Understanding Alkalinity and Acidity – Named Program
Acidity is one of the most important properties of water. Water is a solvent for nearly all De pH is an indication for the number of hydrogen ions. acids & alkalis in freshwater and for the correlation between pH en tempererature of pure water. Hydrogen ions have profound effects on metabolism and other cell In order to understand the acid/alkaline (acid/base) relationship we must. It all has to do with hydrogen ions (abbreviated with the chemical symbol H+). In water Acidity and alkalinity are measured with a logarithmic scale called pH.
To reach a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide, an equal amount of undissolved calcium hydroxide must be present in relation to the calcium ions and hydroxide ions freely floating in the solution. So for every two free hydroxide ions there is one corresponding calcium ion and one corresponding calcium hydroxide molecule.
Magnesium hydroxide, on the other hand, is even weaker because it has low solubility and does not dissociate very well. Even though this is true, magnesium hydroxide is still used as a common component of antacids because even with its weaker properties it is still effective. Potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, and magnesium hydroxide are all strong bases with strong alkalinity in an aqueous solution. Magnesium hydroxide is by far the weakest of the four because of its solubility and dissociation issues.
The other three each produce effective levels of free hydroxides in an aqueous solution. The hydrogen ion always wants to be attached to another atom or molecule that has electrons it can share.
This seems somewhat at odds with the definition of an acid being a hydrogen proton donor but it is nonetheless true. The hydrogen proton may easily leave an acid but it then seeks to attach itself to another atom or molecule. This is where the properties of water step in. As noted, water can act as an acid or a base and is a universal solvent. The freed hydrogen proton then attaches to a water molecule just as happens in water self-ionization.
But hydronium does not actually exist in water by itself either. This cluster is the mean hydration ion in cold water. This is called the magic ion number structure because of its increased stability. The first shows a hydronium ion attached to one water molecule and the second shows a hydronium ion attached to three water molecules. By its very nature, hydronium is the most acidic species that can exist in water.
The logic is simple. An acid stronger than hydronium will by its very nature deprotonate donate a proton through dissociation in an aqueous solution. Deprotonation is the very definition of a strong acid. The result will be a protonated water molecule, aka hydronium. A weaker acid is by definition weaker than hydronium. Hydronium formed in acidic solutions is longer lasting and more concentrated than hydronium that forms through the self-ionization process in water.
The nature of water, the nature of ions, the nature of hydroxide, and the nature of hydronium are the fundamental chemistry needed to understand how acids and bases exist and react in an aqueous solution.
Acids, Bases, & the pH Scale
What is the best way to arm the body to handle the acidic load modern life produces both from without and within? It is clear that since hydronium is the most acidic species that can exist in an aqueous solution and that the body is by its very nature an aqueous environment, hydronium necessarily becomes the most important acid to combat in the body.
Other acids may be present but they necessarily convert to hydronium through dissociation. Excess hydrogen ions in the form of hydronium is the real problem. The extra hydrogen ion in hydronium is still highly reactive and like all acids, hydronium will donate it to another atom or molecule freely under the right circumstances.
This is what makes hydronium so potentially harmful to the human body. First, because hydronium ties up free water molecules it changes the hydration parameters of the body. Second, although the hydrogen ion may be attached to a water molecule, it is basically free to act as if it is a free ion since acids by definition are proton donors. This potential reactivity of the extra hydrogen ion can only be combatted by neutralization. Neutralization of hydronium then is the means by which the acidic load on the body can be lessened.
- Acids, Bases, & the pH Scale
- pH and alkalinity
Interestingly enough, the Arrhenius theory gives us the answer for neutralizing hydronium and it is hydroxide. These four are the most prevalent hydroxides found in alkaline waters and will therefore be the focus of this discussion.
Of these, potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, and calcium hydroxide produce the highest degree of free hydroxide ions in an aqueous solution.
According to the Arrhenius theory, the hydroxide ion readily combines with the hydrogen ion to form water and thus neutralize the acidic nature of the hydrogen ion. Arrhenius goes further and states that hydrogen ions freely dissociate from their acids in aqueous solutions much like the hydroxide ions from potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, and calcium hydroxide do.
At this point it is important to reiterate that the hydrogen ion does not actually exist as a free species in an aqueous solution but combines with a water molecule to form hydronium. So in reality a hydroxide ion combines with a hydronium ion to form two new water molecules.
The chemical equation is this: By its very nature as part of the water molecule structure, it has an inherent drive to return to its natural state as a water molecule. This then is the power of the hydroxide ion. These facts lead to a very simple question, how do you supply the most possible free hydroxide ions in an alkaline water? Several factors play into answering this question. As noted, both potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide are monovalent which means they have one hydroxide ion for every mineral ion.
Calcium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide, on the other hand, are divalent so they have two hydroxide ions for every mineral ion. The simple math would support the idea then that the calcium and magnesium hydroxides must provide more free hydroxide ions but this is misleading. As noted, magnesium hydroxide has a very low solubility, so it does not produce many free hydroxide ions.
