as recurrent units that make up sentences. Very generally, grammar is concerned with the relations between words in sentences. Classes of words, or parts of speech, as they are often called, are distinguished because they occupy different places in sentence structure, and in most languages some of them appear in different forms according to their function English man, men; walk, walked; I, me; and so on.
Languages differ in the extent to which word-form variation is used in their grammar; Classical Chinese had almost none, English does not have much, and Latin and Greek had quite a lot. Conversely, English makes much more use of word order in grammar than did Latin or Greek.
Traditionally, grammar has been divided into syntax and morphologysyntax dealing with the relations between words in sentence structure and morphology with the internal grammatical structure of words.
The relation between girl and girls and the relationship irregular between woman and women would be part of morphology; the relation of concord between the girl [or woman] is here and the girls [or women] are here would be part of syntax.
It must, however, be emphasized that the distinction between the two is not as clear-cut as this brief illustration might suggest. This is a matter for debate between linguists of different persuasions; some would deny the relevance of distinguishing morphology from syntax at all, referring to grammatical structure as a whole under the term syntax.
Grammar is different from phonology and vocabulary see below Semanticsthough the word grammar is often used comprehensively to cover all aspects of language structure. Categories such as plural, past tenseand genitive case are not phonological categories. In spoken language they are, like everything else, expressed in speech sounds, but within a language these may be very different for one and the same category.
In English noun plurals, the added -s in cats, the vowel changes in man, men and in goose, geese, and the -en in oxen are quite different phonologically; so are the past-tense formatives such as -ed in guarded, -t in burnt, vowel change in take, took, and vowel and consonant change in bring, brought. The phonological difference does not matter, provided only that the category distinction is somehow expressed.
The same is true of the orthographic representation of grammatical differences, and the examples just given illustrate both cases. This is why the grammar of written language can be dealt with separately. In the case of dead languages, known with certainty only in their written forms, this must necessarily be done; insofar as the somewhat different grammar of their spoken forms made use of sound features not represented in writing e.
Grammatical forms and grammatical structures are part of the communicative apparatus of languages, and along with vocabularyor lexicon the stock of individual words in a languagethey serve to express all the meanings required.
Spoken language has, in addition, resources such as emphatic stressing and intonation. This is not to say, however, that grammatical categories can be everywhere directly related to specific meanings. Plural and past tense are fairly clear as regards meaning in English, but even here there are difficulties; in if I knew his address, I would tell you, the past-tense form knew refers not to the past but to an unfulfilled condition in the present.
Giles, Coupland, and Coupland also addressed the part that accommodation theory plays in a situation they called language switching, when bilingual individuals must decide which language they should speak when they are in an organizational environment with other bilingual individuals.
This can be an incredibly important choice to make, especially in a business setting, because an incorrect judgment in this area of communication could unwittingly promote negative reactions between the two or more parties involved.
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In addition, accommodation theory was strongly intertwined with the way an immigrant accepts and is accepted by their host country. An instance of over-accommodation from the immigrating individual can unintentionally damage that person's sense of individuality while a strong divergence from the immigrating individual from their host culture can prompt the natives of the host country to react negatively to them because of the immigrating individual's use of divergence.
The final area of practical application, as presented by Giles, Coupland, and Couplandwas that of accommodation theory's effect on the lives of people with disabilities. Accommodation theory was thought to either aid them by promoting them to "fulfill their communicative and life potentials", or by hindering them from reaching their full potential by focusing on the disability that made them different rather than the other characteristics that made them similar to their peers.
Despite the fact that communication accommodation theory is theoretical, it has shown itself to be viable by its numerous practical applications. These scholars question the "convergence-divergence frame They also challenge the notion that people's accommodation can be explained by just the practice of [convergence-divergence]". Sometimes we as people do not have a rational way of thinking and this becomes a problem when communicating.
Application[ edit ] The Communication Accommodation theory focuses "on the role of conversations in our lives". Since the aging of population is becoming a serious issue in current society, communication difficulties of older adults and issues like ageism should be addressed.
According to mainstream sociolinguistic studies, age is regarded as a variable only to the extent that it may show patterns of dialectal variation within speech communities across time.
However, the existence of potentially important generational differences relating to beliefs about talk, situational perceptions, interactional goals, and various language devices between the young and the elderly are all taken into account as empirical questions in their own right  when using communication accommodation theory to explore intergenerational communication problems and improve effectiveness.
