Symbiotic Relationship of the Orchid & Tree | Garden Guides
Orchids are epiphytes (plants that grow on other plants). They grow high in the canopy of rainforests on the branches of trees. The orchids benefit in several. An example of a beneficial, plant-plant relationship familiar to many Relatively rare in temperate regions, epiphytes are quite common in tropical Bromeliads are plants that commonly grow high in the branches of tropical rainforest trees. Epiphytes play an important role in tropical rainforest diversity and If it were a parasitic relationship, one plant would benefit at the host species expense. In some cases, host trees were able to grow aerial roots when their.
More exclusively epiphytic plants are the bromeliads and some orchids.Orchids: The Masters Of Lying, Cheating & Stealing
Bromeliads are plants that commonly grow high in the branches of tropical rainforest trees. They are often found in the joint where a branch meets the trunk; there, fallen plant debris collects, providing a source of nutrients to the bromeliad. Some species of bromeliad have cup-shaped leaf rosettes. The cup fills with water during the frequent rains, and the plant is able to use this supply to fill its water needs. Though bromeliads perch in the branches, they do no harm to the tree.
They simply perch there, high in the canopy, where light is more plentiful than on the forest floor. Epiphytic orchids can also be found perched in trees in the rainforest; like bromeliads, they collect nutrients from organic debris.
Orchids are able to fill at least some of their water requirements by absorbing water vapor through their long, aerial roots. Babying Bromeliads As is the case with a number of tropical plants, bromeliads are sometimes sold as houseplants. Remember their native habitat, and try to mimic it as much as possible. Give the plants bright, indirect light, and keep their rosettes filled with water. After flowering, some bromeliads produce offsets or shoots at their bases, which you can carefully transplant to a new pot.
An ecosystem contained within an ecosystem Introduction Epiphytes play an important role in tropical rainforest diversity and productivity and take a massive part in creating unique habitats for animals that cannot be found in any other place of the world. The word epiphyte is formed from epi- meaning upon, and phyton, meaning plant.
Epiphytes grow on plants having their root structure off the ground instead of in the ground. Because their root system is in the air, they have evolved to be able to live in a harsh environment.
Not only have epiphytes found a way to live high in the rainforest canopy, but also they are able to host micro-ecosystems and a variety of wildlife. This paper will review how epiphytes live in the rainforest canopy, and how they support life and diversity in the rainforest. Epiphytes in the Neotropics Epiphytes are a major component of rainforests because of their wide variety and large abundance.
Mostly living in the tree canopy, they can account for 33 percent of the plant species. Epiphytes were found to even hold 50 percent of the nutrients in some rainforests Yanoviak They are the most prevalent in cloud rain forests due to the high availability of water in the form of rain and mist. Epiphytes were able to account for 40 percent of the biomass of all the plants, trees, and shrubs in some Neotropical cloud rainforests Nadkarni There are over 83 different kinds of epiphytes including orchids, cacti, bromeliads, aroids, lichens, mosses, and ferns.
Host Branches Epiphytes are not parasites to the plants that they live on, but rather obtain their nutrients and water from the air and rain while obtaining energy from the sun. If it were a parasitic relationship, one plant would benefit at the host species expense. Epiphytes do not harm their host species by only using the host for support and epiphytes often benefit the host tree or plant.
In some cases, host trees were able to grow aerial roots when their branches were populated by epiphytes, enabling them to take in water and nutrients that were collected in the dense layers formed over time by the epiphytes Kricher Living in the Canopy In order to survive, plants must be able to obtain water and nutrients.
Since they do not have roots in the ground, they have to be efficient in collecting rain and nutrients. Epiphytes form dense root systems that have a large surface area, enabling the plants to absorb rainfall. Since water might be limited and there might be long lengths of time in which it is dry, many epiphytes such as orchids are able to store water in thick stems.
Other epiphytes are able to collect water in their leaves, enabling them to have a supply of water during dry periods of time. It is also important for epiphytes to collect nutrients.
Nutrients are also available from dust and particles that are caught in the roots and nutrients from decaying organisms. There are several benefits of living in the canopy that give epiphytes an advantage.
First, epiphytes are able to get much more sunlight in the canopy than they would be able to get when living on the ground. Since they live on trees, the epiphyte does not have to use energy to reach high into the canopy from the forest floor and compete with trees and vines. Reproduction is a benefit of living high in the tree canopies. Wind, insects, and birds are all important factors in reproduction of most plants.
The canopy is the liveliest place in the rainforest with hundreds of birds and thousands of insects. The more organisms that come in contact with the epiphyte, the more likely that it will be pollinated and its seeds distributed. The wind is also very important to most epiphytes. Orchid epiphytes have adapted to have hundreds of thousands of seeds that measure in microns that are able to float in the air over long distances and find a landing spot in another tree.
Micro-ecosystems Epiphytes make up a huge part of the biodiversity in a rainforest.
Epiphyte - Wikipedia
Not only do epiphytes account for a large portion of foliage in rainforest, they also support other plants and organisms. Every epiphyte is a microhabitat, in which there can be a food web of arthropods and other animals. Non-vascular epiphytes such as bryophytes, liverworts, and mosses, can be a home for many arthropods.
Young forests will accumulate dense coverings of these epiphytes on the bark and on the branches.
Symbiotic Relationship of the Orchid & Tree
In old growth forests, epiphytic mats are formed from years of growth and the accumulation of particles and dead tissue. These mats tend to contain insects including mites, springtails, beetles, ants, moth larvae, thrips, bark lice, wasps, and spiders. The insects thrive while living in the epiphytes in the rain forest canopy, but when they die they help to supply the epiphytes with nutrients and minerals Yanoviak An example of a vascular epiphyte that can host a microhabitat is a tank bromeliad.