High-crowned cap worn in Turkey and Iran | Crossword Puzzle Clue | omarcafini.info
Institute of History and International Relations, Faculty of Humanities, Siedlce of the headgear worn by ancient Iranian royalty (namely the high crown called funerary monuments in Achaemenid Anatolia, [in:] Turkey Through the Eyes of. Gk Kalliope] (14c) 1 cap: the Greek Muse of heroic poetry 2: a keyboard musical the need to urinate or defecate caMos-i-ty \ka-'la-sa-te, ka-\ n, pi -ties () 1 . (): a high* crowned cap worn in Turkey, Iran, and neighboring countries. crown of apparel for most class levels, respected by both males The taj-kolah or royal hat has a long history in Iranian head- wear. It is one of the highly respected clothing kings had opened political and cultural relationships with . Persia, the turban was called a dulband; the Turkish word was . A Muslim Shia of high.
In order to keep the commercial activities in Anatolia alive, Seljuks have taken measures to provide security by building caravanserais on these roads. Through the ages, it paved the way for similar narrative genres to flourish due to interaction among the peoples of Asia, the Caucasus and the Middle East within this wide geographical area.10 minutes: Iran-Turkey Trade Relations
Meddahs perform in public places like caravanserais, coffeehouses, mosques and churches. This tradition, which places great value on the mastery of rhetoric, is highly regarded in Turkey. Arts of the Meddah, public storytellers was inscribed in 3. Mevlevi Sema ceremony The Mevleviye are renowned for their whirling dervishes.
Following a fast of long hours, the whirlers begin to rotate on their left feet in short twists, using the right foot to drive their bodies around the left foot. The eyes of the whirler can be open but is unfocused and the images are and flowing. At their ceremonies, Sema, a particular musical repertoire called ayin is played.
Based on four sections of both vocal and instrumental compositions, it is performed by at least one singer, a flute-player, called neyzen, a kettledrummer and a cymbal player. Performers in the Sema receive 1, days of reclusive training within the mevlevi-houses mevlevihanewhere they learned about ethics, codes of behaviour and beliefs by practising prayer, religious music, poetry and dance. Mevlevi Sema ceremony was inscribed in 3. Celebrated on 21 March every year, Nevruz is associated with various local traditions, numerous tales and legends.
The rites that accompany the festivity vary from place to place, ranging from leaping over fires and streams to tightrope walking, leaving lit candles at house doors, traditional games such as horse racing or the traditional wrestling. Nevruz promotes the values of peace and solidarity between generations and within families, as well as reconciliation and neighbourliness, thus contributing to cultural diversity and friendship among peoples and various communities.
Nevruz was inscribed in 4. Turkish coffee culture and tradition Turkish coffee has rich traditional culture, special preparation and brewing techniques. It is served in special cups, accompanied by a glass of water and lokum Turkish delight. Coffee was the main beverage of kahvehanes coffee houses in the past where people meet to converse; share news about their daily lives; and read books.
Turkish coffee tradition is considered as a symbol of hospitality, friendship, refinement and entertainment that permeates all walks of life. It also plays an important role on social occasions such as engagement ceremonies and holidays; its knowledge and rituals are transmitted informally by family members through observation and participation. Having an important place in almost every field from literature to music, Turkish Coffee Tradition is an indispensable part of Turkish cultural heritage.
It was inscribed in 8. Ebru, Turkish art of marbling Ebru is the traditional Turkish art of creating colorful patterns by sprinkling and brushing color pigments onto a pan of oily water and then transferring the patterns to paper.
Known as marbling, the designs and effects include flowers, foliage, ornamentation, latticework, mosques and moons, and are used for decoration in the traditional art of bookbinding. The practitioner uses natural methods to extract colors from natural pigments, which are then mixed with a few drops of ox-gall, a kind of natural acid, before sprinkling and brushing the colors onto a preparation of condensed liquid, where they float and form swirling patterns. Ebru artists, apprentices and practitioners consider their art to be an integral part of their traditional culture, identity and lifestyle.
Their knowledge and skills, as well as the philosophy behind this art, are transmitted orally and through informal practical training within master-apprentice relationships. Achieving basic skills in Ebru takes at least two years. The tradition is practiced without barrier of age, gender or ethnicity, and plays a significant role in the empowerment of women and the improvement of community relationships.
