The Odyssey | Circe Institute
The Odyssey Questions and Answers - Discover the omarcafini.info community of teachers, mentors and students On Circe's advice, Odysseus descends into Hades. How would you describe the relationship between mankind and the gods?. uh. Circe is an enchantress, goddess. And she turns some of Odysseus' men into animals. At first, Odysseus tricks Circe by eating some herb to protect him from. Questions for Consideration: the Odyssey” is published by LitMUSE in LitMUSE. Discuss the complicated nature of the relationship between Cave; Circe; Telemachus' search and journey; Odysseus' use of disguise and.
In Virgil 's AeneidAeneas skirts the Italian island where Circe now dwells, and hears the cries of her many male victims, who now number more than the pigs of earlier accounts: The fourth episode covers Circe's encounter with Ulysses lines The first episode in that book deals with the story of Glaucus and Scyllain which the enamoured sea-god seeks a love filtre to win Scylla's love, only to have the sorceress fall in love with him. When she is unsuccessful, she takes revenge on her rival by turning Scylla into a monster lines The story of the Latin king Picus is told in the fifth episode and also alluded to in the Aeneid.Good Questions to Ask Early in the Relationship
Circe fell in love with him too; when he preferred to remain faithful to his wife Canens, she turned him into a woodpecker lines One of the most well known of them was Octavius Mamilius died BCprinceps of Tusculum and son-in-law of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus the seventh and last king of Rome. Medieval and modern literature[ edit ] "Circea", 38 in Boccaccio 's c.
- What is the relationship between Circe and Odysseus?
- Questions for Consideration: the Odyssey
- The Odyssey
While following the tradition that she lived in Italy, he comments wryly that there are now many more temptresses like her to lead men astray. Ulysses is depicted as deeper in sorcery and readier of tongue than Circe and through this means he leaves her pregnant with Telegonus. Most of the account deals with the son's later quest for and accidental killing of his father, drawing the moral that only evil can come of the use of sorcery.
In this page expansion of the pseudo-Homeric Batrachomyomachiait is related at the court of the mice and takes up sections of the first part. As "Circe's Palace", Nathaniel Hawthorne retold the Homeric account as the third section in his collection of stories from Greek mythology, Tanglewood Tales The transformed Picus continually appears in this, trying to warn Ulysses, and then Eurylochus, of the danger to be found in the palace, and is rewarded at the end by being given back his human shape.
In most accounts Ulysses only demands this for his own men. At length, when he wished to leave her, she prevailed upon him to descend into the lower world to consult the seer Teiresias. After his return from thence, she explained to him the dangers which he would yet have to encounter, and then dismissed him.
Her descent is differently described by the poets, for some call her a daughter of Hyperion and Aerope Orph. According to Hesiod Theog. The Latin poets too make great use of the story of Circe, the sorceress, who metamorphosed Scylla and Picus, king of the Ausonians. Her son Telegonus is likewise mentioned with this surname. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Shewring Greek epic C8th B. Aldrich Greek mythographer C2nd A. Rieu Greek epic C3rd B. Oldfather Greek historian C1st B.
And he called it Hesperian, because it lies towards the west. Mozley Roman epic C1st A. Here they found Kirke Circe bathing her head in the salt water. She had been terrified by a nightmare in which she saw all the rooms and walls of her house streaming with blood, and fire devouring all the magic drugs with which she used to bewitch her visitors.
But she managed to put out the red flames with the blood of a murdered man, gathering it up in her hands; and so the horror passed. When morning came she rose from bed, and now she was washing her hair and clothes in the sea. A number of creatures whose ill-assorted limbs declared them to be neither man nor beast had gathered round her like a great flock of sheep following their shepherd from the fold.
The Argonauts were dumbfounded by the scene. But a glance at Kirke's form and eyes convinced them all that she was the sister of Aeetes.
As soon as she had dismissed the fears engendered by her dream, Kirke set out for home, but as she left she invited the young men to come with her, beckoning them on in her own seductive way. Iason Told them to take no notice, and they all stayed where they were. But he himself, bringing Medea with him, followed in Kirke's steps till they reached her house.
