Originally, the field of study was heavily focused on animal behavior (ethology), but it Want to win $, to host your own conference? .. at the “big picture ” and identifying the relationship between animal production and sustainability. Dominance hierarchy is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of a social group If one participant believes he is the resident of the territory, he will win when the opponent is weaker or food is scarce. However . Subordinate animals engage in a number of behaviors in order to outweigh the costs of low rank. The win-win relationship of animal behavior is a. competition. b. predation. * c. mutualism. d. parasitism. e. commensalism. Parasites * All of the following .
Even though a system may be environmentally and economically sustainable, if the animals kept within it are subject to housing conditions or production demands deemed unacceptable in terms of animal welfare, then consumer acceptance will evaporate, demand for the product will decrease and the system of production will ultimately become unsustainable — as seen in confinement housing systems such as veal crates, battery cages for laying hens, and gestation crates for sows.
Alternatively, public antipathy may reach such a level that rather than a gradual decline in consumer demand forcing change, legislation may be enacted that outlaws the production system, either within a localized legislative framework e. Examples of such housing systems include battery cages for laying hens, crates for veal calves, and crates for gestating sows. However, it is not only housing systems being questioned. Another animal welfare concern is the potential impact of increased food production on wildlife, with decreasing natural habitats as land is converted to crop or animal farming and the culling of predators or wildlife that may consume crops or compete with farmed animals for resources.
- Dominance hierarchy
The issue of animal welfare as a component of sustainability and food security is important as we implement or adapt current systems for use in developing countries, and design new systems for use in a dynamic, economically interconnected world. Although the integration of an animal welfare emphasis into livestock and crop production systems in developing countries can also result in higher biodiversity, restoring habitat, reversing the impact of traditional production systems 30and improving QoL, the standards of acceptable animal welfare are greatly changed by the level of food security and those of us living in food secure households must be aware that our own baseline of acceptability may be quite different from those struggling to feed themselves regularly.
Finally, another often overlooked aspect of growth in global population and wealth is a concomitant increase in the global population of companion animals, particularly in those countries with developing economies.
In terms of big picture implications, this rapidly expanding population also puts further pressure on food supply and hence food security and sustainability. Increasing feral populations of companion animal species can also impact wildlife and animal and human health.
Temperatures and sea levels are rising and extreme climatic events are increasing in number. Much of this is attributed to an increase in greenhouse gases as a result of human activities, including some from animal production Climate change will impact wildlife welfare in many ways, such as affecting habitat and food sources, decreasing water availability and shifts in ranges of disease vectors 34 to the extent that many species will ultimately be at threat of extinction Companion and zoo animals may likewise be subjected to vector-borne diseases in new geographical areas and challenged by changes in thermal environment.
Climate change will also present potential challenges in crop and animal production at a time when, as noted above, overall demand will be increasing. The projected further changes over the twenty-first century are variable, depending on the projection model used, but the general implications include further increases, and perhaps fluctuations in temperature and greater variability in precipitation, resulting in reduced or modified availability of water for agricultural purposes.
So far, there have been very few studies that have tried to quantify the impact of real-life climate change over the last few decades on livestock production, and those that have been carried out are focused on modeling projected impacts of future climate change, or models of disease transmission given the increased range of disease vectors. However, under experimental conditions, it is well known that heat and cold have very obvious effects on productivity, and indeed on welfare. Heat stress reduces appetite, reduces growth, affects reproduction, decreases milk and egg production and, at critical levels, can lead to heat stroke and death Shifts in both maximum and minimum temperatures may result in more animals being exposed to both heat and cold stress events, thereby impacting their welfare.
Changing precipitation patterns may result in current pastoral-based systems having to adapt either in response to moving away from drought-susceptible areas or having to surrender high-quality pastureland over to crop production, and moving to reduced quality areas, with breeds of livestock that are not so well suited for the new, harsher environment. The changes in climate may also impact disease transmission with disease vectors, such as insects, becoming established in previously unrecorded areas.
According to these data, there are approximately 9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate much higher figures. Combined, there are 48 million illnesses,hospitalizations, and deaths These are not all animal-product related, and further estimates within the U.
Expand these estimates to a global population and the impact of unsafe food, especially in areas with limited access to medical treatment is great.
The World Health Organization estimate 1. How does food safety fit with animal welfare?
There is plenty of evidence of a direct link between animal welfare and animal health. Proponents of this theory assert that when a hierarchy is unstable, aggressive interaction and confrontations increase within the hierarchy. As a result, the dominant individual ends up fighting much more than when the hierarchy is stable and as consequence of the increased fighting, glucocorticoids are elevated during this period.
