Sweden–United States relations - Wikipedia
U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets () Canada () Congo, Democratic Republic of the () Congo . Sweden ( ). The objectives for the Foundation are to ”work for the development of a relationship between Sweden, on the one hand, and the United States and Canada. Canada-North-Korea relations “There is no resident Canadian government office in the country. Korea, Sweden carries out most of the diplomatic functions not only for Canada, but also for the United States and Australia.
Maori retain only 1. The Tribunal can make recommendations relating to land other than private land which are binding on the Crown.
This 'fiscal envelope' was met with much anger from Maori who overwhelmingly rejected the proposal. This gave Maori control of approximately a third of the New Zealand fishing quota. The Crown expresses its profound regret and apologises unreservedly for the loss of lives because of the hostilities arising from its invasion, and at the devastation of property and social life which resulted.
Indians registered under the Indian Act are termed Registered Indians once called Status Indians and are entitled to benefits which may not be available to other Indians. The latter are often the descendants of Indians who were never registered, did not register as a matter of choice or lost their status under the original Act an Indian woman and her children lost status rights if she married a non-status man, while a non-status woman gained status rights if she married a status man.
In the Indian Act was amended to reinstate 'any Indian person who lost or was denied status because of the discriminatory sections of the previous Act'. Infant mortality rates have been halved since but are still higher than those of other Canadians. Between and the percentage of Indian children remaining in school until year 12 doubled to 75 per cent and post secondary enrolments tripled. Eleven other federal departments offer programs for Aboriginal people.
The Constitution Act entrenches Aboriginal rights in the constitution and requires the federal and provincial governments to consult with Aboriginal people prior to making any legislation that relate directly to them. A working group of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples recommended a guaranteed process for Aboriginal representation in the House of Commons, but the Royal Commission's final report recommended an Aboriginal Parliament or 'House of First Peoples' with power to review or veto legislation affecting Aboriginal people.
In the meantime, the creation of electorates or 'ridings' with small, predominantly indigenous populations, has increased indigenous people's chances of becoming MPs.
Sweden–United States relations
For example, the creation of Nunatsiaq in the former Northwest Territories virtually guarantees the election of an Inuit representative. Canada's Aboriginal action plan, a response to the Royal Commission's report, included a Statement of Reconciliation.
There have been a range of treaties and since the s a specific claims process has assisted treaty groups which seek fulfilment of lawful treaty obligations. There is also a comprehensive claims system for claims in parts of the country where native title has not previously been dealt with by treaty or other means.
The Cree and Inuit were found to have hunting and fishing rights to Indigenous people have an interest in Indigenous people control access to minerals in most of this area and receive royalties or compensation for mining.
As a country, we are burdened by past actions that resulted in weakening the identity of Aboriginal peoples, suppressing their languages and cultures, and outlawing spiritual practices.
We must recognise the impact of these actions on the once self-sustaining nations that were disaggregated, disrupted, limited or even destroyed by the dispossession of traditional territory, by the relocation of Aboriginal people, and by some provisions of the Indian Act. The Statement included an apology for the Government of Canada's role in the development and administration of special residential schools: Particularly to those individuals who experienced the tragedy of sexual and physical abuse at residential schools, and who have carried this burden believing that in some way they must be responsible, we wish to emphasise that what you experienced was not your fault and should never have happened.
To those of you who suffered this tragedy at residential schools, we are deeply sorry. In the American Indian, Eskimo and Aleut population was 2. Becoming a member of a federally recognised tribe requires meeting tribal membership rules and the degree of requisite Indian ancestry varies among the tribes. In the Bureau of Indian Affairs estimated that 1. By legislative and administrative decision, all indigenous people of Alaska are eligible for Bureau of Indian Affairs services and programs.
In9 per cent of the Indian population were tertiary graduates compared to 20 per cent of the total population. Approximately 50 per cent of the operating budget is administered by tribes and is used for tribal courts, law enforcement, housing, social services and education.
