Study Questions The Civil Rights Movement
Rosa Parks: The murder of Emmett Till, I believe he was about 14 years old, good, race relations, quote unquote, because uh, much of what was done to . over the years, I had, uh had problems with the bus drivers and this one . and others spoke and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was one of the speakers. Directions: Complete the following questions using the link listed below. 7. How is the response of the community to the Rosa Parks incident a fight for civil rights? 8. According to the website, what/who inspired Martin Luther King Jr.? What was the significance of the Voting Rights Act of in relation to the Civil. Rosa Parks and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.: The Montgomery, Alabama bus black community started asking each other larger questions. The.
I don't know now how many lost jobs, maybe they didn't but it was just one of those things that was done to be more, make segregation more oppressive and to intimidate us as a people. The murder of Emmett Till, I believe he was about 14 years old, who was visiting his relatives his home was in Chicago and the news came that he had been brutally murdered and put into the river.
His body was removed from the river after it had been weighted down-and he was so badly mutilated that he was unrecognizable.
The first mass meeting that we had in Montgomery following his death was when Dr. Howard came to speak to the NAACP meeting, well, just a community meeting and he was telling us about it in detail. Jet magazine published it and we read about it. I couldn't be any way than very upset, very devastated by the in, the United States of America that a child could be just taken out and killed.
However, it parallels an incident that had happened in Montgomery not too long before this, except this was a young minister who had a singing group and my husband knew him and his mother. And he was supposed to have done something, I don't know what it was, but I think, uh, some white woman had made a request that, he had a radio program, a group of singers and seemed that she had made a request, I don't know whether it was by writing or how for him, for his group to sing a song and this is supposed to have led to him being in church with this person.
And uh, some men took him out to the Alabama River on a bridge and he supposedly jumped over into the river and they told his mother she had better keep quiet about it which she did. Her husband knew it and I guess the family and that was all. But the difference in, um, his case and um, the Emmett Till case was because Emmett Till came from the North and the media picked it up. In this case, of course, was kept very much hidden so that is why in, around Montgomery it was supposed to have been a, good, race relations, quote unquote, because uh, much of what was done to some families and I happened to be at that time the Secretary of the Montgomery branch of the NAACP as well as the uh, Youth Council advisor in many, uh, cases did come to my attention that nothing came out of because the person that were abused would be too intimidated to sign an affidavit, or to make a statement to let it be known what had happened.
Eyes on the Prize: Very few of us were registered in the early 's.
And, it was practically impossible to for a black person regardless of the intelligence to become registered except for a very few selected by the white community. Well, I was, when I would not give my money to the driver or if I put the fare in and get on the bus, the driver who had me arrested did evict me from the bus in It was those who wanted to enforce this type of uh, oppression, humiliation would rather that I not ride the bus. In fact some did tell me not to ride their buses.
If uh, I felt that I was too important to go to the back door to get on. And going to the back door after paying your fare in the front would mean sometime that people wouldn't even get on the bus at all because if you couldn't get around fast enough to suit the driver, he would just drive off and leave you standing after you paid your fare. It was, I think it was the individual drivers because some drivers didn't do that. They regarded us, even with segregation, it was uh, they didn't bother you, you just got on the bus, paid your fare and find your place where you could sit or stand.
Well, the system of legal racial segregation on the buses. The white passengers occupied the front seats and blacks in the back. But there was a guess you can say custom or practice that if the back of the bus was filled up and people was standing in the aisle, they still would leave a certain number of vacant seats in the front even if no white people boarded the bus, buses. The time that if white would get on the bus and occupy what was supposed to be the designated seats for them, they were all filled, some drivers not all, would have their first row of black people to stand though they were back of the white to accommodate those whites who were standing.
So that was very humiliating, very oppressive and even with having to take a certain section because c f your race was also humiliating, but having to stand up on, out of a particular driver to keep a white person from having to stand was um, to my mind, most inhumane.