The collective art of Ebru encourages dialogue through friendly conversation, reinforces social ties and strengthens relations between individuals and communities. The number of women showing interest in the art of marbling has been increasing in recent years. Ebru, Turkish art of marbling was inscribed in 9. The World Heritage List Below are the properties inscribed in the World Heritage List, which are in close relation with the silk roads.
In —29 Emir Ahmet Shah founded a mosque, with its adjoining hospital, at Divrigi. The mosque has a single prayer room and is crowned by two cupolas.
The highly sophisticated technique of vault construction, and a creative, exuberant type of decorative sculpture — particularly on the three doorways, in contrast to the unadorned walls of the interior — are the unique features of this masterpiece of Islamic architecture.
Historic Areas of Istanbul With its strategic location on the Bosphorus peninsula between the Balkans and Anatolia, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, Istanbul has been associated with major political, religious and artistic events for more than 2, years. City of Safranbolu From the 13th century to the advent of the railway in the early 20th century, Safranbolu was an important caravan station on the main East—West trade route. During its apogee in the 17th century, Safranbolu's architecture influenced urban development throughout much of the Ottoman Empire.
Selimiye Mosque and its Social Complex The square Mosque with its single great dome and four slender minarets, dominates the skyline of the former Ottoman capital of Edirne. Sinan, the most famous of Ottoman architects in the 16th century, considered the complex, which includes madrasas Islamic schoolsa covered market, clock house, outer courtyard and library, to be his best work. The interior decoration using Iznik tiles from the peak period of their production testifies to an art form that remains unsurpassed in this material.
The site illustrates the creation of an urban and rural system establishing the Ottoman Empire in the early 14th century. The property embodies the key functions of the social and economic organization of the new capital which evolved around a civic centre. These include commercial districts of khans, kulliyes religious institutions integrating mosques, religious schools, public baths and a kitchen for the poor, as well as the tomb of Orhan Ghazi, founder of the Ottoman dynasty.
The Tentative List Below are the properties inscribed in the Tentative List, which are in close relation with the silk roads. Alanya Alanya situated in the eastern part of the Gulf of Antalya is kms away from Antalya by the main highway.
The peninsula of Alanya surrounded by city walls was named "Karakesion" during the Hellenistic period went under the hegomany of Romans and Byzantines, followed by the Seljuks.
The present name of the town comes from Alaaddin Keykubat, who did great service to the development of the town. Inside the Alanya castle there exist a Seljuk cistern, a Byzantine church, the Keykubat Sultan Palace and the ruins of a Seljuk bath, completed with the traditional urban texture. The castle extends down to the sea and encloses a medieval dockyard that is guarded by a 33 meter high octagonal tower of red stone and brick.
Seljuk Caravanserais on the route from Denizli to Dogubeyazit The caravanserais, a new architectural type with social function developed in central Asia by the Karakhanids and Ghaznavids passed into Anatolian Turkish architecture. The institution of caravanserais has its most variations in Seljuk Anatolia, using the forms of Anatolian stone architecture.
These buildings offering travellers in mountain and desert all the possibilities and comforts of civilization of the period each effectively a social foundation subject to an organized and continuous state programme, appear to present a typical characteristic of Turkish society, Denizli-Dogubeyazlt Route consists of about 40 Hans about which 10 are very well preserved.
They have their origins in the nomadic lifestyles of the Turkish tribes of Central Asia. By the 7th century, these simple dormitories had developed into more complex establishments called ribat, a word that may be translated as "inn. The culmination of this line of development is the massive caravanserais that the Seljuks built in Anatolia. Caravanserais were huge accommodations, facilities that provided shelter, food and drink for a caravan's full complement of people, animals, and cargo and could also handle its needs for maintenance, treatment, and care.
They were arranged along trade routes at intervals that were calculated in view of the amount of distance that a caravan could be expected to cover in a single day. This distance was called menzil in Turkish, a word that means, among other things, "journey" in its archaic sense of "a day's travel". On the basis of the examples remaining and other evidence, this menzil seems to have averaged about 30 kilometer the equivalent, under normal conditions, of a six-hour journey to which another two hours had to be added for arduous travel in regions like deserts.
