Kim Do Yun - Rakuten Viki
At first they denied it. Now their coming clean to admit it. Look's Infinite's L is officially out of the market, ladies. marketing, relationship marketing and especially fan engagement. We would like .. ). According to Shannon () sports marketing can be divided into two .. (YongMan & Kim, ) Fans with a higher degree of loyalty to a team and. Mr. Kim can now, with some degree of confidence, claim to have a “ Denuclearization could have a real chance this time,” said Byung-Yeon Kim, a scholar . It depends largely on the future of the relationship between North.
In some places, property rights change hands in a de facto real estate market. That includes how state officials approach their own jobs. Everyone has to make money to support themselves.
For many who lived, survival came through selling and bartering in ways that had previously been strictly forbidden. In the years that followed, North Korean authorities loosened restrictions on individual market activities and began to open a series of special economic zones to encourage foreign investment.
Open this photo in gallery In this Dec.
Byresearch based on interviews with refugees found that nearly half had secured their entire income from sources outside the state. In the countryside, people might sell honey or raise goats.
In cities, poorer people might sew dresses or repair shoes.
Kim Do-yeon - Wikipedia
Those who work at state factories might take home shoes to resell, or skim money off foreign-currency transactions for trade. Because the market is there. North Korean scholarly literature contains clear confirmation of the transformation under way. Seoul-based researcher Peter Ward, a graduate student at Seoul National University, recently travelled to Pyongyang, where he purchased local economic journals.
He has also read through a list of local laws. Kim has overseen an effort to gather back private market activities under the state umbrella. At the same time, there are provisions for companies, even if they are formally state-controlled, to accept investment from citizens.
He has travelled to Pyongyang numerous times to discuss foreign investment in the country, including in recent months, and pointed both to Mr. Kim has also changed his rhetoric.
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Hynes said, examining places such as Mongolia, Vietnam, China and Myanmar. We propose four research models that reflect these two alternatives explanations regarding the link between brand equity and customer equity. In order to estimate these models we employ Structural Equations Modelling. We measure model variables using data collected through a survey to marketing managers of services companies that operate in Spain. Our results indicate that the models that correspond to the simultaneity approach have a higher explanatory power and goodness of fit than the models that suggest that brand equity is an antecedent of customer equity, thus supporting that these intangible assets are built by marketing activities at the same time.
Our results recommend caution when interpreting previous research about the effects of brand customer equity, as they might indeed correspond to customer brand management.
Similarly, future research focusing on customer and brand management need to take into account both managerial areas in their studies. Similarly, we derive implications for firm valuation processes, which incorporate brand equity and customer equity in their calculations.
Kim Do-yeon - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
We empirically study the relationship between brand equity and customer equity, while previous research has analyzed this topic only at a theoretical level.
Clarifying this link enriches our comprehension about how companies build these marketing intangible assets and increases the accuracy of firm valuation processes. Brand equity, Customer equity Jel Codes: Introduction Brand and customer portfolios are intangible marketing assets that help companies to make profits because of their effect upon competitive advantages.
Academic literature has studied how to manage build and develop and measure the value — Brand Equity hereafter, BE and Customer Equity CE — that these assets provide to companies.
In short, BE is the differential effect of brand knowledge including brand image and brand awareness on consumer response to the elements of marketing mix for the brand in comparison to the same elements of a fictitiously named or unnamed version of the product or service Keller, Research efforts involving BE and CE have generally constituted well-differentiated lines of research.
On the other hand, the concept of CE has become popular over the past ten years and its research focuses on its measurement and optimization e. Furthermore, building BE and CE requires having the similar marketing capabilities marketing capabilities understood as the ability of a firm to efficiently deploy and manage its marketing resources; Porter, The few studies to date of the connection between BE and CE adopt two different perspectives.
These theoretical studies do not provide any empirical support for their conclusions. According to the authors that follow this perspective, BE and CE could occur simultaneously or even be two sides of the same asset i.
On the other hand, Rust, Lemon et al. Under this perspective, brand management is a tool for customer management. These two conflicting points of view have important theoretical and practical implications. Clarifying if BE and CE are assets that either are built simultaneously or an antecedent and its consequence constitutes, for instance, a strong base for linking the separated research streams on BE and CE.
The assessment of firm value also requires a complete comprehension of the connection between BE and CE, given that both are intangible assets that affect firm valuation. Nevertheless, despite its theoretical and practical implications, up to our knowledge there are not studies that directly compare both views in the same research.
The link between BE and CE remains obscure. In this research we fill this gap by proposing four alternative research models that follow the two competing perspectives regarding the connection between BE and CE.
We depart from the resource-based view theory to propose these models.
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We validate these models using survey data from a sample of marketing managers, grounding our findings on managerial practice. We examine our estimation results in the light of the competing perspectives and compare them in terms of their explanatory power and goodness of fit. Thus, we contribute to current knowledge about the connection between BE and CE by empirically testing the existing alternative explanations of such link. Our findings indicate that BE and CE are intangibles assets that are built simultaneously by companies, against previous evidences that assume that BE is an antecedent of CE e.
Moreover, our results indicate that BE and CE could just respond to different perspectives of the valuation of a more general and holistic marketing asset. From a theoretical point of view, our results recommend enriching BE and CE research streams by integrating them, avoiding its current separation.