Our Relationship | U.S. Embassy in Sweden
Constitutional recognition and political representation In the United States Congress extended American citizenship to all Indians born in the territorial limits of the United States.
Indians are also members of their respective Tribes and these are legally regarded as 'sovereign domestic nations'. Indians thus have dual citizenship. Indians have the same right to vote as other United States citizens. There is no system of Indigenous seats in Congress or separate Indigenous parliament however the Self Determination Act and the Self-Governance Act provide a degree of decision-making power at the tribal level. Land and resource rights A form of native title has long been recognised in the United States see Johnson v McIntosh, Betweenwhen the first treaty was made with the Delawares, andwhen Congress ended the treaty-making period, the United States Senate ratified Indian treaties.
Many of the smaller reservations are less than acres ha with the smallest less than acres 40 ha. On each reservation, the local governing authority is the tribal government, but its power in law enforcement, education, taxation and water rights varies from tribe to tribe.
Much of this is reservation land, but not all reservation land is trust land. The States have limited powers over reservations, and only as provided by Federal law. There is no general law that permits a tribe to sell its land. In Alaska, native title was never extinguished by treaty, nor were indigenous people ever confined to reservations. In The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act formally extinguished native title in Alaska and provided for native fee simple freehold land title, compensation and recognition of customary rights for traditional subsistence activities.
A tier of regional and village corporations manage the lands and the settlement money. Both the Indian tribes in the lower 48 States and the regional corporations in Alaska hold the rights to subsurface minerals and have a veto over mining on their land.
Apologies for past injustices In the United States Congress, in a joint Senate and House resolution to mark the centenary of the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii resolved: Nothing in this Joint Resolution is intended to serve as a settlement of any claims against the United States. There is no official census of the Sami population which is estimated to be between 40 and 45 or approximately 1 per cent of the Norwegian population.
Subsequently political representation and cultural rights are the main items on the Norwegian indigenous agenda. National expenditure and compensation The budget allocated KrN The national budget will allow the Sami Assembly to administer its own budget. These reports and Norwegian Official Report No. In the Norwegian Parliament passed an amendment to the Constitution recognising Sami constitutional rights.
Article a in the Constitution states: The Sami Parliament was opened in and regulations for the use of the Sami language were put to the Norwegian Parliament in and incorporated into the Sami Act.
In the position of state secretary for Sami issues was created. Land and resource rights The Sami, in Norway, Sweden and Finland, have contested state 'ownership' and administration of traditional land on the basis that they never conceded land ownership through treaties similar to those in Canada and the United States.
The right to maintain reindeer herds is based on traditional use. It is a right of usage, independent of who owns the land. The economic value of this industry is minor on a national scale, but it is important financially and culturally on the local level.
The Reindeer Herding Act ofwhich replaced an older law fromemphasises both the business and cultural aspects of the reindeer trade and Sami have an exclusive right to the trade. In Norway's Chief Justice maintained that Sami people may also have rights to other traditional resources, in particular fishing rights for those Sami living on the coast and fiord areas.
Norway's Cultural Heritage Act, passed inprotects Sami historic sites and monuments which are more than years old. Apologies for past injustices King Harald apologised for Norwegian injustices committed against the Sami when he opened the Norwegian Sami Parliament in October The Norwegian state is founded on the territory of two peoples - the Norwegians and the Sami. The history of the Sami is closely entwined with that of the Norwegians. Today, we deplore the injustices committed in the past against the Sami people by the Norwegian state through harsh policies of Norwegianization.
The nation of Norway has therefore a solemn responsibility to establish relationships to the rights so that the Sami people shall be able to build a strong and viable society. This is a time-honoured right based on the Sami's inhabitance in their regions which goes far back in time.
To cater for those whose families had lost their language under assimilation pressures but who still thought of themselves as Sami, if the applicant's parents or grandparents did not speak Sami but were registered to vote for the Sami Assembly, the applicant can be registered. Socio-economic indicators In Sweden, like Norway, the identification of Sami-specific socio-economic indicators is difficult, but efforts to raise the living conditions of Sami in the remote areas appear to have succeeded and living conditions do not feature prominently on the Swedish indigenous agenda.
