BBC Bitesize - GCSE History - The Cold War - Edexcel - Revision 5
ARC (crop) President Kennedy address on Test Ban Treaty, 26 July President Kennedy met with Soviet Premier Khrushchev in Vienna in June , . In the year that followed, relations between the US and the USSR became more strained, as both sides tested nuclear weapons, culminating in. JFK prepares to sign the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty with the Soviet Union. In fact, Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev had decided in the spring to and Robert Kennedy shared an exceptionally close fraternal relationship.
Kennedy's dilemma After talks with EX-Comm his team of advisorsKennedy was faced with a range of options to deal with the Soviet threat in Cuba: Naval blockade timeline 22 October Kennedy imposes a naval blockade around Cuba, to stop the Soviet ships suspected of carrying nuclear missiles from reaching Cuba.
Kennedy opts to answer only the first telegram while privately offering to consider the removal of missiles from Turkey.
- The Cold War 1958-1970
- Vienna summit
- Cuban missile crisis: Nikita Khrushchev's Cuban gamble misfired
Kennedy had kept his election promise and stood up to the USSR, and kept nuclear missiles out of Cuba. In order to ensure easier communication between Washington DC and Moscow in the event of future conflict, a hotline was installed giving a direct phone link between the White House and the Kremlin.
JFK Was Completely Unprepared For His Summit with Khrushchev
These talks eventually led to the Test Ban Treaty which began the process of ending the testing of nuclear weapons. You may be asked to give an analytical account of why something happened. This means you will need to write clearly about what happened, why it happened and what its aftereffects were.
A good structure for this is to think: This time, Khrushchev negotiated more willingly. This agreement proved to be one of the only accomplishments of the Vienna Summit.
Vienna summit - Wikipedia
Topping correctly identified the major points of conversation that dominated the conference—the Berlin and Laos questions. Clearly, both the Americans and the Soviets had ample information regarding the other's position prior to the opening of the Summit. However, no one could predict the outcome of the summit, including the leaders' reactions to each other.
For the Americans, the summit was initially seen as a diplomatic triumph. He had adequately stalled Khrushchev and made it clear that the United States was not willing to compromise on a withdrawal from Berlin, whatever pressure Khrushchev may exert on the "testicles of the West," as Khrushchev once called them.
In retrospect the summit may be seen as a failure. The two leaders became increasingly frustrated at the lack of progress of the negotiations. Kennedy later said of Khrushchev, "He beat the hell out of me" and told New York Times reporter James 'Scotty' Reston it was the "worst thing in my life. In his memoir, Khrushchev showed ambivalence.
He proclaimed, "I was generally pleased with our meeting in Vienna. Even though we came to no concrete agreement, I could tell that [Kennedy] was interested in finding a peaceful solution to world problems and avoiding conflict with the Soviet Union. Khrushchev outmatched Kennedy in this debate and came away believing he had triumphed in the summit over a weak and inexperienced leader.
Observing Kennedy's morose expression at the end of the summit, Khrushchev believed Kennedy "looked not only anxious, but deeply upset I hadn't meant to upset him. I would have liked very much for us to part in a different mood. Kennedy had the aerial photographs on his desk on 16 October, initiating "13 days" of an "eyeball to eyeball" crisis, which ended on 28 October.
In fact, the crisis was shorter and arguably less dangerous than often portrayed.
JFK and Khrushchev meet in Vienna: June 3, - POLITICO
Kennedy instituted a naval blockade of Cuba on 24 October, but Soviet ships were instructed not to breach it. And Soviet records show that on 25 October, the leadership was already considering dismantling the missiles in return for "pledges not to touch Cuba".
Khrushchev clearly wanted a way out, fast. He had no intention of using his missiles, and looked anxious rather than dangerous. The outline of a settlement — Khrushchev renouncing his missiles, Kennedy pledging not to invade Cuba — was dispatched from Moscow to Washington as early as 26 October.