And when engineers start to design a new technology, they call on the knowledge of the natural world developed by scientists (for example, the law of gravity or. Developments in science and technology are fundamentally altering the way people live, and transact, with profound effects on economic development. changing the relationship between citizens and those in authority, as well cognitive enhancement, proton cancer therapy and genetic engineering. International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences Extensive Research and Development in the fields of Engineering and Technology have been.
Int J Econ and Manage Sci 4: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Extensive Research and Development in the fields of Engineering and Technology have been the catalysts, culminating the economic growth and development of the modern economies. Engineers and Economists have been interdependent on one another for various technical know-how.
The rapid advances in the field of Economics due to formulation of various Economic Laws and theories have given the modern economies sufficient ideas and methodologies to make well-planned decisions. The rapid innovations in Engineering and Technology have made the world a global Market, not limited to the boundaries of a country. Due to technological up gradation in the modern economies, there has been increase in employment, reduction in poverty, and growth of Human Capital, which have together triggered the economic growth of the modern economies, as concluded from my research.
Role of Innovations in the Growth of Modern Economies In this rapidly changing world, innovation has played a major role in economic growth and development of the modern economies. During the last few decades, there have been many innovations in the field of economics, both at the micro and macro levels of study. These innovations have contributed to the economic growth of the modern economies and will have a greater role to play in the years to come [ 1 ].
The various laws and theories formulated by economists have played an important role in economic growth. These laws and theories have given a more scientific temperament to the modern economists, enabling them to think more logically and analytically. The development of various laws and theories in economics, both at the micro and macro level like the Laws of Demand and Supply, concepts of Production Functions, Market, Equilibrium, theories of Producer and Consumer Behavior etc [ 2 ].
These have helped the consumers to maximize their satisfaction, the producers to maximize their profits, and the society to maximize its social welfare. Innovations in the field of economics at the macro level like the theory of National Income, Government Budget, Banking, Aggregate Demand and Supply etc.
Innovations in Engineering and Technology Though innovations in the field of economics have directly contributed to the growth and development of the modern economies, the rapid innovations in the field of Engineering and Technology have also contributed a lot in the economic growth and development of the modern economies [ 3 ].
Rapid innovations in the field on Engineering and Technology have helped increase the production capacity and efficiency of the modern economies, at the same time, minimizing the cost of production. This has led to an increase in production activities in the modern economies.
Just as modern capitalism--in some, although more and more frequent cases--burns or dumps into the sea stocks of food because they cannot be sold with a profit, so it is now "burning" labour power upon an unprecedented scale, not in the process of labour and exploitation, but because it cannot exploit these workers with a profit. The American journalist, Chase, calls this situation the "economics of a madhouse," but Marx has already long before Chase demonstrated that this "madhouse" must inevitably become the basis of capitalist economy.
Bearing in mind the deliberate curtailment of the production of raw materials and foodstuffs, the shortage of work for the staff of employees in production calculated on the basis of one shift per diem to the extent of 25 per cent, in "good years" of stabilization, and of almost 50 per cent. Yet, even in countries of powerful capitalist development, this production apparatus is composed of a motley mixture of modern plants with even larger remains of obsolete, backward production units that are artificially supported by monopoly capitalism, this being done on a particularly large scale in the old capitalist countries.
Bearing in mind, further, the artificial frequently forcible retention of the economic backwardness of the colonies, the enforced backwardness and wanton waste of labour in agriculture; the reparations, the tariff walls, and other numerous obstacles and barriers to the development of the forces of production, we see that in reality, the "co-efficient of useful action" of the modern capitalist machine is even still lower.
If the technical achievements already existing in some of the industrial plants were to be extended, at the present level of technical development, to the whole of industry, transport, and agriculture, then this alone would extend by several times the volume of the forces of production.
All this, apart from the unquestionable fact that the further development goes on at an ever increasing pace. Emancipated from the brakes of capitalism, it may yield in the shortest historical periods an unheard of progress in economic development.
A further reflection of the crisis of scientific research work is that in the race for retrenchment, there is a constant diminution in the funds granted towards the upkeep of universities, scientific institutes, laboratories, stipends, etc. Unemployment involving tens of millions of workers, does not spare also the scientific workers, engineers, and technicians.
Matschos, draws in the Society's Journal a harrowing picture of the effect of the crisis. Among the graduates there is terrific unemployment. On an average, only 20 per cent, secure jobs, 10 per cent. It is no longer a rare sight to see engineers with diplomas sleeping in doss-houses that open their doors at 10 p. Charity tries to take care of most acute cases of distress, but it cannot do the most essential thing--to give these specialists jobs.