Calcium hydroxide is relatively soluble except when in the presence of potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide, then its solubility decreases rapidly. This means if an alkaline water is using many different minerals in its ionization process to create its hydroxide, the potassium and sodium hydroxides would produce the highest degree of free hydroxide ions and the calcium hydroxide would be inhibited from doing so. It also means more minerals are necessary because of their monovalent properties.
In this section ionization will refer to the process by which the hydroxide ion is removed from a water molecule. Both processes are forms of ionization but in the first one the hydroxide ion is separated from a mineral ion and in this section the hydroxide ion is separated from a hydrogen ion. Most alkaline waters on the market today recognize the fact that minerals alone cannot effectively combat acidity.
Although most alkaline waters do add minerals, they also seek to give the body the ammunition it needs. In most cases this ammunition comes in the form of negative ions. Although most may not say so, the negative ions are in fact hydroxide.
Most of the leading alkaline waters on the market today claim they have or add negative ions. The question is how do they do this? They use the same technology that alkalinizing water machines use.
Both the ready to drink alkaline waters in the store and the alkaline water machines sold for home use employ the same basic technology.
It is important to note at this point that although each of these may claim that their technology is different or special or even patented, the simple fact is they all use the same basic principles. In order to create hydroxide they all apply electro-magnetism to break apart the water molecule into hydroxide ions and hydrogen ions.
Although they all uniformly use the term hydrogen ion, as noted earlier, a free hydrogen ion will immediately attach to any molecule with which it can share an electron.
Since other water molecules are within reach, the newly freed hydrogen ion will protonate one of these water molecules and form the hydronium ion. This electro-magnetism is applied in the presence of minerals, most notably sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium among others. The mineral hydroxide rich water produced in this process is the alkaline water product and the acid rich hydrogen hydronium water is discarded or used for other purposes. This basic method for producing negative ions is used by both ready to drink alkaline waters and alkaline water machines for home use.
Since this is the way most of the industry creates negative ions hydroxideis this the only way to do it? The short answer is no. In most alkaline waters, the free hydroxide ions available are limited by the amount of minerals present because of the reasons noted in section 2.
But does this always have to be the case? The simple answer is no. Most waters add sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium among other minerals. These four are the most important. The monovalent nature of sodium and potassium hydroxides and the role they play in limiting calcium hydroxides solubility hamper the amount of free hydroxide ions they can produce.
Magnesium hydroxide is limited by its own low solubility product. Add to this the forced ionization through electro-magnetic means and these problems are compounded.
Acids, bases, pH, and buffers
These facts limit the free hydroxide ions present in most alkaline waters. So how does Optimal Harmony overcome these limitations? The answer is found deep within the earth. By processing limestone through the introduction of heat and then water, solid calcium hydroxide forms naturally and is very stable yet highly reactive to acids.Acid-Base Disorders: Part 1 - pH and the Hydrogen Ion (MEDZCOOL)
This processing allows for natural ionization in which hydroxide ions are formed and combine spontaneously with calcium ions. Ionization here refers to the creation of the ions naturally by simply reacting with water. With the introduction of more water to form a saturated solution, the water begins to set the hydroxide free from the calcium. This is a further natural ionization but this time the ionization is the freeing of the ions through dissolution. Once the hydroxide ions are set free from the calcium ions, Optimal Harmony is then able then able to concentrate the hydroxide ions and remove most of the calcium ions and the undissolved calcium hydroxide molecules found in this saturated solution.
Understanding Alkalinity and Acidity
This leaves behind mainly hydroxide ions suspended naturally in water. Optimal Harmony adds nothing to the solution in order to remove the calcium but instead use only the tools nature provides.
It will than have a pH of about 7. The pH of water can vary between 0 and When the pH of a substance is above 7, it is a basic substance.
When the pH of a substance is below 7, it is an acid substance. The further the pH lies above or below 7, the more basic or acid a solution is. The pH is a logarithmic factor; when a solution becomes ten times more acidic, the pH will fall by one unit. When a solution becomes a hundred times more acidic the pH will fall by two units. The common term for pH is alkalinity. The word pH is short for "pondus Hydrogenium". This literally means the weight of hydrogen.
De pH is an indication for the number of hydrogen ions. The pH does not have a unit; it is merely expressed as a number. When a solution is neutral, the number of hydrogen ions equals the number of hydroxide ions. When the number of hydroxide ions is higher, the solution is basic. When the number of hydrogen ions is higher, the solution is acid.
Did you know that the pH of Coca-Cola is about 2? And did you know that it is useless to measure the pH of RO-water or demiwater? Both demiwater and RO-water do not contain any buffer ions. This means that the pH can be as low as four, but it can also be as high as Both kinds of water are not readily usable in their natural form. They are always mixed before application! Methods to determine the pH There are several different methods to measure the pH. One of these is using a piece of pH indicator paper.
When the paper is pushed into a solution it will change colour. Each different colour indicates a different pH-value. This method is not very accurate and it is not suitable to determine more exact pH values.
That is why there are now test-strings available, which are able to determine smaller pH-values, such as 3.