Moderating variables and self perception theory
May 25, When there is an inconsistency, the individual may alter either the attitudes or behavior, or develop a rationalization for the discrepancy. Jan 14, The moderating role of behavioral difficulty in the attitude–behavior relationship remains a controversial topic in social psychology. Previous. Read chapter 9 Behavior Moderators: Simulations are widely used in the military level of logistic support, and whether a combat unit was defending its home territory or . Studies of the relationship between vibration and human performance . Although this section briefly addresses personality, emotions, attitudes and.
Another factor for consideration is general alertness or vigilance. One approach to characterizing personality traits is known as the five factor theory. This approach has been used by several investigators over the years, including Hogan and Hogan Although different investigators use different names for the factors, they can be generally classified as follows Barrick and Mount, Janis suggests that for the specific purpose of predicting and understanding command behavior, only three of the five factors are essential: He asserts that these three traits can explain executive decision making in that the scores on these traits for individual managers will predict the manner in which each will fail.
At the organizational level, it is clear that personality plays a role in shaping behavior Argyris, It appears likely, for example, that individuals in an organizational context tend to behave in ways that are congruent with their public personas. In particular, people attempt to present a consistent pattern of behavior that represents their mode of fulfilling an organizational role Heise, Role assignments and personality do not fully determine behavior in organizations.
One reason for this is that the command, control, and communications C3 structure and the task can constrain individual decision making to the point where individual differences become secondary. In recent years there has been a strong push to merge concepts of personality with concepts of emotion Plutchik and Conte, This merger is seen as a means of reducing the complexity of concepts and enhancing the power to predict behavior.
Emotions 4 Hudlicka has developed a cogent approach to the problem of fitting concepts from research on human emotions into a framework of military operations—and the simulation thereof. She notes, for example, that emotions have until recently had a somewhat marginal status in both cognitive science and neuroscience. Over the past 10 years, however, important discoveries in neuroscience and experimental psychology have contributed to an interest in the scientific study of emotion.
A growing body of evidence from neuroscience research points to the existence of neural circuitry processing emotionally relevant stimuli i.
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Studies in experimental psychology have identified memory systems with distinct processing characteristics—explicit and implicit memory Schachter, ; see also Chapter 5analogous to the characteristics of the neural circuitry identified by LeDoux of fast, less differentiated processing and slower, more refined processing. Cognitive psychologists have described a variety of appraisal processes involved in inducing a particular emotional state in response to a situation Frijda and Swagerman, ; Lazarus,and several models of these processes have been proposed Ortony et al.
The link between cognition and emotion has been strengthened by the findings of Cacioppo and Tassinarywho show that some individuals have an emotional need to engage in cognitive activities.
A number of studies in cognitive and organizational psychology have documented the differential impact of various emotional states on cognition. While there are still disagreements among researchers regarding the number of basic emotions ortony et al.
These findings illustrate the impact of emotion on cognitive processing and the central role of emotion in the control of behavior. They also begin to blur the distinction between what have traditionally been thought of as the separate realms of cognition and emotion.
Modern examples of conformance to group norms in highly charged situations, such as protest marches, exemplify the point. Anxiety The primary impact of anxiety is on attention. Specifically, anxiety narrows the focus of attention and predisposes toward the detection of threatening stimuli and the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli as dangerous Williams et al. Obsessiveness A number of studies have documented the impact of obsessiveness, characterized by "checking" behavior, on cognitive processing.
Among the primary effects identified are lack of confidence in one's own attention apparatus to capture salient features in the environment Broadbent et al. Depression The primary impact of depression is on memory. Perhaps the best-documented phenomenon is mood-congruent recall in memory Bower, ; Blaney,whereby a particular affective mood induces recall of similarly valenced memories e.
Depression has also been studied in the context of particular inferencing tasks, such as judgment and decision making, in which depression appears to lower estimates of the degree of control Isen, Even more to the point, a positive disposition appears to be correlated with high-quality performance among managerial-level employees Straw and Barsade, Attitudes and Expectancies Attitudes were once defined as predispositions to respond in certain rigid ways.
That is, an individual with a negative attitude toward a particular situation would always respond negatively or with avoidance.
Current conceptualizations, however, distinguish between fundamental and transient attitudes Heise, and allow for a change in position.
This approach includes feedback controls that continually rebalance the relationship between the two types of attitude. Thus behavior congruent with fundamental attitudes can result in a change in the transient state, and if a difference in tone between fundamental and transient attitudes is detected, behavior that will minimize the discrepancy is initiated.
These are core propositions of affect control theory Heise, In prior, stage-setting work, Osgood used the techniques of semantic differential in a multinational survey approach to test the idea that attitude re- Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Expectancies are a product of the interaction between beliefs and attitudes. Hypothetically, beliefs are purely cognitive—based on past objective experience.
When a belief and an attitude come together, an expectancy is established. Such a state is not only a subjective estimate of the probability of a given occurrence, but also a perception moderator such that low subjective probability of occurrence is associated with a form of perceptual denial. The linkage of attitudes to the quality of military performance probably should be through the concept of expectancies.
That is, there appear to be no a priori grounds for suggesting that any specific pattern of attitudes will generate any particular impact on military performances Cesta et al. However, if an attitude influences expectancies—particularly if it is not supported by objective facts—it can influence decisions made about the object.
Cultural Values Cultural values and their impact on behavior are of critical importance to the military. Although the study of these values and the influence of nationality on behavior is an active area of behavioral research Berry et al.
The most powerful moderators of the attitude-behavior relati by Ikram Niazi on Prezi
While anthropological studies reveal that cultural values have a profound effect on the behavior of the individual warrior Thomas, and the planning of war strategy Pospisil, most such research has been carried out in the setting of preindustrial societies Carneiro, The Rosen and Weil report is an example of a study of nationality and performance in which the researchers looked at relative ''computer anxiety" among college students in 10 countries.
The result was a pattern of three clusters: In support of their work, Rosen and Weil suggest that despite its industrial strength and technological expertise, Japan shows a low level of utilization of information processing systems, and the Japanese demonstrate a general lack of individual exposure to information technology that could be the cause of their anxiety.
The key empirical contribution to the formulation of cross-cultural psychology was made by Hofstedewho conducted an extensive study, using questionnaires, of the employees in a multinational firm.
Citizens of 67 nation-states were participants. Factor analytic techniques revealed a set of four major dimensions: Although most A-B studies yield positive results, researchers have achieved still higher correlations by pursuing another direction looking at whether or not behavior influences attitudes. This view, called self-perception theory, has generated some encouraging findings.
When asked about an attitude toward some object, individuals often recall their behavior relevant to that object and then infer their attitude from their past behavior. Nobody forced me to stay on this job. So I must like it! Self-perception theory, therefore, argues that attitudes are used, after the fact, to make sense out of an action that has already occurred rather than as devices that precede and guide action.
And contrary to cognitive dissonance theory, attitudes are just casual verbal statements. Self-perception theory has been well supported. Although the traditional attitude-behavior relationship is generally positive, the behavior-attitude relationship is stronger. This is particularly true when attitudes are vague and ambiguous.