The fact that domestic politics plays a big role in river water sharing treaties is best explained by the Indo-Bangladesh water sharing. India and Bangladesh relations were not in a constant momentum. India and Bangladesh shares 54 rivers and water sharing is an important issue yet to be. India and Bangladesh share 54 rivers between them. that established a year water-sharing arrangement between the two countries. Ms. Dipu Moni, warned that bilateral relations would be complicated if India fails to.
Deaths along the Bangladesh—India border Deaths of Bangladeshi citizens in the Indo-Bangladesh border became one of the embarrassments between the two nation's bilateral relations in recent years.
Indian officials, vowing to cut down the number of casualties at border, showed statistics that the number of Bangladeshi deaths was in a steady decline in recent years.
Border police often shoots to kill any illegal immigrants crossing the border. Human Rights Watch estimates say 1, people were killed in the area between and by Indian border security force BSF. In Septemberthe two countries signed a major accord on border demarcation to end the 4-decade old disputes over boundaries.
This came to be known as the tin bigha corridor. India also granted hour access to Bangladeshi citizens in the Tin Bigha Corridor.
The agreement included exchange of adversely held enclaves, involving 51, people spread over Indian enclaves in Bangladesh and 51 Bangladesh enclaves in India.
The total land involved is reportedly acres. Bangladesh officials believe the export would greatly ease the national shortage once MW flows into the national grid.
The two country's Prime Ministers also unveiled the plaque of the 1,MW coal-fired Rampal power plant, a joint venture between the two countries. The ceremony which includes parades, march-past and lowering of the national flag of both the countries is now a daily routine, at sundown, on the eastern border. On 7 May the Indian Parliament, in the presence of Bangladeshi diplomats, unanimously passed the Land Boundary Agreement LBA as its th Constitutional amendment, thereby resolving all year old border disputes since the end of the British Raj.
The bill was pending ratification since the Mujib-Indira accords. In Juneduring her first official overseas visit, Foreign Minister of India, Sushma Swaraj concluded various agreements to boost ties.
Easing of Visa regime to provide 5 year multiple entry visas to minors below 13 and elderly above Proposal of a special economic zone in Bangladesh.
Agreement to send back a fugitive accused of murder in India. Provide an additional MW power from Tripura. Bangladesh allowed India to ferry food and grains to the landlocked Northeast India's using its territory and infrastructure.
Ending a prolonged dispute, the two nations swapped enclaves on the border region, allowing the people living there to stay or opt out to the other country. While 14, citizens of Bangladesh residing in 51 enclaves on the Indian side became Indians, a large number of people in the Indian enclaves in Bangladesh preferred to stay with Bangladesh and just opted to move to India. The total number of new Indian citizens will be 15, In Septemberthe Bangladesh cabinet approved the draft of a proposed agreement with India to allow it to use the Chittagong and Mongla sea ports for transporting goods to and from its land-locked northeastern states.
Under the agreements, the militaries of the two countries will conduct joint exercises and training. India will help Bangladesh set up manufacturing and service centres for defence platforms that both countries possess with the aim of achieving self-sufficiency in defence manufacturing in Bangladesh, and will also provide the Bangladesh military with expert training, and technical and logistic support.
Under the Electricity Actthe Indian companies could pool power in an exchange. A consumer would be free to buy it from anyone. But Morarji Desai had shown the courage to reveal the power of diplomatic negotiations in resolving a dispute. Bangladesh witnessed a transition of power from Zia after his assassination, through a military coup without a bloodshed.Why deeper ties with Bangladesh important for India? Watch to know!
Talks continued where both nations stood firm on water augmentation. Bangladesh tried to convince the proposal for storage facilities in Nepal as a method to augment water in the river Ganges. But at the Indian end, they took it as an attempt to regionalize the issue and opposed. An interim MoU again considered the issue and suggested to JRC to come forward with proposals to augment water flow. Apart from some MoUs and official and ministerial meeting, attempt to resolve the dispute with a long term treaty remained as a mirage during Rajiv Gandhi Era.
Political vacuum in Bangladesh before election after resignation of general Ershad halted further progress.
India, Bangladesh: Water Disputes and River Diplomacy « CSS Blog Network
Khalida Zia government was more hostile in approach towards India. Despite criticism from the home government and Party, Sheikh Hasina preferred to find a solution by bilateral negotiations rather than internationalizing the issue. India also reciprocated the commitment and resulted in the much awaited treaty.
