The Jewish View of Marriage
Judaism: Judaism, monotheistic religion developed among the ancient Hebrews. elected the Jewish people for a unique covenantal relationship with himself. In the course of renovating the Temple, a scroll of Moses' Torah (by scholarly . Judaism does not promulgate dogma about God, but does limit legitimate Jewish belief to As for the relationship between God and the individual, it is one spoken of by metaphor: Can a Reform Jew believe the Torah is the word of God?. Better to focus on the tangible ways of being Jewish, we think — like Perhaps when God tells Moses in the Torah portion, “You will not be.
Sinaiand brought them to the Promised Land. The Hebrew tradition itself, moreover, does not unanimously support even the more modest claim of the continuity of YHWH worship from Abraham to Moses. This lack of continuity is demonstrated in Exodus 6: Neither of these epithets is used in postpatriarchal narratives excepting the Book of Ruth. Other compounds with El are unique to Genesis: Whether the name of YHWH was known to the patriarchs is doubtful.
Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, oil painting by Titian, c. Their response is loyalty and obedience and observance of a cult i. Circumcision was a distinctive mark of the cult community. Any flagrant contradictions between patriarchal and later mores have presumably been censored; yet distinctive features of the post-Mosaic religion are absent.
Forbidden relationships in Judaism - Wikipedia
Evidently not the same as the later religion of Israel, the patriarchal religion prepared the way for the later one through its familial basis, its personal call by the Deity, and its response of loyalty and obedience to him. Little can be said of the relation between the religion of the patriarchs and the religions of Canaan. Known points of contact between them are the divine epithets mentioned above. Like the God of the fathers, Elthe head of the Ugaritic pantheon, was depicted as both a judgmental and a compassionate deity.
Baal Lordthe aggressive young agricultural deity of Ugaritis remarkably absent from Genesis. Yet the socioeconomic situation of the patriarchs was so different from the urban, mercantile, and monarchical background of the Ugaritic myths as to render any comparisons highly questionable. The schematic character of this tradition does not impair the historicity of a migration to Egypt, an enslavement by Egyptians, and an escape from Egypt under an inspired leader by some component of the later Israelite tribes.
To disallow these events, it can be argued, would make their centrality as articles of faith in the later religious beliefs of Israel inexplicable. Tradition gives the following account of the birth of the nation. At the Exodus from Egypt 13th century bceYHWH showed his faithfulness and power by liberating the Israelites from bondage and punishing their oppressors with plagues and drowning them in the sea. At Sinai he made the Israelites his people and gave them the terms of his covenant, regulating their conduct toward him and each other so as to make them a holy nation.
After sustaining them miraculously during their year trek in the wilderness, he enabled them to take the land that he had promised to their fathers, the patriarchs. Moses leading the children of Israel through the Red Sea; illustration from a German Bible, 15th century.
He shapes the main institutions of Israel: Although Moses is compared to a prophet in various texts in the Pentateuch the first five books of the Biblehe is never designated as one—the term being evidently unsuited for so comprehensive and unique a figure.
Mosaic religion The distinctive features of Israelite religion appear with Moses. It is impossible to determine what rulings go back to Moses, but the Decalogue, or Ten Commandmentspresented in chapter 20 of Exodus and chapter 5 of Deuteronomyand the larger and smaller covenant codes in Exodus From them the following features may be noted: He painted the work in This meant eschewing all other gods—including idols venerated as such—and the elimination of all magical recourses.
The worship of YHWH was aniconic without images ; even figures that might serve in his worship were banned, apparently because their use suggested theurgy the art or technique of influencing or controlling a god by fixing his presence in a particular place and making him accessible. Although there is a mythological background behind some cultic terminology e.
Adoration of the Golden Calf, oil on canvas by Nicolas Poussin, c.Shavuot: Our Relationship with the Torah - Rebbetzin Avigial Gersht
The involuntary perpetual slavery of Hebrews was abolished, and a seven-year limit was set on bondage. The humanity of slaves was defended: Theft and harm to property were punished monetarily rather than by death. Moral exhortations called for solidarity with the poor and the helpless and for brotherly assistance to those in need. Since the goal of the Israelites was the conquest of a land, their religion had warlike features. Such stories are not necessarily the work of a later age; they reflect rather the impact of these victories on the actors in the drama, who felt themselves successful by the grace of God.