Kirke, at a loss to know why they had come, invited them to sit in polished chairs; but without a word they made for the hearth and sat down there after the manner of suppliants in distress. Medea hid her face in her hands, Iason fixed in the ground his great hilted sword with which he had killed Apsyrtos Apsyrtusand neither of them looked her in the face. So she knew at once that these were fugitives with murder on their hands and took the course laid down by Zeus, the god of suppliants, who heartily abhors the killing of a man, and yet as heartily befriends the killer.
She set about the rites by which a ruthless slayer is absolved when he seeks asylum at the hearth. First, to atone for the unexpiated murder, she took a suckling pig from a sow with dugs still swollen after littering. Holding it over them she cut its throat and let the blood fall on their hands. Next she propitiated Zeus with other libations, calling on him as the Cleanser, who listens to a murderer's prayers with friendly ears. Then the attendant Naiades Naiads who did her housework carried all the refuse out of doors.
But she herself stayed by the hearth, burning cakes and other wineless offerings with prayers to Zeus, in the hope that she might cause the loathsome Erinyes to relent, and that he himself might once more smile upon this pair, whether the hands they lifted up to him were stained with a kinsman's or a strangers blood.
When all was done she raised them up, seated them in polished chairs and taking a seat near by, where she could watch their faces, she began by asking them to tell her what had brought them overseas, from what port they had sailed to visit her and why they had sought asylum at her hearth. Horrible memories of her dream came back to her as she wondered what was coming; and she waited eagerly to hear a kinwoman's voice, as soon as the girl had looked up from the ground and she noticed her eyes.
For all the Children of Helios were easy to recognise, even from a distance, by their flashing eyes, which shot out rays of golden light. Medea, daughter of Aeetes the black-hearted king, answered all her aunt's questions, speaking quietly in the Kokhian Colchian tongue. She told her of the quest and voyage of the Argonauts, of their stern ordeal, and how she herself had been induced to sin by her unhappy sister and had fled from her father's tyranny with Phrixos' Phrixus' sons; but she said nothing of the murder of Apsyrtos.
Not that Kirke was deceived. Nevertheless she felt some pity for her weeping niece. The wrongs you have done are intolerable, and he will soon be in Hellas to avenge his son's murder. However, since you are my suppliant and kinswoman, I will not add to your afflictions now that you are here. But I do demand that you should leave my house, you that have linked yourself to this foreigner, whoever he may be, this man of mystery whom you have chosen without your father's consent.
And do not kneel to me at my hearth, for I never will approve your conduct and your disgraceful flight. She drew her robe across her eyes and wailed till Iason took her by the hand and led her out of doors shivering with fear. Thus they left Kirke's house. Jones Greek geographer C1st B. But the girl, as though mocked by the lingering image of a dream, gazes perplexed and only little by little deems her to be the sister of her mighty sire; then in tearful joy she sprang forward and of her own accord kissed the cruel goddess, and first addressed her: At last, scarce at last, cruel one!
Restored to thine own--why did the yoked snakes bear thee hence in flight? What sojourning was more pleasing to thee than my father's land. Call that thy country where the sun goes forth and back again; seek not, my child, with unfeeling heart to imprison me in this eternal cold. I had a right--as thou too hast--to leave the unprofitable Colchians. And now am I Ausonian Picus' royal consort, nor are my meadows there unsightly with flame-breathing bulls: But what kind of suitors are the Sauromatae for thee, poor child?
We brought the ship noiselessly to shore, and with some divinity for guide we put in at the sheltering harbour. We disembarked, and for two days and two nights we lay there, eating out our hearts with sorrow and weariness. But when Eos the Dawn of the braided hair brought the third day at last, I took my spear and my sharp sword and hastened up to a vantage-point, hoping to see some human handiwork or to catch the sound of some human speech.
I climbed a commanding crag, and from where I stood had a glimpse of smoke rising from the ground. There were gleams of fire through the smoke, and at sight of this I wondered inwardly whether to go and look. But as I pondered, it seemed a wiser thing to return first to my vessel on the beach, give my men a meal and then send them out to spy. I was on my way back and near the ship when some divinity pities me in my loneliness and sent a great antlered stag right across my path [perhaps a man that Kirke had transformed into an animal]; it was going down to its feeding-ground in the wood to drink the river-water.