We were paying the same fare, in fact, some black people had to pay double fare because, I mentioned earlier, if they were trying to get on the bus in the rear door, they would have to either walk where they were going after having paid the fare in the front, or pay another fare when another fare.
Well, there was nothing different about that day because as I said before, I had from time to time had some confrontation with bus drivers. But the difference that made it, this driver decided to have me arrestedEyes on the Prize: America's Civil Rights Years ; Episode and have the policeman to take me to jail. And that did attract more attention than it had if I had just gotten off the bus-on his orders. I had finished my days work as a tailor's assistant in the Montgomery Fair Department store and when I was on my way home, I noticed the first bus was very crowded, even people standing up in the front and the back and I didn't get that one because I wanted to go to the store and pick up an item or two at the drug store.
The next Cleveland Avenue bus that I saw I noticed there were I didn't see anyone standing up at that point, but by the time I walked to the bus, and was getting on, there were some people in the back, standing in the back there was one vacant seat which I took along side a man and the two women across the aisle. We went to the next stop without being disturbed on the third, the front of the bus seats, the front seats were occupied and this one man, a white man standing at this point the driver asked us to stand up and let him have those seats and when uh, neither, none of us moved at his first uh, words, he said, you all make it light on yourselves and let me have those seats.
America's Civil Rights Years ; Episode And the man who was sitting next to the window stood up and I made room for him to pass by me and I sit where I was. The two women across the aisle stood up and moved out. Now, where they went, or whether they left the bus and whether they stayed on I don't know because while he was stopping to have trying to get us to stand up, some people several people left the bus. I didn't see any white people leave. I don't know what happened to this passenger that he wanted to occupy the seat.
I don't know whether he, he never said anything, all I know that it was a man. And when he saw me still sitting, and that had left the three seats vacant, except where I was, he asked me if I was going to stand up and I said, no I'm not.
And he said, well, if you, if you don't stand up, I'm going to have you, call the police and have you arrested. I said you may do that.
And he did get off the bus and stayed for a few minutes and I still stayed where I was and when two policemen came on the bus, the uh, driver pointed me out and he said that he needed the seats and other three stood, that one, he just said that one would not. And when the policeman approached me one of them spoke and asked me if the bus driver had asked me to stand and I said yes. He said, why don't you stand up?
I said, I don't think I should have to stand up. And I asked him, why do you push us around?
He said, I do not know, but the law is the law and you're under arrest. America's Civil Rights Years ; Episode But to my mind and I had never read it in the City ordinance where a bus driver's supposed to have one passenger stand up and not have a seat or another one to take the seat and if I can remember correctly, it said in keeping with racial segregation the bus driver had the, I believe it said the police power which meant they could even carry arms if they wanted to, to rearrange seating in keeping with racial segregation.
But they were not rearranging seating, they were just depriving four passengers of a seat for one person to sit down and leave three vacant seats while the back of the bus was packed because there was black standing and there was only one white person who was, uh, standing. And he was a man. Martin Luther King's church where he was pastoring. That was Rosa Parks: Oh, the big meeting at the Holt Street Baptist Church there were so many people there that, uh, very difficult to get inside the church.
People were standing on the outside and there were number of speakers - Dr. Martin Luther King was one. I didn't have to speak, but I did stand up. We can't force them to think that way.
Were you allowed to learn to read when you were little? I was born 50 years after slavery, in I was allowed to read. My mother, who was a teacher, taught me when I was a very young child. The first school I attended was a small building that went from first to sixth grade. There was one teacher for all of the students. There could be anywhere from 50 to 60 students of all different ages. From 5 or 6 years old to in their teens. We went to school five months out of the year.
The rest of the time young people would be available to work on the farm. The parents had to buy whatever the student used. Often, if your family couldn't afford it, you had no access to books, pencils, whatever. However, often the children would share. I read very often. That particular day that I decided was not the first time I had trouble with that particular driver.