The mental equipment secured at the price of many sacrifices finds no application. Everybody still believes the profession of an engineer to be rich in promise. At the same time, we find that the societies of engineers are warning more and more about the profession being overcrowded beyond all proportion, warning against all expectations, and demanding a rigid selection.
What is going to be the outcome of all this? They are now figuring on 15, graduates, but we are told that there are going to be 40, of them by Provision is at present made for about 13, academic graduates to be employed inwhile there are now 30, of them unemployed. Can we afford to contemplate such a situation with folded arms? Is it not high time to put a stop to this mass striving after a diploma and higher learning?
The organ of the German industrials, "Deutsche Bergwerkszeitung," commenting on this article April 21st,gives a "reassuring" reply to the rhetorical question put by Prof. Matschos, pointing out that in a certain city in Western Germany a group of graduates were generously given jobs as However, the newspaper goes on to say quite reasonably that "the warning against academic professions would be far more effective if the warners would at the same time mention professions that are not overcrowded and hold out better promises.
This is not done because there are no such professions. The newspaper notes also the fact that to a graduate technician the lack of employment implies the end of his career, as there is almost no possibility of adaptation to some other kind of work. Quite identical is the situation in regard to various groups of intellectuals.
As a rule, the conditions of scientific workers engaged directly in scientific research are not any better, but rather worse. The only way out seen by the professor is to close further admission to the higher schools. These facts show how modern capitalism not only blindly destroys the material forces of production in periods of crisis, not only throws millions of workers out of the process of production, but also tries to cut the roots of future scientific and technical development. Finally, the crisis introduces into the midst of scientific workers a mass of ideological incoherence and confusion.
Unable to fathom the causes of the terrific economic concussions, to give a really scientific analysis of the phenomena taking place around them, and to indicate a way out all this the Marxian method alone can givethe overwhelming portion of them fall into despondency and pessimism, looking for a way out in mysticism, spiritism, religious superstition, etc.
Scientific workers are spending more and more of their time in scholastic exercises, in vain and fruitless attempts at reconciling science with a belief in the supernatural; entrapped in the maze of capitalist contradictions, in the anarchy of the capitalist system, their minds vainly seek salvation in the intercession of those transcendental powers. The most appalling and ignominious part in the effect of capitalism on scientific and technical development is the role played by modern science and technique in the preparations for wars.
The report gives an analysis of the causes which prompt the modern capitalist states to prepare for new military collisions, and the basic technical features of future wars. The report deals minutely with the incessant systematic activity going on in scientific institutions and laboratories on the preparation of new deadly weapons of warfare destined by their very nature for use not only against foreign armies, but also against the entire civil population of the country.
The greatest achievements of synthetic chemistry, aviation, bacteriology, etc. Suffice it to quote the following statement by Mr. Winston Churchill an the character of modern warfare: The organization of mankind into great States and Empires and the rise of nations to full collective consciousness enabled enterprises of slaughter to be planned and executed upon a scale, with a perseverance, never before imagined.
All the noblest virtues of individuals were gathered together to strengthen the destructive capacity of the mass Science unfolded her treasures and her secrets to the desperate demands of men and placed in their hands agencies and apparatus almost decisive in their character.
Scores of thousands of cannon would have blasted their front Poison gases of incredible ingenuity, against which only a secret mask The campaign of was never fought; but its ideas go marching along. In every army they are being explored, elaborated, refined under the surface of peace Death stands at attention; obedient, expectant, ready to serve, ready to shear away the peoples en masse; ready, it called on, to pulverize without hope of repair, what is left of civilization--He awaits only the command.
The Aftermath," London,pp. After describing the role of chemical science in this respect, and the pseudo-scientific attempts of some scientists to demonstrate the "humanitarianism" of chemical warfare, the report demonstrates how the war policy exercises the strongest effect on the whole character and trend of scientific research work.
Thus, capitalism endeavours in a "planned" manner to subordinate science and technique, the apparatus of production, and the whole population to the task of organized wholesale destruction and extermination. In this respect, the contradictions of scientific and technical development are revealed with particular force, scope, and acuteness.
Already the present state of science and: Scores of millions of workers are shut out from the process of production; they are eager to work but they cannot find it. Other scores of millions are engaged in non-productive labour, in serving the incredibly swollen apparatus of trade, advertizing, the gigantic machinery for suppressing the masses, the manufacturing of public opinion, and, lastly, catering to the luxuries and whims of the upper crust of the bourgeoisie.Science, Engineering and Technology
Hundreds of millions work from morn till night in factories, mines, plantations, burning away their stamina in a few years, turning old at 40; nevertheless, the social productivity of their labour is relatively negligible as the result of capitalist waste. Hundreds of millions in agriculture are tied to their miserable plots of land, labouring in the sweat of their brow, under conditions which exclude the application of science and modern technique, not always eking out even the most miserable existence.