As it left the wood I struck it upon the spine, half-way down the back. The spear of bronze went right through, and with one cry the stag fell in the dust and its breath departed. Eos the dawn comes early, with rosy fingers.
When she appeared, I assembled all my men together and thus addressed them: Let us ask ourselves quickly if some good plan may yet be found, though I fear there is none. When I climbed that commanding crag, I could see that we were in an island encircled by boundless ocean.
The main part of the land lies low, and in the mid-point of it I saw smoke rising across thick undergrowth and woodland. They wept aloud, and the great tears rolled down their cheeks, though lamentation availed them nothing. I divided my crew into two companies, and gave each its own leader; I myself captained one, Eurylokhos Eurylochus the other. Then we shook the lots in a bronze helmet, and the lot that leapt out was that of bold Eurylokhos. So he went on his way, and twenty-two comrades with him; themselves in tears, they left the rest of us weeping too.
In the glades they found the palace of Kirke Circebuilt of smooth stones on open ground. Outside, there were lions and mountain wolves that she had herself bewitched by giving them magic drugs. The beasts did not set upon my men; they reared up, instead, and fawned on them with their long tails.
As dogs will fawn around their master when he comes home from some banquet, because he never fails to bring back for them a morsel or two to appease their craving, so did these lions, these wolves with their powerful claws, circle fawningly round my comrades. The sight of the strange huge creatures dismayed my men, but they went on and paused at the outer doors of the goddess of braided hair. And now they could hear Kirke within, singing with her beautiful voice as she moved to and fro at the wide web that was more than earthly--delicate, gleaming, delectable, as a goddess' handiwork needs must be--a goddess or a woman, moving to and fro at her wide web and singing a lovely song that the whole floor re-echoes with.
The men called out and made themselves heard; she came forth at once, she opened the shining doors, she called them to her, and in their heedlessness they all entered, all but Eurylokhos; he stayed outside, foreboding mischief. The goddess ushered them in, gave them all seats, high or low, and blended for them a dish of cheese and of barley-meal, of yellow honey and Pramnian wine, all together; but with these good things she mingled pernicious drugs as well, to make them forget their own country utterly.
Having given them this and waited for them to have their fill, she struck them suddenly with her wand, then drove them into the sties where she kept her swine. And now the men had the form of swine--the snout and grunt and bristles; only their minds were left unchanged. They shed tears as they were shut in, while Kirke threw down in front of them some acorns and mast and cornel--daily fare for swine whose lodging is on the ground.
Eurylokhos hastened back to the ship to tell the news of his comrades' dismal fate. But for all his zeal he could not bring out one word, so wrung was hi heart with its great sorrow; the tears were standing in his eyes, and his thoughts were all of lamentation.
We questioned him, all of us, in bewilderment, and at last he found plain words to tell how our other friends had been lost to us: Someone inside it, a goddess or a woman, was singing in high pure notes as she moved to and fro at her wide web. The men called out and made themselves heard; she came out at once, she opened the shining doors and she called them to her. They in their heedlessness all entered; only I myself foreboded mischief and stayed outside.
They vanished utterly, all of them; not one among them appeared again, though I sat a long while there, keeping watch. I slung across my shoulders my great silver-studded sword of bronze; I slung on my bow as well, then told him to guide me back by the same path. But he clutched my knees with both his hand and made supplication: I know you will neither return yourself nor yet bring back any of your comrades.
Instead, let us flee from this place at once, taking these others with us; we may still escape the day of evil. He seized my hand and spoke thus to me: Your comrades are yonder in Kirke's grounds; they are turned to swine, lodged and safely penned in the sites.
Is your errand her to rescue them?
CIRCE (Kirke) - Greek Goddess of Sorcery, Sorceress of Aeaea
I warn you, you will never return yourself, you will only be left with the others there. Yet no--I am ready to save you from all hazards, ready to keep you unscathed. Here is a herb of magic virtue; take it and enter Kirke's house with it; then the day of evil never will touch your head.