A complex process of occupation, involving both battles of annihilation and treaty agreements with indigenous peoples, has been simplified in the biblical account of the wars of Joshua 13th century bce. Individual tribes made their way with varying success against the residue of Canaanite resistance. The Book of Judgesthe main witness for the period, does not speak with one voice on the religious situation. Its editorial framework describes repeated cycles of apostasyoppression, appeal to God, and relief through a champion sent by God.
The individual stories, however, present a different picture. Apostasy does not figure in the exploits of the judges EhudDeborahJephthahand Samson ; YHWH has no rival, and faith in him is periodically confirmed by the saviours he sends to rescue Israel from its neighbours.
This faith is shared by all the tribes; it is owing to their common cult that a Levite from Bethlehem could serve first at an Ephraimite and later also at a Danite sanctuary. The religious bond, preserved by the common cult, enabled the tribes to work together under the leadership of elders or an inspired champion in time of danger or religious scandal.
The many cultic figurines usually female found in Israelite levels of Palestinian archaeological sites also give colour to the sweeping indictments of the framework of the Book of Judges. To the earliest sanctuaries and altars honoured as patriarchal foundations—at ShechemBethelBeershebaand Hebron in Cisjordan west of the Jordan ; and at Mahanaim, Penuel, and Mizpah in Transjordan east of the Jordan —were added new sanctuaries and altars at Dan, ShilohRamah, Gibeonand elsewhere.
A single priestly family could not operate all these establishments, and so Levites rose to the priesthood; at private sanctuaries even non-Levites might be consecrated as priests.
The Ark of the Covenant was housed in the Shiloh sanctuary, staffed by priests of the house of Eli, who traced their consecration back to Egypt. But the ark remained a portable palladium in wartime; Shiloh was not regarded as its final resting place. The law in Exodus The period of the united monarchy The religious and political problem The decentralized tribal league could not cope with the constant pressure of external enemies—camel-riding desert marauders who pillaged harvests annually and iron-weaponed Philistines an Aegean people settling coastal Palestine c.
In the face of such threats, a central authority that could mobilize the forces of the entire league and create a standing army had to be established. Two attitudes were distilled in the crisis—one conservative and anti-monarchic, the other radical and pro-monarchic. The popular demand for a king was viewed as a rejection of the kingship of Godand in response to the demand there appeared a series of inspired saviours, from Moses and Aaron 14th—13th century bce through Jerubbaal, Bedan, and Jephthah to Samuel 11th century bce himself.
The other, more radical account depicts the monarchy as a gift of God, designed to rescue his people from the Philistines 1 Samuel 9: Palestine during the time of David and Solomon. The Benjaminite Saul was made king c. King David 10th century bcewhose forcefulness and religious and political genius established the monarchy on an independent spiritual footing, resolved the conflict.
David, bronze sculpture by Donatello, early 15th century; in the Bargello Museum, Florence. Patrick David captured the Jebusite stronghold of Jerusalem and made it the seat of a national monarchy Saul had never moved the seat of his government from his birthplace, the Benjaminite town of Gibeah, about three miles north of Jerusalem.
Then, fetching the ark from an obscure retreat, David installed it in his capital, asserting his royal prerogative and obligation to build a shrine for the national God and thus at the same time joining the symbols of the dynastic and the national covenants. This move of political genius linked the God of Israel, the chosen dynasty of David, and the chosen city of Jerusalem in a henceforth indissoluble union.
As part of his extensive building program, Solomon erected the Temple on a Jebusite threshing floor, located on a hill north of Jerusalem, which David had purchased to mark the spot where a plague had been halted. The ground plan of the Temple—a porch with two freestanding pillars before it, a sanctuary, and an inner sanctum—followed Syrian and Phoenician sanctuary models. The Temple of Jerusalem resembled Canaanite and other Middle Eastern religious structures but was also different from them: YHWH, who was enthroned upon celestial cherubim, was thus symbolically present in the Temple.
