Sketchy diagram of the mathematical model of the glucose-insulin regulatory system. .. on the relation between the damping factor α and the natural frequency ω0. .. It should be mentioned that R is a free software environment for statistical. regulatory system in relation to diabetes is given, enhanced with a Keywords: Glucose-insulin; Diabetes; Mathematical models; Software tools; .. analyze and simulate the bifurcation diagram and other numerical analysis. Beta cells in the pancreas detect the rise in blood glucose and produce insulin in A so-called artificial pancreas (using software to link a continuous glucose.
There are two basic kinds of insulin used to manage diabetes: Mealtime insulin works fast and, as the name suggests, is taken just before eating to deal with the subsequent surge in blood glucose as food is digested. Background insulin is usually taken once a day and keeps blood glucose down between meals. While both mealtime and background insulins are essentially the same protein, almost identical to the version made by the body, the medicines are formulated differently in the lab to speed or slow their absorption, respectively.
Oral medications for type 2 diabetes work by either boosting the production of insulin by the beta cells or making the body less resistant to insulin. Insulin can't be taken orally because, as a protein, it would be destroyed by digestive enzymes.
Instead, it must be put into the body's tissues by syringe, pen, or pump. All of these approaches deliver insulin just under the skin. From there, it diffuses to the bloodstream, where it goes to work.
Researchers are developing better and easier ways to deliver insulin and more closely match the body's need for it. A so-called artificial pancreas using software to link a continuous glucose monitor and an insulin pump would automatically dose insulin based on blood glucose measurements.
- Diabetes Forecast
- Glucose insulin and diabetes
- Normal Regulation of Blood Glucose
Scientists are developing injected insulins that work either faster or slower than existing versions to help people with diabetes more precisely control their blood glucose levels.
Others are working on an oral form of insulin, the elusive insulin pill, as well as versions of the medication that can be inhaled. And glucose gets delivered to cells through the bloodstream. So this right here, I'm drawing some blood that's passing by a cell. Maybe the blood is going in that direction over there.
And inside the blood, let me draw some small glucose molecules passing by.
And so in an ideal situation, when a cell needs energy, glucose will enter the cell. Unfortunately, it's not that simple for the great majority of cells in the human body.
The glucose won't enter by itself. It needs the assistance of a hormone or a molecule called insulin.
A computational model of the human glucose-insulin regulatory system
So let me label all of these. This right here is the glucose, and it needs insulin. So let me draw insulin as these magenta molecules right over here. That over there, that is insulin. And the surface of the cells, they have insulin receptors on them.
And I'm just drawing very simplified versions of them, kind of a place where these magenta circles can attach, can bind. And what happens is, in order for the glucose to be taken up by the cell, insulin has to attach to these receptors, which unlocks the channels for glucose.
In order for the glucose to go in, insulin has to bind to the insulin receptors. And then, once that happens, then the glucose can be taken up by the cell. Now, unfortunately, things don't always work as planned. So let me draw a couple of scenarios here. So, once again, let me draw my very simple version of a cell and let me draw the bloodstream going by right over here. And then let me draw the glucose in the bloodstream.
So I have my glucose floating by, and then I have my insulin receptors on the surface of a cell. Now, the first thing that could go wrong here is what if the body does not produce insulin? Insulin is produced in the pancreas. What happens if the pancreas is not producing insulin properly? This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3. To view a copy of this license, visit http: The proposed method for the estimation of parameters for a system of ordinary differential equations ODEs that represent the time course of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during glucose tolerance test GTT in physiological studies is presented.
How Diabetes Works
The aim of this study was to explore how to interpret those laboratory glucose and insulin data as well as enhance the Ackerman mathematical model. Methods Parameters estimation for a system of ODEs was performed by minimizing the sum of squared residuals SSR function, which quantifies the difference between theoretical model predictions and GTT's experimental observations.
Our proposed perturbation search and multiple-shooting methods were applied during the estimating process. Results Based on the Ackerman's published data, we estimated the key parameters by applying R-based iterative computer programs. As a result, the theoretically simulated curves perfectly matched the experimental data points. Our model showed that the estimated parameters, computed frequency and period values, were proven a good indicator of diabetes. Conclusion The present paper introduces a computational algorithm to biomedical problems, particularly to endocrinology and metabolism fields, which involves two coupled differential equations with four parameters describing the glucose-insulin regulatory system that Ackerman proposed earlier.
The enhanced approach may provide clinicians in endocrinology and metabolism field insight into the transition nature of human metabolic mechanism from normal to impaired glucose tolerance. While an estimated Diabetes can cause serious health complications including blindness, heart disease, kidney failure, stroke, nerve damage, and lower extremity amputations. Consequently, diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of diabetes, are extremely critical in the current medical era.
Thus, insulin hormone can no longer be produced. Type II diabetes formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM, or adult-onset diabetesa more widespread metabolic disorder, is primarily characterized by insulin resistance, relative insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia.
However, in both type I and type II cases, the human body loses its ability to regulate blood sugar, which causes a significantly negative effect on the patients' quality of life or even be potentially fatal. It is a common knowledge that blood glucose concentration in normal humans is maintained within a precise and stable range.