Caravanserais or their simpler cousins, khans, were always located to that a caravan could be sure of reaching one by the day's end. Architecture and function Architecture is always determined by climatic and environmental conditions but never more so than in the case of caravanserais, to which the problem of security had to be added.
Caravanserais in the eastern part of Anatolia for example were built like small, square castles heavily fortified with thick walls of stone. Nevertheless there were certain things that every caravanserai had to have. There were certain to be baths, a masjid, a cistern o fountain, an infirmary, a cookshop, a place for the storage of provisions, and shops. Among the personnel there would certainly be a wainman, a blacksmith, a money-changer, a tailor, a cobbler, a physician, a veterinary, and so on.
About Anatolian caravanserais are known. Of these, eight are called sultanhan literally "sultanis khan" and were all built in the 13 th century. Those constructed in the early part of the century generally conford to a standard plan of a courtyard and enclosed arens covering the same amount of ground.
Seven of these building bean identifying inscriptions and one does not. Some of them are still referred to by the name sultanhan who others acquired local names to distinguish them.
Agzikara Han is probably one of the most important "ordinary" khans and the degree of its workmanship approaches that of the royal khans. It is another of those caravanserais whose massive portal and rowers give it the appearance of a fortified castle. The double portal, free-standing masjid and domed hall, as well as the quality of its architecture, are all worthy of a true royal khan. The main portal is decorated with geometric patterns. Between the surmounting muqarnas and framing arches is a band of swastikas.
The building was completed in Covering 3, square meters, it is the second-largest of the buildings of the group. All the distinguishing features of the Konya-Aksaray caravanserai are repeated here. The massive walls and supporting turret-towers give the building the appearance of a fortress.
Konya-A capital of Seljuk Civilization Konya a cradle of many civilizations, became a center of culture and politics during the period of Seljuks. During the 12 th and 13 th centuries the city acted as the capital of Seljuks and many public buildings, examples of Seljukian stone carving were built at that time.
Ties with ISIS? Apocalyptic but Plausible for Erdogan’s Turkey
Seljuks created a unique artistic world with cultural links reaching out from the Anatolian heartland to central Asia, the Middle East and the shores of the Mediterrannean and Konya is the significant example of this world. Mardin Cultural Landscape Mardin is a city in a rocky region in southeastern Anatolia.
The city is mainly medieval in origin and is situated on the slopes of a rocky hill, crowned by o fortress built on its citadel. This barren stoney region around Diyarbaklr and Mardin stretches as for as Sanliurfa and Gaziantep.
High-crowned cap worn in Turkey and Iran - crossword puzzle clue
The city as a whole with its traditional stone, religious and vernacular architecture and its terraced urban pattern is the best preserved example of Anatolian soil. Deyrulzafaran Monastery is one of the living religious center of Syriandacobites in Mardin, an impressive architectural complex in the Mesopotamian plain. Historic City of Ani The city of Ani, located on the high East Anatolian plateau, about forty two kilometers East of the city of Kars, was one of the most impressive settlements of the Medieval Period.
Although there is little information regarding the foundation of the city of Ani, the region was settled during the Urartian periods in the first half of the first millennium BC. After successive disputes between the Greco-Romans and Parthian-Sassanian states of Persia, the region of Ani was captured by the Kamsarankan Dynasty who built a citadel and a palace there in the fifth century AD.
Ani was conquered by the Arabs in the middle of the seventh century. After the battle between Arabs and the Kamsarakans, Ani was handed over to another Armenian dynasty: It was during this period, the inner walls of the city were constructed. With its new status, the city was enlarged and transformed from a fortress into a royal residence and capital of a kingdom.
The king Smbat II built the second line of the fortifications. During the reign of King Gagik Ithe city experienced a paramount prosperity for being the center of the cultural, religious and economic activity.
It was during this period the renowned architect Trdat built the Cathedral of Ani and round church mausoleum of St. Gregory of Gagik I. The town fell in to the Byzantines who reinforced the Citadel. In the city was conquered by Seljuks under the command of Alp Arslan.
The impressive mosque of Manucehr which is the first mosque of the Anatolian plateau and the building known as Seljuk Palace located north of the city walls were built in this period. During the 12th and 13th centuries Ani changed hands several times.
After the Mongol invasion inAni lost its importance as a commercial center. In the following years, the area remained in the realm of Karakoyunlus, Akkoyunlus and the Ottomans.