Alongside a brief inaugural poem in 1 Kings 8: Since no reference to sacrifice is made, not a trace appears of the standard pagan conception of temple as a vehicle through which humans provided for the gods. The quality of the preserved narrative of the reign of David, which gives every indication of having come from the hand of a contemporary eyewitness, demonstrates that literature flourished under the aegis of the court.
Attached to the royally sponsored Temple must have been a library and a school in keeping with the universally attested practice of the ancient Middle Eastamong whose products would have been not only royal psalms but also liturgical pieces intended for the common people that eventually found their way into the book of Psalms.
The latest historical allusions in the Torah literature the Pentateuch are to the period of the united monarchy—e. On the other hand, the polity reflected in the laws is tribal and decentralized, with no bureaucracy.
The Jewish View of Marriage
Its economy is agricultural and pastoral; class distinctions—apart from slave and free—are lacking; and commerce and urban life are rudimentary. A pre-monarchic background is evident, with only rare explicit reflections of the later monarchy—e.
The groundwork of the Torah literature most likely crystallized under the united monarchy. In this period the traditional wisdom cultivated among the learned in neighbouring cultures came to be prized in Israel. Solomon is represented as the author of an extensive literature comparable to that of other sages in the region. His wisdom is expressly attributed to YHWH in the account of his night oracle at Gibeon in which he asked not for power or riches but for wisdomthus marking the adaptation to biblical thought of this common Middle Eastern genre.
As set forth in Proverbs 2: Because popular religion incorporated pagan elements, it is likely that it did not meet the standards of the biblical writers; such elements may have increased as a result of intercourse with the newly absorbed Amorites.
The court itself welcomed foreigners— PhilistinesCretans, Hittitesand Ishmaelites are named, among others—and made use of their service. The king even had shrines to their gods built and maintained on the Mount of Olives. Yet such private cults, while indeed royally sponsored, did not make the religion of the people syncretistic. Such compromise with the pagan world, entailed by the widening horizons of the monarchy, violated the sanctity of the holy land of YHWH and turned the king into an idolator in the eyes of zealots.
The period of the divided kingdom Jeroboam I 10th century bcethe first king of the north, now called Israel the kingdom in the south was called Judahappreciated the inextricable link of Jerusalem and its sanctuary with the Davidic claim to divine election to kingship over all of Israel the whole people, north and south.
He also moved the autumn ingathering festival one month ahead so as to foreclose celebrating this most popular of all festivals simultaneously with Judah. However, this work has severe limitations as a source for religious history.
Judaism | History, Beliefs, & Facts | omarcafini.info
It is dominated by a dogmatic historiography that regards the whole enterprise of the north as one long apostasy ending in a deserved disaster. The author considered the Temple of Solomon to be the cult site chosen by God, according to Deuteronomy, chapter 12, the existence of which rendered all other sites illegitimate. Every king of Judah is judged according to whether or not he did away with all places of worship outside Jerusalem.
The date of this criterion may be inferred from the indifference toward it of all persons prior to Hezekiah —e. In the mid-8th century the writings of the classical prophets, starting with Amosfirst appeared. These take in the people as a whole, in contrast to Kings; on the other hand, their interest in theodicy the problem of reconciling the presumed goodness of God with the existence of evil in the world and their polemical tendency to exaggerate and generalize what they deem evil must be taken into consideration before accepting their statements as history per se see also evil, problem of.
The distaff side of the royal household perpetuated, and even augmented, the pagan cults. King Asa reigned c. Foreign cults entered the north with the marriage of King Ahab reigned — bce to the Tyrian princess Jezebel died c. Jezebel was accompanied by a large entourage of sacred personnel to staff the temple of Baal and Asherah that Ahab built for her in Samariathe capital of the northern kingdom of Israel.