Lastly, many millions of workers are still spending all their strength to pay for the consequences of the world war ofand the costs of preparations for new wars. Huge reserves of fuel and metals are waiting in the bowels of the earth to be brought up to the surface. Waterfalls and rivers are waiting tot be harnessed by dams, for the streams of water to set turbines and generators in motion, dispensing the vitalizing current of electricity.
Thousands of technical problems, quite realizable with the present state of technique are still held in abeyance. Already the present state of science and technology permits, with relatively negligible expenditure of labour effort, the subjection of the elements, erection of new cities, the automaising of a number of production processes, the rendering of labour a joy.
Yet modern capitalism cannot make use of all of these possibilities. Each attempt on the part of capitalism at the development of the forces of production creates ever new antagonism, leads to ever new and more appalling waste, destruction, crises, and wars. Capitalism cannot help it. No scientific forces can alter these laws which govern the rise and decline of the capitalist society, just as they cannot alter the laws of growth and decay of the human organism. And there is but one science which shows a way out--it is the Marxist scientific analysis of social development.
The Soviet Union constitutes the first experiment in human history of the application of this scientific analysis and scientific methods for the conscious construction of social relations, for planned guidance of the economic life, for directing the course of cultural, scientific, and technical development. The very existence and the whole course of development of the Soviet Union is thus connected with genuine scientific theory.
This year the Soviet State is in the thirteenth year of its existence. During the current year has been accomplished more than one-half of the great Five Year Plan of socialist reconstruction.
This makes it necessary for scientific analysis to sum up results, to compare the experiences of two systems, to ascertain their respective tendencies of development. Firstly, the unquestionable fact that the appalling world economic crisis engulfing with unprecedented force all the capitalist countries without exception, and all the branches of world economy, is halting at the borders of the Soviet Union. Not only does the Soviet Union not experience a crisis, but on the contrary, during the last two years it has shown a tremendous upward trend of economic development.
Secondly, this comparison shows that while the anarchy of capitalist economy throws millions of workers out of employment, the Soviet Union has disposed of the problem of unemployment, annually attracting millions of new workers into industry, and carrying out a great plan of mechanization to obviate the growing shortage of man-power. Thirdly, this comparison shows that the tempo of economic development in the Soviet Union is many times faster than in all the capitalist countries, including the United States of America, during their best periods of development.
Fourthly, this comparison shows that while the anarchy of capitalist economy increases year by year and no successes of capital concentration, no efforts of scientific prognostication can soften the spasmodic fits of this fever; in the Soviet Union we see the constantly growing and enduring successes of deliberate planning of the entire economic life: Fifthly, this comparison shows that while agriculture throughout the world has been suffering from a crisis for many years already, showing its total inadaptability to reorganization upon the basis of modern science and technique; the agriculture of the Soviet Union, for the first time in the history of mankind, is being remodelled into large-scale collective farming with the most advanced technical methods and new social relations.
Sixthly, this comparison shows that while the conditions of modern capitalism are aggravating more and more the antagonism between city and country, between physical and mental labour, the Soviet Union is taking decisive steps along the road of eliminating these ancient antagonisms upon the basis of drawing the millions of the toilers into the wave of cultural evolution, education, and enlightenment. Lastly, this comparison shows that while the development of the capitalist antagonisms leads to a distinct intensification of the tendency to check the progress of technology and science; in the Soviet Union science and technology are finding an absolutely unlimited arena for development, quite new possibilities of practical application and of decisive effect upon all branches of life.
All these deductions are based upon facts which no objective, really scientific observer can dispute. These facts may be tested by anyone, and the Soviet Government is prepared to afford to any scientific and technical worker all the possibilities for testing and investigating these facts on the spot. Notably, this report adduces a number of facts relating to the economic construction now developing in the Soviet Union in all branches of industry, transport, and agriculture.
This construction, by its scope, is without precedent in history. A number of statistical data cited in the report from official capitalist sources the League of Nations, etc. These data, which have already been surpassed in actual life, indicate the results of the contest between the two systems more than volumes of arguments.
Suffice it to observe that the index of industrial production of in all the capitalist countries has sunk below the level ofwhereas in the U. Moreover, the planned utilization of the immense natural wealth of the Soviet Union, and of the even greater reserves of enthusiasm, energy, and creative initiative of the masses, are really only beginning, to unfold to their full extent.