Rosa Parks: The Movie! 7 Questions for Substantive Conversation
He evicted me before, because I would not go around to the back door after I was already onto the bus. The evening that I boarded the bus, and noticed that he was the same driver, I decided to get on anyway. I did not sit at the very front of the bus; I took a seat with a man who was next to the window -- the first seat that was allowed for "colored" people to sit in.
We were not disturbed until we reached the third stop after I boarded the bus. At this point a few white people boarded the bus, and one white man was left standing. When the driver noticed him standing, he spoke to us the man and two women across the aisle and told us to let the man have the seat. The other three all stood up. But the driver saw me still sitting there.
He said would I stand up, and I said, "No, I will not. So he didn't move the bus any further. Several black people left the bus. Two policemen got on the bus in a couple of minutes.
The driver told the police that I would not stand up. The policeman walked down and asked me why I didn't stand up, and I said I didn't think I should stand up. And he said, "I don't know. But the law is the law and you are under arrest. One of them picked up my purse, the other picked up my shopping bag. And we left the bus together. It was the first time I'd had that particular thing happen.
I was determined that I let it be known that I did not want to be treated in this manner. The policemen had their squad car waiting, they gave me my purse and bag, and they opened the back door of the police car for me to enter. Did you think your actions would have such a far-reaching effect on the Civil Rights movement?
I didn't have any idea just what my actions would bring about. At the time I was arrested I didn't know how the community would react. I was glad that they did take the action that they did by staying off the bus.
What was it like walking all those miles when the bus boycott was going on? We were fortunate enough to have a carpool organized to pick people up and give them rides. Of course, many people walked and sometimes I did too. I was willing to walk rather than go back to the buses under those unfair conditions. Very shortly after the boycott began, I was dismissed from my job as a seamstress at a department store. I worked at home doing sewing and typing. I don't know why I was dismissed from the job, but I think it was because I was arrested.
What did your family think about what happened? After I was in jail I had the opportunity to call home and speak to my mother. The first thing she asked me was if they had attacked me, beat me. That's what they used to do to people. I said no, that I hadn't been hurt, but I was in jail. She gave the phone to my husband and he said he would be there shortly and would get me out of jail.
There was a man who had come to my house who knew I had been arrested. He told my husband he'd give him a ride to the jail.
He called to see if I was at the jail. The people at the jail wouldn't tell him I was there. Nixon got in touch with a white lawyer named Clifford Durr. Durr called the jail, and they told him that I was there. Nixon had to pick up Mr. Durr before he could come get me. Durr's wife insisted on going too, because she and I were good friends. Nixon helped release me from jail.
Interview With Rosa Parks | How Rosa Parks Fought for Civil Rights | omarcafini.info
Were you scared to do such a brave thing? No, actually I had no fear at that particular time. When I did realize, I faced it, and it was quite a challenge to be arrested. I did not really know what would happen. I didn't feel especially frightened. I felt more annoyed than frightened. Did you know that you were going to jail if you didn't give up your seat?
Well, I knew I was going to jail when the driver said he was going to have me arrested. I didn't feel good about going to jail, but I was willing to go to let it be known that under this type of segregation, black people had endured too much for too long.
How did you feel when you were asked to give up your seat? I didn't feel very good about being told to stand up and not have a seat. I felt I had a right to stay where I was. That was why I told the driver I was not going to stand. I believed that he would arrest me.
I did it because I wanted this particular driver to know that we were being treated unfairly as individuals and as a people. What were your feelings when you were able to sit in the front of the bus for the first time? It was something rather special. However, when I knew the boycott was over, and that we didn't have to be mistreated on the bus anymore, that was a much better feeling than I had when we were being mistreated.The True Stories Of MLK, Rosa Parks, And Muhammad Ali - AJ+
How do you feel about being called the "Mother of the Civil Rights Movement"? I accept the title quite well.