The Importance of Learning the Meaning of Ijtihad | Pascal's View
Logical / Mathematical: Creativity in logical or analytical thinking (accountants, scientist). 6. We need to explore the relationship between freedom, unity and the .. Both of ijtihad and creativity are parts of worshiping Allah. And there is a lot of other Quranic verses and hadith from Prophet Muhammad pbuh about encouraging people to think and be creative, but not against the. Ijtihad (Arabic اجتهاد) is a technical term of Islamic law that describes The absence of ijtihad in Islam means the absence of critical thinking.
However, during this time, the meaning and process of ijtihad became more clearly constructed.
Creative Thinking & Problem Solving (RKGS ) Notes. | Faith is The Pearl Of Life
Ijtihad was "limited to a systematic method of interpreting the law on the basis of authoritative texts, the Quran and Sunna," and the rulings could be "extended to a new problem as long as the precedent and the new situation shared the same clause.
Mujtahid is defined as a Muslim scholar that has met certain requirements including a strong knowledge of the Qur'anSunnaand Arabic, as well as a deep understanding of legal theory and the precedent; all of which allows them to be considered fully qualified to practice ijtihad. They claimed that instead of looking solely to previous generations for practices developed by religious scholars, there should be an established doctrine and rule of behavior through the interpretation of original foundational texts of Islam—the Qur'an and Sunna.
Islamic modernism Starting in the middle of the 19th century, Islamic modernists such as Sir Sayyid Ahmed KhanJamal al-din Al-Afghaniand Muhammad Abduh emerged seeking to revitalize Islam by re-establish and reform Islamic law and its interpretations to accommodate Islam with modern society. They are very much not divine or immutable, and have no more legal justification to be part of the sharia than the adaat of Muslims living beyond the home of the original Muslim in the Arab Hejaz.
The ummah was no longer a homogenous group but comprised of various cultural communities with their own age-old customs and traditions. In Indonesia, following considerable debate among the ulemaIndonesian adaat "become part of Sharia as applicable in that country". Asghar Ali Engineer argues that while the Arab adaat the Quran was revealed in was "highly patriarchal" and still informs what is understood as sharia, the "transcendental Quranic vision" is for "absolutely equal rights" between genders and should guide ijtihad of sharia.
They criticize taqlid and believe ijtihad makes modern Islam more authentic and will guide Muslims back to the Golden Age of early Islam. Salafis assert that reliance on taqlid has led to Islam 's decline. The Muslim Brotherhood holds that the practice of ijtihad will strengthen the faith of believers by compelling them to better familiarize themselves with the Quran and come to their own conclusions about its teachings.
But as a political group the Muslim Brotherhood faces a major paradox between ijtihad as a religious matter and as a political one. Ijtihad weakens political unity and promotes pluralism, which is also why many oppressive regimes reject ijtihad's legitimacy.
He criticized the Saudi regime for disallowing the "free believer"  and imposing harsh restrictions on successful practice of Islam. Thus, Bin Laden believed his striving for the implementation of ijtihad was his "duty" takleef. The female equivalent is a mujtahida. In general mujtahids must have an extensive knowledge of Arabic, the Qur'an, the Sunnahand legal theory Usul al-fiqh. In order to clarify how ijtihad differs in Sunni and Shi'i Islam it is necessary to explore the historical development of this position in both branches.
Sunni[ edit ] In the years immediately following the Mohammed's death, Sunni Muslims practiced ijtihad because they saw it as an acceptable form of the continuation of sacred instruction. Sunni Muslims, therefore began to practice ijtihad primarily through the use of personal opinion, or ra'y.
As Muslims turned to the Quran and Sunnah to solve their legal issues, they began to recognize that these divine proponents did not deal adequately with certain topics of law. Therefore, Sunni Muslims began to find other ways and sources for ijtihad such as ra'y, which allowed for personal judgment of Islamic law. Sunni Muslims justified this practice of ra'y with a particular hadith, which cites Muhammad's approval of forming an individual sound legal opinion if the Qur'an and Sunnah contain no explicit text regarding that particular issue.