A declining role in this unfoldment is now attached to science and technology. The Soviet Union has set before itself the task of technically and economically overtaking and outstripping the advanced capitalist countries within the shortest historical period.
The teeming millions of our country are at the present time animated by enthusiasm unknown in history for the mastering of modern science and technique, for the gaining of knowledge which would. This alone shows the colossal importance attached in the Soviet Union to scientific and technological creative activity, to research work, to the spreading of knowledge among the masses.
Relations of Science, Technology, and Economics Under Capitalism, and in the Soviet Union
This, however, does not and cannot limit the role and tasks of science in the Soviet Union. The endeavour to overtake the technique of the advanced capitalist countries does not imply that we can content ourselves with merely copying all the aspects of this technique.
Already in the history of the capitalist world we see that, for instance, the United States, having overtaken and outstripped the technique of the old European countries in the last few decades, was forced to raise and solve a number of quite new technical and scientific problems connected with the requirements of mass production, with the gigantic scope of industrialization in that country. This applies to an incomparably greater extent to the problems which are at present raised and solved by the Soviet Union that is carrying out industrialization upon an entirely new basis and at a pace and on a scale unknown even to the United States.
Here it has neither previous experience nor examples. Already in the very process of this work it has to solve scientific and technical problems which have not yet been solved anywhere at all. As a case in point, let us take the domain of agriculture.
Already last year the average annual working of tractors in the United States was hours, whereas in the Soviet Union it was no less than 2, hours. The Soviet Union already now has thousands of mechanized grain farms surpassing all the records of the United States. In the current year the Soviet Union organizes cattle rearing ranches on a scale unprecedented in the world. It sets before itself the problem of mechanizing all the processes of agriculture in grain growing, commercial crops, gardening, etc.
It carries out planned, scientifically thought out specialization of agriculture over vast territories, each of which is equal to the big European countries by its area.
All these tasks call for the creation of new types of machines and implements, for the working out of new forms of connection between the motor and the hitching appliances, for new forms of labour organization, plant selection, etc.
Interplay of Economics and the Role of Engineering and Technology | OMICS International
Thus, the technical reconstruction of agriculture involves thousands of new problems in economics, agronomy, chemistry, physics, botany, zoology, energetics, machine construction. The solving of these problems is unthinkable without the unfolding of scientific research work upon a gigantic scale. And along with the utilization of all the achievements of science and technique of the advanced capitalist countries, utilization in many cases far more complete and effective than, in those very countries, the economic practice of the U.
The same relates in equal measure to the problems of electrification of the Soviet Union and to a number of other problems relating to economic and cultural construction. The completion of the Five Year Plan by next year i. This plan, accompanied by the gigantic quantitative growth of economy, should also afford the most profound qualitative readjustment of the technical basis of the national economy. It stands to reason chat the deciding r81e in the elaboration and execution of this plan should belong to science and technology outlining the course of future development.
What is the scientific-technical apparatus possessed by the Soviet Union for this purpose? What are the dynamics of its development, its organizational structure, its relations with other organs of the Soviet State?
The legacy inherited from tzarist Russia in this domain is even more miserable than it is in the domain of industry. Pre-revolutionary Russia had individual great scientists--mathematicians, physicists, chemists, biologists.
They gave a number of important discoveries and inventions, a number of profound, scientific theories, but all those theories and discoveries were in the overwhelming majority utilized only abroad, since neither the feeble industry nor the general atmosphere of the tzarist autocracy--that "prison of nations"--allowed the development and utilization of those discoveries in practice.
Suffice it to observe that in pre-revolutionary Russia there was not really a single scientific research institute worthy of the name. The whole of the scientific activity was concentrated in a few poorly equipped university laboratories that were detached from industry and completely isolated from the masses of the people.
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In order to furnish an idea of the growth of the network of scientific research organazations under Soviet rule, suffice it to mention that in industry alone there were: Included among these are such gigantic institutions as the Thermo-Technical Institute, the Physico-Technical Institute, etc. Agriculture in the current year was served by 47 Institutes, transport--by 10, popular education--by 44, public health--by 34, and so on. The total number of scientific research institutes in the beginning of was The number of factory laboratories runs now into thousands.
The scientific staffs of industrial institutes exclusive of factory laboratories, as well as of administrative and service personnel have reached the number of 11, In there were about 40, workers engaged exclusively in scientific research work in this country. The financing of the network of scientific research institutions in industry alone again exclusive of the factory laboratories has reached the amount of about , roubles, as against 12, in and 58, in These fragmentary data testify to a tremendous constant growth year by year.