National expenditure and compensation The Sami Parliament's budget for the 18 month period July to December was approximately KrS15m 0. Sincethe Sami parliament administers compensation to Sami villagers for predator damage by bear, wolf and eagles. In this amounted to KrS24m. The Sami Parliament also supports Sami culture and organisations through annual grants totalling KrS10m which comes from the Swedish Dept of Culture's budget.
It recommended that the Sami be recognised in the Constitution as an indigenous ethnic minority, proposed laws to promote Sami culture, amendments to the Reindeer Husbandry Law to strengthen Sami rights, and the establishment of a popularly elected Sami Parliament.
The latter was the only recommendation adopted and unlike Norway 'came about not as part of a deliberate policy shift in the area of Saami rights, but rather as a limited concession The Parliament's main duty is to promote Sami culture and to a lesser extent Sami economic development.
It is responsible for allocating resources from the Sami Fund to support Sami culture and organisations. Land and resource rights From a Sami perspective, after ten years of joint research by Sami and government representatives, the Government's response to the above-mentioned report represented a backward step in political and legal terms. The position of the Sami was weakened legally, especially with reference to ownership and administration of hunting and fishing rights.
Apologies for past injustices Endnotes Figures have been given in national currencies, current exchange rates are: Dept of Aboriginal Affairs. Report on a review of the administration of the working definition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander. Dept of Aboriginal Affairs, Australian Bureau of Statistics.
Population distribution, Indigenous Australians. Australian Bureau of Statistics, p.
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Woollard, Keith et al. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health: Second reading speech by the Hon. Indigenous Land Corporation,pp.
Standing Committee on Social Issues. Aboriginal representation in Parliament. A chronology of state and federal legislation relating to land and resource rights can be found in: Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission. Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission,pp. Statement by Senator the Hon.
Tabled in Parliament out of session, 16 December New Zealand official yearbook. Statistics New Zealand,p. For a discussion of census definitions of Maori see: Statistics New Zealand, A handbook of Maori health data. Post-election briefingSocial Policy Branch, pp. Household labour force survey in: Estimates of approproations for the Government of New Zealand for the year ending 30 June Treasury Dept,vol.
Post-election briefingCompliance Branch. See also Palmer, Geoffrey and Matthew Palmer. New Zealand government under MMP.
‘We don’t have a single friend’: Canada’s Saudi spat reveals country is alone
Oxford University Press,p. Statistics New Zealand,pp. Information on Maori Land. Palmer, Geoffrey and Matthew Palmer. Oxford University Press,pp. The settlement was signed by the Prime Minister in May see: Sydney Morning Herald, 23 May The Bill was signed by Queen Elizabeth in November New Zealand official yearbook, op. ByChicago had a greater population of Swedes than Gothenburg. Minnesota was also a place where many Swedish emigrants settled.
Truman at the White House in The period between and also marked a cold period in the political relations between Sweden and the U. In DecemberOlof Palme then Prime Minister made a speech on Swedish national radio where he compared the ongoing US bombings of Hanoi to some of the worst atrocities committed by the Nazis. The US government called the comparison a "gross insult" and once again decided to freeze its diplomatic relations with Sweden this time the freeze lasted for over a year.
Bush in and President Bill Clinton in Immediately after the September 11, attacksthe Swedish government expressed its sympathies with the U.
In the Statement of Government Policy presented to the Riksdag on October 6,the new centre-right Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt declared that the new government will work for a "strengthening of the transatlantic link ".
Canada–Sweden relations - Wikipedia
Following President Donald Trump 's first presidential campaign rally at which he referred to "what's happening last night in Sweden " the Swedish government requested clarification of from the U.
State Department in regards to Trump's understanding of what was going on in Sweden. Economic relations[ edit ] The United States and Sweden have strong economic relations.