Ganges Water Sharing Treaty The treaty composed of 12 clauses and 2 annexes. It was prepared based on the data available on quantity and flow water over past 40 years According to the treaty water should be shared among both nations in a cycle of 10 days in lean period. In case of such reduction, only cusecs can be reduced. Article 4 requires setting up of a joint commission for implementation, monitoring and grievance redressal regarding sharing of water. Joint commission should have equal members from both countries.
Joint river commission, as per Article 7 mediates in problems which joint commission is unable to resolve. Ultimately discussions at government level suggested to solve the deadlock. Teesta River Teesta that origins in the Dzongu glacier of Sikkim is the backbone of irrigation in Bangladesh during the lean season, December to May.
This fastest river in India has exceptional scope in Hydro power generation, thus it act as the life blood for power generation for north eastern states. It irrigates a large area of West Bengal as well. Tensions started when West Bengal government started construction of a barrage in Teesta River. But Bangladesh stood against the project in fear of adverse impact on its agricultural fields of their highly productive areas. India and Bangladesh reached in an ad hoc treaty in but Bangladesh opposed the treaty for an equal distribution of water among both countries, as they wanted a lionshare.
West Bengal chief minister Mamata Banerjee opposed further favorable decision to Bangladesh on account of the Teesta barrage that built on Teesta River in by Bangladesh, arguing that it is sufficient for their needs. Political interests of state and union government hampered early conclusion of a mutually acceptable treaty.
But Mamata Banerjee, the major support to UPA government withdrew their support due to probable adverse effect that can afflict on West Bengal agriculture. The water sharing dispute slowly changed its nature from an international dispute to a State-Centre political tug of war. Bangladesh claims a leniency towards them while concluding a treaty because of the high population in Teesta river basin in comparison with west Bengal and Sikkim.
Gazaldoba barrage of west Bengal and dams constructed in Sikkim also reduces the flow of water to Bangladesh in lean time that affects the agriculture. Farmers thinks that an equal sharing may put West Bengal agriculture at risk. Teesta water dispute is not resolved yet. The Land boundary agreement and exchange of enclaves spreads much hope in this direction to find a win- win solution. Observations and conclusion Water is a basic necessity of life.
Each and every nation considers water as a crucial element in their development as a power. A water scarce country would always lag behind in overall development and growth in the international system.
India considered River Ganga as its own river rather than an international water due to its inseparable relation to Indian culture, heritage and traditions. Ganges water dispute revealed the international nature of Ganges River.
Bangladesh–India relations - Wikipedia
Political interests always affects constructive talks between nations adversely. Negotiations between nations in both disputes witnessed deadlocks because of this. Lack of real time data regarding the quantity and flow of water resulted in an unscientific conclusions and subsequent controversy.
Many times interim treaties concluded based on old data that entirely different from current data. While accepting data, the recent facts such as Climate change, over use by preceding states, such as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar in case of Ganges and Sikkim in case of Teesta, pollution should be considered for a better solution.
Teesta river dispute should be resolved through a committed and constructive approach from both sides as witnessed in Ganges issue. Finding solution for water sharing dispute can lead to a multipronged result. Bangladesh is an essential element for India to get connected with north east Use of Chittagong port for industrialization in NE states and West Bengal is also a factor.
By consolidating relations through resolving existing disputes, benefits India and catalyze mutual progress for both in neighborhood and favors for co- operation in regional level.
The proposal for quadrilateral Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh and India mainly aims NE parts economic cooperative frame work outside SAARC was a reciprocation of treaty that enhanced confidence in neighborhood. Water diplomacy is not a single structure for India to deal with. Any action regarding the issue can echoed in the overall relationship with that country. For India, despite some draw backs, Ganges water sharing treaty is an example to approach the Teesta river dispute.
Addressing water sharing dispute should consider the way forward in conserving river ecosystem and natural augmentation of water resources. Rain water harvesting and other alternative methods to replace water shortage along with preventing pollution water resources can make a positive change. Equal consideration of concerns of West Bengal by keeping political intrigues aside and strengthening over all relationship through resolving water disputes will be another feather in the crown of Indian diplomacy.
Modi in Bangladesh developments and disappointments- Institute of peace and conflict studies 5. Bangladesh- India Relations — Indian review of global affairs 6. One year of transformational diplomacy- MEA 7. Ishtiaq Hossain - Jstore 8. The problem with teesta: