Macromolecules Practice Quiz.
What are some of the polymers that you encounter every day? Describe their Why are olefins (alkenes) good monomers for polymerization reactions? Answer. Leave blank. 9. Polymers of polysaccharides, fats, and proteins are all synthesized from monomers by: The formation of disulfide bridges between monomers. Explain the chemical reaction for building a polymer from a set of monomers. The process for connecting two monomers together (forming a covalent bond) is.
Carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins can all contain multiple different types of monomers, and their composition and sequence is important to their function. For instance, there are four types of nucleotide monomers in your DNAas well as twenty types of amino acid monomers commonly found in the proteins of your body.
- Introduction to macromolecules
- What is the relationship between monomers and polymers? Give an example using proteins.
Even a single type of monomer may form different polymers with different properties. For example, starch, glycogen, and cellulose are all carbohydrates made up of glucose monomers, but they have different bonding and branching patterns. Hydrolysis How do polymers turn back into monomers for instance, when the body needs to recycle one molecule to build a different one? Polymers are broken down into monomers via hydrolysis reactions, in which a bond is broken, or lysed, by addition of a water molecule.
During a hydrolysis reaction, a molecule composed of multiple subunits is split in two: This is the reverse of a dehydration synthesis reaction, and it releases a monomer that can be used in building a new polymer. For example, in the hydrolysis reaction below, a water molecule splits maltose to release two glucose monomers. This reaction is the reverse of the dehydration synthesis reaction shown above. Hydrolysis of maltose, in which a molecule of maltose combines with a molecule of water, resulting in the formation of two glucose monomers.
Dehydration synthesis reactions build molecules up and generally require energy, while hydrolysis reactions break molecules down and generally release energy.
Carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids are built up and broken down via these types of reactions, although the monomers involved are different in each case. In the body, enzymes catalyze, or speed up, both the dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis reactions. Enzymes involved in breaking bonds are often given names that end with -ase: As food travels through your digestive system — in fact, from the moment it hits your saliva — it is being worked over by enzymes like these.
The enzymes break down large biological molecules, releasing the smaller building blocks that can be readily absorbed and used by the body. Attribution and references Attribution: Download the original article for free at http: Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers. In Campbell biology 10th ed. Biological macromolecules include carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. In Biology 10th ed. Retrieved May 30, from Wikipedia: They provide a site where organic molecules can come together and react.
What is the difference between a heterogeneous and a homogeneous catalyst? What are some of the advantages of homogeneous catalysts?
What is the relationship between monomers and polymers? Give an example using proteins. | Socratic
Heterogeneous catalysts are insoluble in the reaction medium, while homogeneous catalysts are soluble. Since homogeneous catalysts are generally molecular species, they are more amenable to study using the spectroscopic tools of chemistry.
In addition, they can be chemically modified or "tailored" to produce polymers with a particular kind of structure. How would you describe the orientation of the ligands around the Zr center in the homogeneous zirconium catalyst? What is the nature of the bonding interaction between a metal and an olefin? The olefin uses the electrons in its p-bond to interact with the metal.
Polymer chain growth can be terminated by b-hydride elimination or by reaction with H2. What is one advantage of the H2 reaction? It allows the chemist to stop chain growth at a desired stage, rather than relying on the "natural" process of b-hydride elimination.
Hence, it gives the chemist some control over the value of n. Write out the first few steps of polymer growth, using cmpd.
Questions and Answers
In Session 2, we learned that chemists can control the properties of polyethylene by choice of appropriate catalysts and reaction conditions. Based on what you have learned in Session 4, what are some other ways in which chemists can manipulate the properties of polymers? By using different monomers. For example, the incorporation of a phenyl C6H5 unit into the monomer leads to polystyrene, while the incorporation of a chloro Cl group leads to PVC, a polymer with very different properties.
By using different fabrication techniques. For example, polystyrene can be glassy or foamy depending on how it is fabricated. Write a chemical formula for this reaction.
What are some of the properties of Teflon? Teflon is highly resistant to chemical attack and has a very low coefficient of friction it is slippery.
How might block co-polymers be synthesized?