The challenges: The nature of improvement in teaching and learning is more uncertain than in other practitioner/client relationships. “Success is difficult to define. Competencies can be defined as: 'combinations of knowledge, skills and attitudes, which Chapter 1: The learner attributes in teaching and learning. Ultimately .. explore the relationship between words and images through the school's. The aim of the series is to stimulate readers to teach and learn more Sometimes the same word will mean different things to different people, and If the learner is made to use the new knowledge actively, the learning becomes deep. Teachers need to cultivate an open and trusting relationship with their students. In the.
What societies envisage as important teaching and learning constitutes the "intended" curriculum. However, at classroom level this intended curriculum may be altered through a range of complex classroom interactions, and what is actually delivered can be considered the "implemented" curriculum.
What learners really learn i. In addition, curriculum theory points to a "hidden" curriculum i. Those who develop the intended curriculum should have all these different dimensions of the curriculum in view.
While the "written" curriculum does not exhaust the meaning of curriculum, it is important because it represents the vision of the society. In some cases, people see the curriculum entirely in terms of the subjects that are taught, and as set out within the set of textbooks, and forget the wider goals of competencies and personal development.
Teaching, learning, assessment, curriculum and pedagogy
This is why a curriculum framework is important. It sets the subjects within this wider context, and shows how learning experiences within the subjects need to contribute to the attainment of the wider goals. All these documents and the issues they refer to form a "curriculum system".
Given their guiding function for education agents and stakeholders, clear, inspired and motivational curriculum documents and materials play an important role in ensuring education quality. The involvement of stakeholders including and especially teachersin the development of the written curriculum is of paramount importance for ensuring ownership and sustainability of curriculum processes.
We have to work at them. Relationships are things people do, not just have Duck This said we should also recognize the contribution of our social instincts.
As Matt Ridley Humans have social instincts. They come into the world equipped with predispositions to learn how to cooperate, to discriminate the trustworthy from the treacherous, to commit themselves to be trustworthy, to earn good reputations, to exchange goods and information, and to divide labour… Far from being a universal feature of animal life, as Kropotkin believed, this instinctive cooperativeness is the very hallmark of humanity and what sets us apart from other animals.
Relationships are strongly influenced by context. Lastly, it is worth making the distinction between personal relationships and social relationships. Here a classic example would be sales assistant and a customer in a shop. Informal educators largely work through personal relationships. Some features of relationships Felix P. Biestek in The Casework Relationship argues that while the many possible interpersonal relationships have similarities, each has its special features.
He suggests a number of questions: What is the purpose of the relationship? The purpose will largely determine its nature and qualities. For instance, the purpose of parent-child and the caseworker-client relationships immediately suggest many differences.
Are both parties on terms of equality, are the benefits resulting from the relationship mutual? They usually are in a friend-friend relationship but not in the teacher-pupil or leader-follower relationship. Is there an emotional component in the relationship? It is present in the parent-child relationship but absent in the ticket-agent-traveller relationship. Is it a professional relationship, such as physician-patient, or non-professional, as between friend-friend?
What is the normal duration of the relationship? The teacher-pupil is temporary; friend-friend may be temporary or permanent; the parent-child relationship is lifelong. To rephrase Biestek It differs from the parent-child relationship in that it is temporary, and the emotional content is not so deep and penetrating. It is unlike a friend-friend relationship in that there is not quite the same degree of mutuality and equality.
Relationship, learning and education
This is how Biestek op cit. The caseworker and the client are fundamentally equal as human beings; but in the casework situation the caseworker is the helping person, while the client is the person receiving help.
The same applies to educators. It is also interesting to look at the emotional content of the exchange. In some teaching situations the interaction may be at an overtly intellectual level; in others an emotional component may be a necessary element for achieving the purpose of the relationship. A common mistake and one that Biestek falls into is thinking that teaching and educating are essentially intellectual.
Another interesting dynamic arises out the extent to which both parties are active. It could be said, for example, that arguably most doctor-patient relationships are characterized by a fair degree of passivity on the part of the patient.
Patients have to cooperate, but it is the skills and medicines of the doctor that do the curing Biestek Within the literature of lifelong learning and adult education, this theme is reproduced in discussions of self-direction. The fundamental purpose of the relationship lies in the fostering of learning in the group or the individual that the educator is working with.
There are two important elements here as we have seen. First, through the relationships people make they learn about the interests, issues or enthusiasms that have brought them together.
As part of that experience the worker may invite them to try canoeing. Because of the relationship they have with the educator, the group is willing to try new activities. The worker may also encourage them to reflect upon the experience and to gain new understandings. Second, a significant part of the learning will be about the experience of relationships themselves.
If take our example further, it is quite likely that the educator will ask people to think about the relationships in the group if they need any encouragement!
In other words, people learn about relationship through being in relationship. There is a strong degree of equality and mutuality involved in the relationship — it should be one where people encounter each other as subjects rather than the educator seeking to act upon the other as an object.
This is a point that Freire makes with some force. However, we cannot get away with the fact that as educators we do have some areas of expertise. For informal educators this may well be around the process of learning, an appreciation of the nature of human relationships and human flourishing, and in some subject areas.
This is not to deny that our partners in the encounter do not also come with expertise and understanding in particular areas. Indeed, it is important to recognize the encounter as an exchange, a dialogue. There is a significant emotional content to the relationship. As Salzberger-Wittenberg et al. Learning can be painful as well as exciting. Educators, thus, have a particular role to play in creating environments in which powerful feelings of fear and pain can be contained.
Informal educators may well try to create places of sanctuary, spaces where people feel safe. One aspect of this is people having some sense that they are away from the things that cause them pain or concern.
Here they need educators and the other people in the setting to treat them with respect, to be tolerant, and to give them room. This often involves educators in treading a fine line between quietness and encouraging conversation. Often powerful feelings are contained because people feel they are with someone who is safe, who will not condemn them for the emotions they are experiencing or the things they have done. This brings us squarely to the person and disposition of the educator. Freud argued that transference lies at the core of the therapeutic relationship but it also can be a significant part of educative relationships.
We mean a transference of feelings on to the person of the doctor, since we do not believe that the situation in the treatment could justify the development of such feelings.
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We suspect, upon the contrary, that the whole readiness for these feelings is derived from elsewhere, that they were already present in the patient and, upon the opportunity offered by the analytical treatment, are transferred on to the person of the doctor. They may come to represent in some way someone else who is significant to the experience of the people they are working with. We need to attend to our role. Informal educators may be specially trained and paid to work with individuals and groups, or they may be an educator by virtue of the relationships they have.
This involves them in establishing and maintaining a role as an educator. However, this is often more easily said than achieved. Many professional informal educators, for example, operate in settings where they have to work very hard at being recognized first and foremost as educators.
The agency may well employ them as, say, a key worker within a hostel or day centre. As such they may well be drawing upon an understanding of a role derived from social work or care management. Similar conflicts can arise within youth work, community development and other agencies.
There is a further struggle in terms of working with the project participant or client. They may well come to the group or the setting not recognizing it as an educational setting. For example, they may have wanted to take part in a particular activity or interest such as a sport or some sort of creative arts. Deepening their abilities in football, say, may well be part of their agenda, but they may well not see the worker in the group as an educator.
What we have here is a classic question of role.