Marriage is not two people coming together to form a partnership, nor an agreement to be roommates permanently.
What does the couple need in order to accomplish this sense of unification? Imagine marriage as a journey down the path of life. Car, gas, food — we're ready to go. They have to know where they're going in order to commit to go together. If one wants to go skiing, he can't get there with someone who wants to go to the beach. Two people won't arrive at their destination if one can back out at a second's notice. Life Goals The essence of marriage is the commitment to pursue life goals together.
Marriage needs to have clear goals shared by husband and wife. It's so obvious, but so often ignored. I know a couple who almost ended up divorced because after a few years of marriage he wanted children and she didn't want the burden of raising them. They dated for five years — yet never discussed if they wanted to have children!
Don't think this a far-out example. Couples break up over many issues: How to raise their kids, where to live, how much a part religion will play in their lives, giving priority to a career or family, whose career will come first if they're in conflict.
Shared values and priorities provide a structure which unites the couple and allows them to work on becoming "one flesh. We are fed the illusion that you don't need any goals outside of one another. Marriage itself is not a life goal. It puts an unbearable strain on a relationship if the partners expect the relationship will satisfy all their needs. Love is not all you need. Marriage is a powerful tool to help us pursue the things we care about in life with added energy, with an added sense of self.
Life goals are the things in life that mean everything to you, the values that you stand for, that you're willing to sacrifice for. If they're so easy to change, then chances are they're not so important to you. What do we mean by values? Honesty, integrity, loyalty, kindness. This person is going to be the parent of your children.
How will they shape your kids?
You can't delay discussing life goals, hoping you'll come to an agreement once you're married, expecting the other person to change. Ideas and tastes change, but character is something very hard to change.
Don't expect her to change.
You have to be ruthlessly honest. For many people, the problem is the lack of clear life goals. We spend years going to college, learning how to make a decent living, but we are rarely challenged to confront the issues of what priorities supersede our financial goals. Sure, we all have a vague sense of what we want in life: These are lovely sentiments, but in the words of Gloria Steinem, "We best know our values when we look at our check stubs.
If we aren't clearly defining our life goals, then they are being defined for us. We tend to adopt society's values, and today society's main value is wealth and success. People magazine is filled with the lives of the rich and famous, not the wise and happy. There once was an advertisement that showed the sun setting behind a luxury automobile. Before you can contemplate marriage, you need to know your life goals: What do I want to do with my life?
What are the things that mean everything to me? Here are two exercises that might help clarify things: Articulate the essential things that make life constantly purposeful. Go further and ask, "Why? Why am I ready to die for this? If you're ready to die for it, live for it. What else could be more meaningful? Identify what you respect. Why do you value this? Couples may argue over a stray toothpaste cap or whose turn it is to get up with the baby, but no matter how heated these run-ins become, they should never destroy a marriage.
Know your own goals in life. Commitment When it comes to the topic of marriage, many people wonder: I'll just have the relationship without the marriage. We learn from here that originally Man was created as male and female in one complete entity. They were then separated, and brought together again as a couple. Marriage is the unification of two halves into one complete entity, described as "one flesh. What is my commitment to my hand? I am not committed to my hand. I am my hand.
My commitment to my hand is one I'd reconsider if it became gangrenous, and I was left with no choice but amputation. But I wouldn't reconsider my commitment to my hand if it were broken, or ugly, or if I met someone with a nicer hand. If your hand is killing you — then you get rid of it. The commitment of marriage is until it's killing you. Divorce is appropriate when the marriage has become an abusive, destructive relationship that can't be cured.
Amputation is never casual. Often people get divorced because they simply get bored with each other. The marriage goes stale and flat. Marriage is exactly the same. Comfort is not pleasure. Comfort is the absence of pain.
Lying on the beach, a cold drink, falling asleep — this is nice and comfortable. Pleasure, on the other hand, requires effort and work.
In fact, all meaningful accomplishments and deeper pleasures necessitate the struggle to achieve them: Raising kids, mastering a sport or an instrument, getting ahead in your career.