Parent Child Relationship and Students' Academic Achievement | 39 .. Adsul ( ) found that there is no significant difference between male and. () tested the relationship between parental involvement (i.e., home-based had less influence on children's educational performance. .. which can reduce the gap with youths from high-SES families (Lareau, ). Strengthening parents' involvement in their children's learning is widely of helping to reduce the achievement gap between disadvantaged students and . The relationship between parent involvement and student achievement was very.
I then consider the ways in which schools can offset the effects of these factors. Better-educated parents are more likely to consider the quality of the local schools when selecting a neighborhood in which to live.
In addition, highly educated parents are more likely than their less-educated counterparts to read to their children. They are more likely to pose questions instead of directives and employ a broader and more complex vocabulary.
Estimates suggest that, by age 3, children whose parents receive public assistance hear less than a third of the words encountered by their higher-income peers. As a result, the children of highly educated parents are capable of more complex speech and have more extensive vocabularies before they even start school. A cohesive social network of well-educated individuals socializes children to expect that they too will attain high levels of academic success.
It can also transmit cultural capital by teaching children the specific behaviors, patterns of speech, and cultural references that are valued by the educational and professional elite. Teasing out the distinct causal impact of parental education is tricky, but given the strong association between parental education and student achievement in every industrialized society, the direct impact is undoubtedly substantial.
Even small differences in access to the activities and experiences that are known to promote brain development can accumulate. More-affluent parents can also use their resources to ensure that their children have access to a full range of extracurricular activities at school and in the community.
Working multiple jobs or inconvenient shifts makes it hard to dedicate time for family dinners, enforce a consistent bedtime, read to infants and toddlers, or invest in music lessons or sports clubs.
Even small differences in access to the activities and experiences that are known to promote brain development can accumulate, resulting in a sizable gap between two groups of children defined by family circumstances. It is challenging to find rigorous experimental or quasi-experimental evidence to disentangle the direct effects of home life from the effects of the school a family selects.
While Coleman claimed that family and peers had an effect on student achievement that was distinct from the influence of schools or neighborhoods, his research design was inadequate to support this conclusion. All he was able to show was that family characteristics had a strong correlation with student achievement.
Separating out the independent effects of family education and family income is also difficult. However, a recent study by Gordon Dahl and Lance Lochner, exploiting quasi-experimental variation in the Earned Income Tax Credit, provides convincing evidence that increases in family income can lift the achievement levels of students raised in low-income working families, even holding other factors constant.
Two percent of U. The Bureau of Justice Statistics reports that 2. Black children are 7. Incarceration removes a wage earner from the home, lowering household income. One estimate suggests that two-thirds of incarcerated fathers had provided the primary source of family income before their imprisonment.
As a result, children with a parent in prison are at greater risk of homelessness, which in turn can have grave consequences: Quantifying the causal effects of parental incarceration has proven challenging, however. A recent review of 22 studies of the effect of parental incarceration on child well-being concludes that, to date, no research in this area has been able to leverage a natural experiment to produce quasi-experimental estimates.
Just how large a causal impact parental incarceration has on children remains an important but largely uncharted topic for future research. While most American children still live with both of their biological or adoptive parents, family structures have become more diverse in recent years, and living arrangements have grown increasingly complex.
In particular, the two-parent family is vanishing among the poor. Approximately two-fifths of U.
Many parents today choose cohabitation over marriage, but the instability of such partnerships is even higher. In the case of nonmarital births, estimates say that 56 percent of fathers will be living away from their child by his or her third birthday.
Census Bureau reports that 1- to 2-year-olds who live with two married parents are read to, on average, 8. The corresponding statistic for their peers living with a single parent is 5. These effects are largest for boys. Recent research by MIT economist David Autor and colleagues generates quasi-experimental estimates of family background by simultaneously accounting for the impact of neighborhood environment and school quality to investigate why boys fare worse than girls in disadvantaged families.
Comparing boys to their sisters in a data set that includes more than 1 million children born in Florida between andthe authors demonstrate a persistent gender gap in graduation and truancy rates, incidence of behavioral and cognitive disabilities, and standardized test scores.
Should they try to improve schools to overcome the effects of family background or directly address the effects of family background? One- to 2-year-olds who live with two married parents are read to, on average, 8.
The question is critical. If family background is decisive regardless of the quality of the school, then the road to equal opportunity will be long and hard.
Increasing the level of parental education is a multigenerational challenge, while reducing the rising disparities in family income would require massive changes in public policy, and reversing the growth in the prevalence of single-parent families would also prove challenging.
