Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events
They passed the first test by not immediately killing both men. Pashtun nomads seized Hazara-held pastures and farmland at the southern foot . Khan and Vollick's relationship is rare and exemplary among NATO soldiers. The Hazaras: Settled Communities of the Central Highlands. .. many groups of nomads in Afghanistan are not Pashtun” (Barfield, , s. 1). However the SALEH programme only tested the CBPM with settled communities and the. Les Hazaras de l'Afghanistan: Une étude de relations ethniques .. Uzbeg, Tajik or Hazara, an Afghan simply is a Pashtun. Originally the term "Afghan" .. of these genealogies, one ought to test their historical validity by subjecting them to a.
Although not built by the Hazaras themselves, who only came to have an ethnolinguistic identity based in the region some centuries later, they have their own myths associated with the statues, unrelated to Buddhism.
In Hazara folklore, the statues are of a star-crossed couple Salsal and Shahmama, whose doomed love ends tragically in both their deaths. The two remain forever separated, petrified in stone, looking across the Bamyan valley. However, the statues, long celebrated internationally, achieved less welcome attention in when the Taliban dynamited them, leaving behind little more than empty voids.
The destruction was, in fact, part of a larger campaign by the Taliban to suppress the rights and identity of Hazaras. International debate continues to rage regarding whether the statues should be reconstructed or not.
Afghanistan: Hazaras Feel New Strength With End Of Taliban (Part 3)
However, the discussions often disregard the fact that the sculptures are an integral part of Hazara culture and do not always consider the need to involve local communities in any future decisions concerning them. Since the overthrow of the Taliban inthe situation of Hazaras in Afghanistan has improved considerably. Hazaras are one of the national ethnic minorities recognized in the new Afghan Constitution and have been given full right to Afghan citizenship.
But in the most recent parliamentary election Hazaras who make up around 9 per cent of the population gained 25 per cent of seats.Who are Afghanistan's Hazara?
However, Hazaras still face persistent discrimination in many areas of the country. Current issues A key issue for the Hazara community is the general climate of impunity, whereby those who committed atrocities — both past and present — to evade justice.
Hazaras also remain concerned about the resurgence of the Taliban, who they feel pose a direct threat to their community. There have also been increasing ethnic tensions and incidents of violent clashes between Hazaras and nomadic Kuchis over access to land in recent years.
Due to the severity of their persecution under the Taliban, Hazara leaders have insisted, along with leaders of other minority groups, to be included in all negotiations with the Taliban.
With the increasing presence of foreign Islamist groups such as Islamic State in Iraq and Syria ISISactive in the country for a number of years, attacks against religious minorities have been on the increase. Suicide bombings targeting Hazara public events have taken place with increasing regularity, most of which have been claimed by groups stating allegiance with ISIS.
These include, in Julythe killing of 85 people at a peaceful protest comprised of mostly Hazaras. Other attacks include a December bombing that left at least 41 dead and another 80 injured in a Hazara neighbourhood of western Kabul and an assault in March that resulted in the deaths of at least nine people. However, the Taliban too is thought to be responsible for the increasing kidnappings of Hazaras, particularly on remote highways, with some of the victims killed while others have been held for ransom.
Some minority women, such as the Hazara women, have traditionally enjoyed more freedom in their society than other ethnic groups. In the post-Taliban period, they have benefited considerably from political and educational reforms. Poverty and insecurity drive many Hazaras to migrate to cities such as Kabul. And he, like many Hazaras, is looking to the country's new interim administration as the best chance in many years to address some of the continuing frictions between his people and the Pashtuns.
The reason is that the Hazaras, as members of the anti-Taliban Northern Alliance, now hold several ministerial posts in the administration, giving them an important voice in its affairs.
In Bamiyan City, the guesthouse of the Hazara's largest political party, the Hezbe Wahdat, is filled with local dignitaries waiting to see party chief Karim Khalili.
At the moment, Khalili is in the capital, Kabul. But the visitors, who have traveled for hours over the region's bad roads, are happy to wait a few days until he returns.
The guesthouse itself is the only functioning public accommodation in Bamiyan, where the Taliban burned many homes as the city changed hands several times in fighting. Khalili's secretary is Sattar Nilli, a quiet man in his late 20s who studied medicine at the University of Mazar-i-Sharif. Now engaged in politics, he says he still wants to return to his studies, which were interrupted by the warfare. Nilli says he is optimistic that peace will now take hold in Afghanistan because many of the principal commanders in the country are now participating in the government.
He says each day that passes without trouble builds popular confidence.
Hazaras - Wikipedia
But he also says that the Hezbe Wahdat, which he claims had some 6, troops fighting the Taliban, has no plans to disarm before the country's other factions do the same. And he says 1, of the party's soldiers are deployed on the borders of the Hazarajat near Kabul and that another 1, are on the region's border near the southeastern city of Ghazni. Those deployments, he says, are purely defensive because "the Hazaras have always been victims of war.
But it also may signal a new self-awareness within the community of its own military strength. And that awareness could change the way the Hazaras view some long-standing practices in Afghanistan they previously have had to accept.
One of these is a seasonal migration into the Hazarajat each summer by Pashtun nomads who claim grazing rights over large parts of the region, including cultivated land. In particular, in the s, during Zahir Shah 's rule, a revolt took place against new taxes that were exclusively imposed on the Hazara. The Kuchi nomads meanwhile not only were exempted from taxes, but also received allowances from the Afghan government.
In response, the central government sent a force to subdue the region and later removed the taxes. He was killed by the Taliban in During the Soviet—Afghan Warthe Hazarajat region did not see as much heavy fighting as other regions of Afghanistan. However, rival Hazara political factions fought.
Byafter severe fighting, the secularist groups lost all their power to the Islamists. The Bamiyan Valleythe site of the Buddhas of Bamiyan. As the Soviets withdrew inthe Islamist groups felt the need to broaden their political appeal and turned their focus to Hazara ethnic nationalism.
In with the fall of Kabulthe Harakat-i Islami took sides with Burhanuddin Rabbani 's government while the Hizb-i-Wahdat took sides with the opposition. The Hizb-i-Wahdat was eventually forced out of Kabul in when the Taliban movement captured and killed their leader Abdul Ali Mazari. With the Taliban's capture of Kabul inall the Hazara groups united with the new Northern Alliance against the common new enemy. However, it was too late and despite the fierce resistance Hazarajat fell to the Taliban by The Taliban had Hazarajat totally isolated from the rest of the world going as far as not allowing the United Nations to deliver food to the provinces of BamiyanGhorWardakand Daykundi.
Sultan Ali Kishtmanda Hazara, served as prime minister of Afghanistan from — with one brief interruption in Particularly after their capture of Mazar-i-Sharif inwhere after a massive killing of some 8, civilians, the Taliban openly declared that the Hazara would be targeted.