Within the city walls, the citadel of Ani is the oldest and most prominent structure which is located on a small hill close a point where the two river beds meet. The small church with its quatrefoil cross plan dating back to 10th century is probably the earliest centrally planned church in the region.
Many of the partially standing churches of Ani are centrally planned, even though various kinds of plans including cruciform, hexagonal and octagonal ones reflect the amazing variety of church plans. Most of these churches such as the Holy Apostles, St. Savoir, and the Church of the Shepherd, were built between the twelfth and thirteen centuries. The Cathedral of Ani is one of the most important buildings in the site.
Its architect, Trdat, also participated in repairing the dome of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. There are also a great amount of dwellings and other civic buildings such as public baths, stores, aqueducts, bridges and roads as Ani was one of the unique medieval cities densely populated. Genoeses were originally inhabitant of Genoa, the city and Mediterranean seaport in north-western Italy. It was the capital of Genoa Province and of Liguria region.
In the eastern Mediterranean, Genoeses was greatly advanced by the Treaty of Nymphaeum with the Byzantine emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus, in exchange for the aid to the Byzantine reconquest of Constantinople, actually ousted the Venetians from the straits leading to the Black Sea.
As general Genoeses had possessions from 11th century to 19th century for nearly eight centuries over Mediterranean and Black Sea. Yoros Fortress As the main passage between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, the Bosporus strait had a great commercial and strategic importance during the past. For this reason, numerous castles and fortresses were built on its shores. The fortress of Yoros is one of the most conspicuous of them. The first mention of the place is made by the ancient historian Herodotus who describes it as the worship place of Jason and the Argonauts on the road for Cholchis.
Hieron was the gate to the Black Sea. Additionally, it acted as a spot from which all Black Sea navigational charts took their measurements and the crucial shelter from the numerous dangers involved in negotiating the winding Bosporus: During the early Byzantine epoch, the emperor Justinian charged a custom with a tax collector in the fortress.
In addition, in the course of the Middle Byzantine period, the place was fortified with a larger wall enclosure and served to control from the north. Byzantines, Genoese and Ottomans fought over its strategic position of the fort.
After a naval battle ina Genoese military and commercial garrison was settled in the Yoros fortress, to handle the passage of the commercial ships and prevent the attacks to the capital city.
By the end of the 14th century the fortress was in the hand of the Ottomans and was used as a base for the construction of the Anadolu Hisar, one of the important headquarters of the Sultan Mehmed for the Conquest of the Byzantine capital in After this date, the Genoese was not allowed to use the fortress, which became an important garrison place of the Ottoman army for the defense of Istanbul.
Among them was U. Reza Shah also purchased ships from Italy and hired Italians to teach his troops the intricacies of naval warfare.
He also imported hundreds of German technicians and advisors for various projects. Mindful of Persia's long period of subservience to British and Russian authority, Reza Shah was careful to avoid giving any one foreign nation too much control. He also insisted that foreign advisors be employed by the Persian government, so that they would not be answerable to foreign powers. This was based upon his experience with Anglo-Persian, which was owned and operated by the British government.
This photograph's inscription reads: In his campaign against foreign influence, he annulled the 19th-century capitulations to Europeans in Under these, Europeans in Iran had enjoyed the privilege of being subject to their own consular courts rather than to the Iranian judiciary.
The right to print money was moved from the British Imperial Bank to his National Bank of Iran Bank-i Melli Iranas was the administration of the telegraph system, from the Indo-European Telegraph Company to the Iranian government, in addition to the collection of customs by Belgian officials.
He eventually fired Millspaugh, and prohibited foreigners from administering schools, owning land or traveling in the provinces without police permission. One complaint about his development program was that the north-south railway line he had built was uneconomical, only serving the British, who had a military presence in the south of Iran and desired the ability to transfer their troops north to Russia, as part of their strategic defence plan. In contrast, the Shah's regime did not develop what critics believe was an economically justifiable east-west railway system.
It was, however, attributed more to the Iranian people than others, particularly the language. The name Iran means "Land of the Aryans". Tired of the opportunistic policies of both Britain and the Soviet Unionthe Shah circumscribed contacts with foreign embassies. Relations with the Soviet Union had already deteriorated because of that country's commercial policies, which in the s and s adversely affected Iran.
