Form Space Relationship
Hong Kong Institute of Architects. Lesson 1: Form and Space in Architecture . Form and Space in Architecture. The Relationship of Form and Space. Aug 1, The Relationship Between Form and Space Perception, Constructional Abilities, and Clumsiness in Children. Article (PDF Available) in The. Form Space Relationship. Design Atelier conceived the design of PADC Indian Oil Refinery in Panipat, Haryana, as a landscape-based rock formation.
Michael Petrus Scale is not the same as size, but refers to relative size as perceived by the viewer. Scale may be manipulated by the architect to make a building appear smaller or larger than its actual size. The term "human scale" is frequently used to describe building dimensions based on the size of the human body.
Human scale is sometimes referred to as "anthropomorphic scale. For example, buildings occupied primarily by children, such as schools and child development centersshould be scaled in relation to the actual size of children. The roadside service station depicted in Fig.
Proportion In general, proportion in architecture refers to the relationship of one part to the other parts, and to the whole building. Numerous architectural proportioning systems have developed over time and in diverse cultures, but just a few specific examples are listed below.
Proportioning Systems Since Antiquity, architects have devised proportioning systems to visually unify all the parts of a building through the same set of proportions. This process creates an internal coherence and sense of order apparent in the building, even if the underlying proportioning system is not known to the observer.
These systems can be arithmetic, geometric, or harmonic. The Ancient Greeks used clear mathematical ratios for both visible and auditory phenomena, such as architecture and music. For instance, Pythagoras emphasized the importance of numbers. Originating in Antiquity, the "Golden Section" has been used by Renaissance theorists, modern and contemporary architects.
The Golden Section or Golden Mean is both arithmetic and geometrical, and is prevalent in both the natural world and classical architectural design. It may be expressed as a: This relationship can be verbally described as: The Golden Section is also apparent in the Fibonacci series of integers: Each succeeding number is the sum of two previous numbers.
This series forms the basis for a spiral, as found in the snail's shell or the spiral volutes of ionic column capitals. In Classical architecture, the diameter of a classical column provided a unit of measurement that established all the dimensions of the building, from overall dimensions to fine detail.
This system works for any size of building, since the column unit fluctuates while the internal relationships remain constant.
Drawings of the "classical orders" explain this set of relationships geometrically.
The ancient discovery of harmonic proportion in music was translated to architectural proportion. For instance, this system posits that when the ratio of 1: The early Renaissance architect Alberti credited the harmony of Roman architecture and the universe to this system.
The Renaissance architect Palladio, along with Venetian musical theorists, developed a more complex system of harmonic proportion based on the major and minor third—resulting in the ratio of 5: Ionic column capital, Fig. Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy by Leon Battista Alberti Material and Manufactured Proportions Most contemporary buildings are proportioned according to the industry standard unit size of the primary mass-produced building materials employed.
Based on the inherent properties of each material, conventional sizes and proportions have resulted. For instance, bricks, concrete masonry units, light wood members, plywood, and gypsum wallboard are always fabricated and sold in conventional sizes.
The dimensions of these elements form another unit of measurement within the building.
Structural Proportions The structural capacity of a particular material results in distinct proportions. The maximum span and depth of a stone lintel is very different than a steel lintel because of different structural properties. Brick properties and Fig. Window rhythm Photo Credit: Rhythm The reoccurrence or repetition of architectural elements, shapes, structural bays, windows, etc. A static building possesses a rhythm, while the movement of inhabitants through a building may also establish a pattern or rhythm of human movement.
Articulation How building surfaces come together to define form is often described as "articulation. Texture and Color Both texture and color are inherently linked to materials, and can be used to alter the perception of any given form. Consider how the shift from a light to dark paint color can radically reduce the apparent size of a room, or how a smooth stucco or rough brick finish can alter the size and visual weight of a house.
As illustrated in Fig. Light Form is perceived differently depending on the light conditions within which the building is viewed.
Form Space Relationship
The prominent modern architect Le Corbusier emphasized the important relationship between light and form in his famous statement, "Architecture is the masterly, correct, and magnificent play of masses brought together in light. Our eyes are made to see forms in light; light and shade reveal these forms.
Complexity of textures and colors, Fig. Form in light Photo Credit: Michael Petrus Application The following case study examines why a particular built form was used and how it enhances the aesthetics of that particular building.
Nor are all naturally occurring objects organic; snowflakes and soap bubbles are among many geometric forms found in nature.
If you are interested seeing other visual examples of geometry in nature, you might enjoy looking at this site, in which patterns found in nature ,are explored. There are some other terms commonly used to describe form and shape in composition; these have to do with what kind of representations the forms have.
If we can recognize every day objects and environments, we refer to the images as being realistic, or naturalistic. However, if the images are difficult or impossible to identify in terms of our normal, daily visual experience, we may refer to the images as abstract. There are several kinds of abstract images. Generally, abstractions are "abstracted" or derived from realistic images - perhaps even distorted-- but perhaps in such a way that the source is not immediately apparent.
An example of this would be one of Georgia O'keefe's paintings of a detail from a flower. This kind of abstraction in art is sometimes referred to as an objective image -- that is, it is derived from an actual object. On the other hand, some abstract art images are based on a pure study of form, line, and color, and do not refer to any real-world object or scene.
Charicature is a special instance of abstraction, in which realistic images are distorted to make a statement about the people, places, or objects portrayed. This is probably the kind of abstraction we are most familiar with, as it is constantly presented to us via all sorts of popular media.
Form, Shape and Space
However, it is important to remember that had not the more difficult-to-understand conventions of abstraction in the fine arts not broken ground with experiments in distortion, we would not be able to make sense out of some charicature images. A century ago, there was really nothing equivalent to our modern cartoons.
Our perception of shape and form are affected by several factors. The position or viewpoint from which we see an object will emphasize or obscure certain features, and therefore affect the impression it makes. As you can see in this series of photographs, all featuring the same wooden artist's mannequin, the character of the space around the object can distract, focus, or alter our impression.
A cluttered background tends to diminish the importance of the object, while a plain background draws attention to it. The character and source of light also changes the perceived character of the object. Lighting in a photographic portrait, for example, can make the subject look older, younger, dramatic, or rather abstract.
Two Dimensional Form Two dimensional form is the foundation of pictorial organization or composition in painting, photography, and many other media. It is created in a number of ways. It can be defined by line, in all the ways described above.
Line, either explicit or implied, provides the contour of forms. Value the relative lightness or darkness of a color can also define form.
Strong contrasts in value within a composition may define the boundaries of forms.
Form, Shape and Space
Gradations of value, or shading, can also create the illusion of contour and volume. In the same way, hue contrasts and gradations can also define forms. Form may also be defined by change in texture, even when hue and value remain essentially consistent. However, most typically, form is defined by a combination of these factors, as is the case in this print by Max Ernst.