And, while efforts to reduce incarceration rates are afoot, U. Given these obstacles, if schools themselves can offset differences in family background, the chances of achieving a more egalitarian society greatly improve.
Although the obstacles to causal inference are steep, education researchers should focus on quasi-experimental approaches relying on sibling comparisons, changes in state laws over time, or policy quirks—such as policy implementation timelines that vary across municipalities—that facilitate research opportunities.
Given what is currently known, a holistic approach that simultaneously attempts to strengthen both home and school influences in disadvantaged communities is worthy of further exploration. A number of contemporary and past initiatives point to the potential of this comprehensive approach. Department of Education, serve distressed communities by delivering a continuum of services through multiple government agencies, nonprofit organizations, churches, and agencies of civil society.
The programs and resources are available to the families at no cost. Services available in the HCZ include a Baby College, where expectant parents can learn about child development and gain parenting skills; two charter schools and a college success office, which provides individualized counseling and guidance to graduates on university campuses across the country; free legal services, tax preparation, and financial counseling; employment workshops and job fairs; a 50,square-foot facility that offers recreational and nutrition classes; and a food services team that provides breakfast, lunch, and a snack every school day to more than 2, students.
Students who win admission by lottery and attend an HCZ school also have higher on-time graduation rates than their peers and are less likely to become teen parents or land in prison.
Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors
Parental involvement generally includes three aspects: This framework was usually used in American culture Wang and Sheikh-Khalil, For example, using data for 15, middle school students in America, Benner et al.
With the American data of Education Longitudinal Study —, Day and Dotterer assessed the connection between parental involvement i. However, such framework should be modified in the Chinese context Lau et al. Using a sample of students in Hong Kong, Lau et al. In this case, the current studies only focus on home-based involvement and academic socialization in the Chinese context.
Previous studies have demonstrated that home-based involvement and academic socialization positively influenced academic achievement and school behavior Fan and Chen, ; Chen and Gregory, ; Hill and Tyson, ; Benner et al.
Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors
For example, Manz et al. Hill and Tyson further claimed that academic socialization was positively related to academic achievement. Nevertheless, socioeconomic status significantly affects the relationship between parental involvement and adolescent performance Stevenson and Baker, ; Byun et al.
Parents with low SES typically practice low levels of academic socialization with their children Carolan and Wasserman, By contrast, families with high SES usually engage in high-quality activities of home-based involvement Fantuzzo et al.
For instance, Conger and Donnellan found that parents with high SES had better communication with their children. In addition, other studies suggested that SES is linked with the academic achievement of adolescents Hill and Tyson, ; Byun et al.
Adolescents from families with high SES tend to display good academic achievement Sirin, ; Reardon, Coleman considered that a family with high SES can provide a better living environment and more educational resources for their child or children. For example, with a longitudinal data of adolescents, Morris et al.
How Family Background Influences Student Achievement - Education Next : Education Next
With the Independent Freshman Admission administrative data from an elite university i. In such circumstances, with less social capital, parental involvement is more important for adolescents in low SES families. According to the cultural mobility model, Dimaggio argued that a low SES environment acted as an incentive for parents to invest in their children to make up for other factors that disadvantaged them. Parental involvement acts as a support mechanism for children, whereas adolescents in high SES families had better living conditions and more educational resources.
This meant that the effect of parental involvement was greatly reduced. Thus, parental involvement is more effective for adolescents in low SES families than for adolescents in high SES families. The preceding literature review implies that the moderating role of SES varies among different aspects of parental involvement i.Parent Involvement Matters!
For instance, with the data taken from National Education Longitudinal StudyKim and Schneider further claimed that adolescents from low-SES families benefited more from parental involvement in academic activities. With the data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Children and Young Adults in America, Jaeger found that socioeconomic status played a moderating role in the relationship between cultural capital which contained partial content of parental involvement and adolescent academic achievement.
Using data from 10 public high schools in America, Wang and Sheikh-Khalil found that home-based involvement was more strongly correlated with school academic behavior in low-SES families. Yet few studies have tested the moderating effect of SES between parental involvement and adolescent performance in other specific culture, such as in the Chinese culture. Data from China Education Panel Study of — would be used to validate this hypothesis.
The meaning of the current study may be as follows. First, the current study highlights the importance of parental involvement and may serve to upgrade the importance of family education in China. Second, the current study can be regarded as a suggestion for a family intervention project to focus on promoting parental involvement.
CEPS is a nationally representative survey. Data collecting procedures were designed in multi-stage stratified probability proportional sampling PPS. Four stages were included: A human ethics approval was obtained from Renmin University of China.