Nevertheless, even this growth is quite inadequate to satisfy the evergrowing requirements. The Soviet Government is taking a series of measures to accelerate further the pace of this growth, of the unfolding of the network of scientific research institutions, of the training of the necessary staffs.
The enrolment of students in the universities and technical colleges, which numbered less thaningrew intoinand has to be further raised tofor Already in should be achieved the doubling of the number of our engineering and technical personnel, and the full completion of the Five-Year Plan in this respect. Enrolment in the technical schools under the plan calls for the admission ofstudents, ofstudents to the workers' faculties as compared withinand of 1, pupils in the factory apprenticeship schools as compared within The proportion of graduates of the workers' faculties in the higher schools should reach per cent.
This at a time when, according to official German data, among the students of all the higher schools in Germany there are only per cent.
A bourgeois journal, commenting on these data, observes that "the privilege of higher education is exceedingly rarely won by the sons of the workers.
Even if a young worker should pass the examination for matriculation, he would have to work to earn his living. Of the 1, lucky ones who got a stipend in there were only 12 per cent. There is a steady increase in the numbers of proletarian students taking up scientific work upon graduating from the higher school.
Prospective plans for provide for a 40 per cent. One of the most essential features of the organization of scientific research work in the Soviet Union is the principle of planning. At one time there were debates as to whether it was generally possible to plan scientific activity; those debates are now substantially concluded. The socialist plan, which has so brilliantly demonstrated its advantages in the guiding of economy, has been unanimously recognized as the leading principle in the domain of scientific work.
The whole network of research activity in industry is working in conformity with a single summary plan worked out by the Scientific Research Sector of the Supreme Council of National Economy with the assistance of the Institutes and of prominent workers in various branches of science.
The same thing happens in agriculture, transport, and other branches. In place of isolated individuals whose character and atmosphere of activity is really in the nature of petty craft: Recently a new step was taken in the Soviet Union for the planning of the whole of the scientific research work of the country at large.
The first Scientific Research Planning Conference, which was attended by over a thousand delegates from scientific organizations in all branches of science and technology, investigated the most essential problems confronting the research workers, outlined the methodology of planning in this domain, appealed to all scientists and scientific workers to join in the working out of this plan.
The Conference went on amid tremendous enthusiasm and has demonstrated what inexhaustible reserves of thought and creative activity may become available by doing away with unplanned wastefulness in the domain of scientific work. The decisions of that Conference may serve to scientific and technical workers of the capitalist countries as an example of the possibilities opened by the Soviet system to scientific thought.
For instance, let us allude to the decision to impose the obligation upon all planning and operative economic organs to include in their industrial reconstruction plans, as an organic part thereof, the realization of the achievements of the scientific research institutes furnishing them with the necessary finances and material means.
Or the decision to oblige the economic organization to set apart and attach to the institutes the necessary number of industrial plants to be transformed into experimental works for carrying out the achievements of the new technique. Or the decision to oblige all newly building large industrial enterprises to provide for the installation of factory laboratories as an inseparable part of a given enterprise, or the awarding of premiums to enterprises adopting the advanced technique and fixing legal and material responsibility for delay in the realization of scientific achievements.
No less important are the decisions concerning the publication of popular accounts by the scientific institutes on their activities, systematic travelling scholarships for practical industrial workers to take up temporary work in the scientific institutes, the inclusion of directors of scientific institutes upon managing boards of the respective trusts, the widest attraction of the trade unions to render assistance to the scientific institutes and to make propaganda for scientific and technical achievements.
Or let us take the decisions of such types as the inclusion of collective testing of important inventions and improvements in the general plan of the scientifico-technical work of all the branches of industry, transport, and agriculture; the working out of special tasks for inventors by factories and by branches of industry; the submission of plans and achievements of the Academy of Sciences, of the scientific institutes and laboratories, for wide discussion by workers interested in inventions, and so on and so forth.
In no capitalist country would it be possible to achieve anything resembling the measures of this kind. They are incompatible with the very nature of capitalism, they are possible only when science and technology become connected with the process of the great socialist construction, when the scientific workers, in organized and planned fashion, direct their efforts to the carrying out of the "social order" of the large masses of the toilers--to raise to the highest level the whole technique and economy of the great country that is building socialism.
In this connection it is necessary to observe that even more important than the planning of scientific research work is the direct organizational connection of science and technology with the large masses of the working class. This connection is now beginning to be realized in the Soviet Union upon an entirely unprecedented scale.
The struggle for the mastery of science and technique embraces already, not scores and hundreds of thousands, but millions of workers. This opens up such reserves of energy, initiative, inventiveness, that could not even be dreamed of a short time ago.