I will tell you of all her witch's arts. She will brew a potion for you, but with good things she will mingle drugs as well. Yet even so, she will not be able to enchant you; my gift of the magic herb will thwart her. I will tell you the rest, point by point.
When Kirke strikes you with the long wand she has, draw the keen sword from beside your thigh, rush upon her and make as if to kill her. She will shrink, back, and then ask you to lie with her. At this you must let her have her way; she is a goddess; accept her bed, so that she may release your comrades and make you her cherished guest.
But first, make her swear the great oath of the Blessed Ones [by the river Styx] to plot no mischief to you thenceforward--if not, while you lie naked there, she may rob you of courage and of manhood. Its name among the gods is moly. For mortal men it is perilous to pluck it up, but for the gods all things are possible. Then Hermes departed over the wooded island went his way to the mountain of Olympos. I myself passed on to Kirke's palace, with my thoughts in turmoil as I walked.
I paused at the doorway of the goddess, and standing there I gave a great cry; she heard my voice and came out quickly, opening the shining doors and calling me in.
I went up to her though my heart sank.
She ushered me in and gave me a tall silver-studded chair to sit in--handsome and cunningly made it was--with a stool beneath it for the feet. In a golden goblet she brewed a potion for me to drink, and treacherously mingled her drug with it.
Questions on circe and book 10 of the Odyssey Essay
She shrieked, she slipped underneath my weapon, she clasped my knees and spoke in rapid appealing words: Where are your city and your parents? It bewilders me that you drank this drug and were not bewitched. Never has any other man resisted this drug, once ha head drunk it and let it pass his lips. But you have an inner will that is proof against sorcery. You must surely be that man of wide-ranging spirit, Odysseus himself; the Radiant One of the golden wand [Hermes] has told me of you; he always said that Odysseus would come to me on his way from Troy in his dark and rapid vessel.
But enough of this; sheathe your sword; then let us go to bed together, and embracing there, let us learn to trust in one another.
In this very house you have turned my comrades into swine, and now that you have me also here you ask me in your treacherousness to enter your room and lie with you, only that when I lie naked you may rob me of courage and of manhood. Never, goddess, could I bring myself to lie with you unless you consented first to swear a great oath to plot no mischief to me henceforward.
When Kirke had uttered the due appointed words, I lay down at last in her sumptuous bed. All this while, four handmaids of hers were busying themselves about the palace. She has them for her household tasks, and they come from springs [Naiades], they come from groves [Dryades], they come from the sacred rivers flowing seawards [Naiades].
One spread the chairs with fine crimson covers above and with linen cloths beneath; in front of the chairs, a second drew up silver tables on which she laid gold baskets for bread; a third mixed honey-sweet lovely wine in a silver bowl sand set the golden goblets out; the fourth brought water and lit a great fire under a massive cauldron. The water warmed; and when it boiled in the bright bronze vessel, the goddess made me sit in a bath and bathed me with water from the cauldron, tampering hot and cold to my mind and pouring it over my head and shoulders until she had banished from my limbs the weariness that had sapped my spirit.
And having washed me and richly appointed me with oil, she dressed me in a fine cloak and tunic, led me forward and gave me a tall silver-studded chair to sit on--handsome and cunningly made--with a stool beneath it for the feet.
She bade me eat, but my heart was not on eating, and I sat with my thoughts elsewhere and my mind unquiet. When Kirke saw me sitting thus, not reaching for food but sunk in despondency, she came and stood near me, quickly questioning: An ancient audience would find the lack of xenia wrong and as an insult to Zeus. Similarly, she tries to manipulate him by complementing him. Simonides wrote about emotional women who use sex as a weapon, as well as this, Aristotle said that women would destroy men if left alone, women would destroy men.
This is what Circe does by living alone and burning men into pigs. She turned Scylla into a rock out of jealous which leads into Simonides poem of women.
Alternatively, when we first meet Circe before she sees Odysseus she is weaving and singing which would be what a women should be expected to do, there for meeting moral and social expectation of a woman.
As she does live alone, the fact she can defend herself and try to stay alive by supplicating herself shows bravery against potential harm.