Parenting in America
Oct. 13, , among 1, U.S. parents with children younger than 18 least 15 percentage points higher than among parents with incomes above .. the extent to which parents' changing marital and relationship status. U.S. youth statistics and facts about family structure and parent-child connectedness. U.S. teens about the nature of their relationships with their parents and findings from rigorous research studies .. Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor.
Regardless of how they see themselves, parents care a lot about how others perceive their parenting skills. For married or cohabiting parents, the opinion of their spouse or partner matters the most: In several key ways, mothers and fathers approach parenting differently. Mothers are more likely than fathers to say that they sometimes are overprotective of their children, give in too quickly and praise their children too much.
Mothers also have more extensive support networks that they rely on for advice about parenting.Parent-child relationship
In at least one key area gender does not make a difference: Parental involvement — how much is too much? Black and Hispanic parents have a much different reaction to this question than do white parents, even after controlling for differences in educational attainment.
Kids are busy, and so are their parents American children — including preschoolers — participate in a variety of extracurricular activities. Among those with children younger than 6, four-in-ten say their young children have participated in sports, and about as many say they have been part of an organized play group; one-third say their children have taken music, dance or art lessons. Similarly, by double-digit margins, higher-income parents with children younger than 6 are more likely than those with lower incomes to say their young children have participated in sports or taken dance, music or art lessons in the 12 months prior to the survey.
But if kids are busy, their parents are even busier. Not surprisingly, parents who feel rushed at least sometimes are more likely than those who almost never feel rushed to see parenting as tiring and stressful and less likely to see it as enjoyable all of the time.
Spanking is an unpopular form of discipline, but one-in-six use it at least sometimes Parents employ many methods to discipline their children. But one-in-six parents say they spank their children at least some of the time as a way to discipline them. Spanking is also correlated with educational attainment. Black parents, in turn, worry more than white parents do that their children might get shot at some point.
And this difference persists even when looking at white and black parents who live in urban areas, where there is more concern about shootings.
On each of these items and others tested in the survey, Hispanic parents are more likely than white and black parents to express concern. These differences are driven, at least in part, by high levels of concern among foreign-born Hispanics, who tend to have lower household incomes and lower levels of educational attainment than native-born Hispanics. The remainder of this report includes an examination of changing family structures in the U. Chapter 1 looks at the changing circumstances in which children are raised, drawing on demographic data, largely from U.
Chapter 3 looks at parenting values and philosophies. By contrast, inthe height of the post-World War II baby boom, there was one dominant family form. Not only has the diversity in family living arrangements increased since the early s, but so has the fluidity of the family. Non-marital cohabitation and divorce, along with the prevalence of remarriage and non-marital recoupling in the U.
ACT for Youth - Adolescence - Youth Statistics: Family Structure and Relationships
The growing complexity and diversity of families The share of children living in a two-parent household is at the lowest point in more than half a century: And even children living with two parents are more likely to be experiencing a variety of family arrangements due to increases in divorce, remarriage and cohabitation. These changes have been driven in part by the fact that Americans today are exiting marriage at higher rates than in the past.
This share has remained relatively stable for decades. In the remainder of two-parent families, the parents are cohabiting but are not married.
In some cases, this will happen because a never-married mother enters into a cohabiting relationship; in other cases, a mother may enter into a cohabiting relationship after a marital breakup. The decline in children living in two-parent families has been offset by an almost threefold increase in those living with just one parent—typically the mother. Furthermore, at least half of Asian and white children are living with two parents both in their first marriage.
The shares of Hispanic and black children living with two parents in their first marriage are much lower. Among Hispanic children, two-thirds live with two parents. The living arrangements of black children stand in stark contrast to the other major racial and ethnic groups. Children with at least one college-educated parent are far more likely to be living in a two-parent household, and to be living with two parents in a first marriage, than are kids whose parents are less educated.
This share has remained stable since the early s, when reliable data first became available. Hispanic, black and white children are equally likely to live in a blended family. This low share is consistent with the finding that Asian children are more likely than others to be living with two married parents, both of whom are in their first marriage. The shrinking American family Fertility in the U.
The share of mothers with three children has remained virtually unchanged at about a quarter. Family size varies markedly across races and ethnicities.
Parenting in America
Asian moms have the lowest fertility, and Hispanic mothers have the highest. Similarly, a gap in fertility exists among women with different levels of educational attainment, despite recent increases in the fertility of highly educated women.
The rise of births to unmarried women and multi-partner fertility Not only are women having fewer children today, but they are having them under different circumstances than in the past. While at one time virtually all births occurred within marriage, these two life events are now far less intertwined. The majority of these births now occur to women who are living with a romantic partner, according to analyses of the National Survey of Family Growth.
In fact, over the past 20 years, virtually all of the growth in births outside of marriage has been driven by increases in births to cohabiting women. Past analysis indicates that about one-in-five children born within a marriage will experience the breakup of that marriage by age 9.
In comparison, fully half of children born within a cohabiting union will experience the breakup of their parents by the same age. At the same time, children born into cohabiting unions are more likely than those born to single moms to someday live with two married parents. The share of births occurring outside of marriage varies markedly across racial and ethnic groups.
Racial differences in educational attainment explain some, but not all, of the differences in non-marital birth rates. New mothers who are college-educated are far more likely than less educated moms to be married. The increase in divorces, separations, remarriages and serial cohabitations has likely contributed to an increase in multi-partner fertility.
Research indicates that multi-partner fertility is particularly common among blacks, Hispanics, and the less educated. Inthe average new mother was 21 years old. Since that time, that age has risen to 26 years. The rise in maternal age has been driven largely by declines in teen births. While age at first birth has increased across all major race and ethnic groups, substantial variation persists across these groups.