Previous researchers have also developed models such as the communication predicament model of ageing,  and the communication enhancement model of ageing,  to point out numerous consequences brought by both negative and positive attitudes towards aging.
Young-to-elderly language strategies[ edit ] Even though young people are more likely to perceive the old by multiple stereotypes, the elderly are negatively evaluated in most situations,  resulting in a reduction of meaningful communication. To further illustrate this, Ryan et al. However, it is not appropriate to see problematic intergenerational talk as a one-sided affair since both the young and the old can be responsible for miscommunication and unsuitable accommodation.
The first of these is characterized as over-accommodation due to physical or sensory handicaps, which happens when speakers talk to handicapped recipients, usually those with hearing impairment, and adapt their speech beyond the optimal level. This is also known as "Elderspeak", a form of baby talk in which a person addresses the elderly in an overly simple and sometimes patronizing way.
This tenet proposes that young speakers may seek to amplify the distinctiveness of their own social group by purposefully acting in ways that differ from their stereotype of old speakers. These young speakers, attempting to differentiate themselves from this image, will talk faster, use fashionable colloquialism and slang, and express more "modern" ideas and values in their communication with seniors. The fourth strategy is intergroup over-accommodation and it is considered one of the most pervasive of young-to-elderly language strategies.
The "simple perception of an addressee's social category membership being old — and, independently of a particular handicap if anyconsiderations of dependency and in-group symbolization are sufficient to invoke negative physical, social, and psychological inferences for many younger people".
Findings demonstrated that elderly persons tend to be less accommodating than their younger counterparts. Findings also demonstrated that, for example, in business settings, one is much more likely to accommodate and converge to the language of a superior, such as a manager, than to someone with less or equal amount of superiority, such as a co-worker.
While several other factors came into play, convergence, and divergence portions of this theory were used in interpreting and explain this phenomenon. Within this field it has been applied to explain and analyze communication behaviors in a variety of situations, such as interactions between non-native and natives during second language acquisition processes, and interactions between inter-ethnic groups.
Studies  show the comparison of communication accommodation in foreign countries between tourists and locals. In countries with heavy tourism, many being Third Worldit is common that the actual tourists have little to no competency in, or desire of having competency in the language and style of communication of the local natives. On the other hand, the country's local economy as well as the livelihood of its citizens, heavily depends on these tourists.
Therefore, there is a great need to accommodate the communication styles of the tourists. Communication between native and non-native language speakers in second language acquisition[ edit ] Non-native language speakers[ edit ] The input that non-native speakers NNS obtain from their interlocutors during second language acquisition is crucial in their process of language learning.Self concept, self identity, and social identity - Individuals and Society - MCAT - Khan Academy
In a study conducted by Zuengler amongst Spanish and Greek speakers learning English, subjects were asked both ethnically threatening and neutral questions by a native English speaker. Those subjects that answered the ethnic-threatening question in a more personal form were noted to decrease the "native English-like pronunciations of the sounds" in their answers.
In this study Welshmen with strong ties to their nation and their language who were learning Welsh were asked questions about methods of second language acquisition.
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In this study the questions were asked by an English speaker with an RP-sounding accent " In this type of talk native speakers adopt features such as "slower speech rates, shorter and simpler sentence, more question and question tags, greater pronunciation articulation" amongst others. Foreign talk often contains features that mirror the mistakes made by non-native speakers in order to make speech more similar, and hence "NS may include ungrammatical features in their FT".
For this reasons, Gallois and Callan suggest that it is important to teach immigrants about the norms that govern convergence in each community.
Although other personal motives govern immigrant's linguistic choices later on, their expectations and the situational norms that they are able to perceive are what guide their linguistic choices when they are new to a culture. Sexual identity can be a challenging discussion for a family and revealing one's preferred identity led to topic avoidance under intergroup anxiety and the relational satisfaction was negatively viewed.
Such a constrained communication made the individuals feel that their relationship with the family member was less fulfilling and eventually less satisfying. New media[ edit ] As communication accommodation theory explains "the cognitions and motivations that underlie interactants' communication" with context and identity salience,  it's feasible to apply it to new media related settings.
Even though research in this field is still at its early stage, interesting case studies have appeared in recent years. Studies have investigated possible accommodative tendencies of librarians when faced with cyberlanguage use by the patron through instant messaging technology.