In the Shah offended Britain by canceling the agreement under which the Anglo-Persian Oil Company produced and exported Iran's oil. Although a new and improved agreement was eventually signed, it did not satisfy Iran's demands and left bad feeling on both sides.
WordNet Search -
His foreign policy, which had consisted essentially of playing the Soviet Union off against Great Britain, failed when those two powers joined in to fight the Germans. To supply the Soviet forces with war material through Iran, the two allies jointly occupied the country in August During the first period, which lasted from —, the country benefited greatly from the contributions of many of the country's best and brightest, to whom should accrue the credit for laying the foundations of modern Iran.
All the worthwhile efforts of Reza Shah's reign were either completed or conceived in the — period, a period during which he required the assistance of reformists to gain the requisite legitimacy to consolidate this modern reign. In particular, Abdolhossein Teymourtash assisted by Farman FarmaDavar and a large number of modern educated Iranians, proved adept at masterminding the implementation of many reforms demanded since the failed constitutional revolution of — The preservation and promotion of the country's historic heritage, the provision of public education, construction of a national railway, abolition of capitulation agreements, and the establishment of a national bank had all been advocated by intellectuals since the tumult of the constitutional revolution.
The later years of his reign were dedicated to institutionalizing the educational system of Iran and also to the industrialization of the country.
He knew that the system of the constitutional monarchy in Iran after him had to stand on a solid basis of the collective participation of all Iranians, and that it was indispensable to create educational centers all over Iran.
Reza Shah meeting officials in Saadabad PalaceShah tried to create a confederation of Iran's neighbors, in particular Turkey and the Middle Eastern countries. Shah treated the urban middle class, the managers, and technocrats with an iron fist; as a result his state-owned industries remained unproductive and inefficient.
The corruption continued under his rule and even became institutionalized. Progress toward modernization was spotty and isolated. By 28—29 August, the Iranian military situation was in complete chaos. The Allies had complete control over the skies of Iran, and large sections of the country were in their hands.
Major Iranian cities such as Tehran were suffering repeated air raids. In Tehran itself, the casualties had been light, but the Soviet Air Force dropped leaflets over city, warning the population of an upcoming massive bombing raid and urging them to surrender before they suffered imminent destruction. Tehran's water and food supply had faced shortages, and soldiers fled in fear of the Soviets killing them upon capture. Faced with total collapse, the royal family except the Shah and the Crown Prince fled to Isfahan  The collapse of the army that Reza Shah had spent so much time and effort creating was humiliating.
Many of the military generals had behaved incompetently or secretly sympathised with the British and ended up sabotaging the Iranian resistance. The army generals met in secret to discuss surrender options. When the Shah learned of the generals' actions, he beat the head of the armed forces General Ahmad Nakhjavan with a cane and physically stripped him of his rank. He was nearly shot by the Shah on the spot, but at the insistence of the Crown Prince, he was sent to prison instead.
The Shah ordered the Iranian military to end resistance and order a ceasefire. He entered into negotiations with the British and Soviets. When he entered into negotiations with the British, instead of negotiating a favourable settlement, Foroughi implied that both he and the Iranian people wanted to be "liberated" from the Shah's rule. The last order would mean almost certain imprisonment or, in the case of those handed to the Soviets, possible death. Reza Shah delayed on the last demand.
Instead, he planned the secret evacuation of all German nationals from Iran. By 18 September, most of the German nationals had escaped via the Turkish border. Fearing execution by the communists, many people especially the wealthy fled the city.
Reza Shah, in a letter handwritten by Foroughi, announced his abdicationas the Soviets entered the city on 17 September. We have a high opinion of him and will ensure his position. But His Highness should not think there is any other solution. Reza Shah further refused the Allies' requests to expel German nationals residing in Iran, and denied the use of the railway to the Allies. However, according to the British embassy reports from Tehran inthe total number of German citizens in Iran — from technicians to spies — was no more than one thousand.
Critics and defenders[ edit ] Reza Shah's main critics were the so-called "new intelligensia", often educated in Europe, for whom the Shah "was not a state-builder  but an 'oriental despot' They cannot because they were too young to remember the chaotic and desperate conditions out of which arose the autocrat named Reza Shah.