Field studies of olive baboons in Kenya seem to support this hypothesis as it has been observed that dominant individuals tended to have lower cortisol levels in a stable hierarchy than did subdominant individuals. When the hierarchy shifted to being unstable however, the dominant individual showed much higher levels of cortisol compared to subdominant individuals.13 WEIRD ANIMAL BEHAVIORS
In eusocial insects[ edit ] In insect societiesonly one to few individuals members of a colony can reproduce, whereas the other colony members have their reproductive capabilities suppressed. This conflict over reproduction in some cases results in a dominance hierarchy.
Dominant individuals in this case are known as queens and have the obvious advantage of performing reproduction and benefiting from all the tasks performed by their subordinates, the worker caste foraging, nest maintenance, nest defense, brood care and thermal regulation.
According to Hamilton's rulethe reproduction costs of the worker caste are compensated by the contribution of workers to the queen's reproductive success, with which they share genes. This is true not only to the popular social insects antstermitessome bees and waspsbut also for the naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber.
In a laboratory experiment, Clarke and Faulkes  demonstrated that reproductive status in a colony of H. Social insects above mentioned, excluding termites, are haplodiploid.
Animal Behavior/Territoriality - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Queen and workers are diploid, but males develop from haploid genotypes. In some species, suppression of ovary development is not totally achieved in the worker caste, which opens the possibility of reproduction by workers. Since nuptial flights are seasonal and workers are wingless, workers are almost always virgin, and as gamergate ants or laying worker bees can only lay unfertilised eggs.
These eggs are in general viable, developing into males. A worker that perform reproduction is considered a 'cheater' within the colony, because its success in leaving descendants becomes disproportionally larger, compared to its sisters and mother.
The advantage of remaining functionally sterile is only accomplished if every worker assume this 'compromise'. When one or more workers start reproducing, the 'social contract' is destroyed and the colony cohesion is dissolved. Aggressive behavior derived from this conflict may result in the formation of hierarchies, and attempts of reproduction by workers are actively suppressed. In some wasps, such as Polistes fuscatusinstead of not laying eggs, the female workers begin being able to reproduce, but once being under the presence of dominant females, the subordinate female workers can no longer reproduce.
When a Queen dies the next Queen is selected by an age based dominance hierarchy. This is also true in the species Polistes instabiliswhere the next queen is selected based on age rather than size.
Polistes exclamans also exhibits this type of hierarchy. Future foundresses within the nest compete over the shared resources of nourishment, such as protein. Unequal nourishment is often what leads to the size differences that result in dominant-subordinate position rankings.
Therefore, if during the winter aggregate, the female is able to obtain greater access to food, the female could thus reach a dominant position. In this case, another advantage of maintaining a hierarchy is to prolong the colony lifespan.
The top ranked individuals may die or lose fertility and "extra queens" may benefit of starting a colony in the same site or nest. This advantage is critical in some ecological contexts, such as in situations where nesting sites are limited or dispersal of individuals is risky due to high rates of predation.
This polygynous behavior has also been observed in some eusocial bees such as Schwarziana quadripunctata. In this species, multiple queens of varying sizes are present. The larger, physogastricqueens typically control the nest, though a "dwarf" queen will take its place in the case of a premature death.
In eusocial mammals this is mainly achieved by aggressive interactions between the potential reproductive females. In eusocial insects, aggressive interactions between sexuals are common determinants of reproductive status, such as in the bumblebee Bombus bifarius the paper wasp Polistes annularis  and in the ants Dinoponera australis and D. The winner of the interaction may walk over the subordinated, that in turn assumes a prostrated posture on the substrate.
In order to be effective, these regulatory mechanisms must include traits that make an individual rank position readily recognizable by its nestmates. Territoriality cost time and energy and can often interfere with other fundamental activities as parenting, feeding, courting, and mating.
For these reasons territoriality may not be seen as a benefit in all animals.
Animals must be able to reap the fruits of territoriality, while expending the least amount of energy. For these reasons if resources are abundant and predictable it would be disadvantageous to defend the territory.
On the other hand, if resources are scarce and undependable it would be advantageous to exhibit territoriality. An animal chooses its territory by deciding what part of its home range it would like to defend. In selecting a territory the size and the quality play a crucial role in determining an animals habitat.
Territory size generally tends to be no larger than the organism than requires to survive, because with an increase in territory comes an increased in energy expenditure.
For some animals the territory size is not the most important aspect of territoriality, but rather the quality of defended territory. The quality is considered to be fundamentally important due to amount of food availability and superior nesting sights.