Therefore, the practice of ijtihad became limited to a qualified scholar and jurist otherwise known as a mujtahid. Abu'l-Husayn al-Basri provides the earliest and most expansive outline for the qualifications of a mujtahid, they include: Enough knowledge of Arabic so that the scholar can read and understand both the Qur'an and the Sunnah.
Extensive comprehensive knowledge of the Qur'an and the Sunnah. More specifically, the scholar must have a full understanding of the Qur'an's legal contents. In regards to the Sunnah the scholar must understand the specific texts that refer to law and also the incidence of abrogation in the Sunnah.
Must be able to confirm the consensus Ijma of the Companions, the Successors, and the leading Imams and mujtahideen of the past, in order to prevent making decisions that disregard these honored decisions made in the past. Montgomery Watt regarded Prophet Muhammad pbuh as a far sighted strategist.
Western scholars like HodgsonEsposito and Hart believed that he has the qualities to be a great leader; not only religious, but also political. The Hijrah to Ethiopia is an example of his political skill in seeking alliances with others. When the persecution increased in Makkah and some of his followers found it difficult to live in that environment, he allowed them to migrate to Ethiopia and seek the help of the Christian King there. The number of points is quite significant as Prophet was well aware of the important internal threat.
Even Clausewitz shares the same points in his work; On War. The Treaty also became the cornerstone of the establishment of a country based on religion, not because of skin color, language or other physical appearance.
This is very significant as the Prophet envisioned that Islam will spread to other continents, beginning with the Treaty of Hudaibiyyah that led to the conquest of Makkah. In the Treaty of Hudaibiyyah, the Prophet has portrayed his highest quality of diplomacy, and firm action once the Quraish violated the treaty.
Often his wisdom and wise judgment could not be comprehended by his Companions. However, with his excellent human and psycohological skills, they finally understood it. Again, he displayed his political character in conflict resolution in the case of Hajar al-Aswad. He resolved this dispute with great wisdom in an amicable way. He spread his own cloak on the ground and placed the Stone upon it. He then asked the representatives of each tribe to lift the cloak together. When the Black Stone reached the required height from the ground he went forward and set it in its place, thus sharing equally in the glory and privilege of replacing it.
It shows that the Prophet envisioned what will happen later, with or without divine intervention. In the wake of the arrival of Islam and the Muslims from Makkah to Madinah, a major change in the economic life occurred. The phenomenon was but part of the total change that was sweeping across the land of Madinah. One of the first things that Prophet Muhammad pbuh might have emphasized upon his arrival in Madinah to both the Migrants and Helpers, was the idea of work as a form of worship, as well as an avenue to realizing some of the finest goals of the new and fragile community.
The people were to satisfy their innate craving for food, shelter and comfort, and to realize balance and harmony in their relations with men and nature. The earth was to be thus transformed into a producing orchard, a fertile farm and a beautiful garden. Al-Faruqi, In doing so, however, the spiritual was never to be bartered for the trivial delights of this world.
The net result of this strategy in the end could only be procuring benefits and warding off injuries for the perfection of welfare in this world and in the next. At first, the Muslims used to avail themselves of the existing economics, most of which, however, were controlled by the Jews.
Because in these economics number of errant practices were perpetrated, the Muslims gradually developed a strong aversion to doing business there. And so a new market controlled by the Muslim community was shortly set up. On selecting the market site Prophet Muhammad pbuh is reported to have said: Since it offered access to everybody, including the Jews, hypocrites and polytheists, the market was bound to be affected someway by the general ambiance generated by the Mosque and its wide-ranging activities.
Of course, the nearer one to the Complex the more and the stronger impact could one be exposed to. In determining the economic, traders and buyers - additionally - were given a chance to every so often visit the Mosque, a moment or two, not only for their daily prayers but also for any other looked-for aims. Along these lines, their working culture could be enhanced and buttressed by the pervading aura so effortlessly experienced in the Mosque, as well as in the attitudes and manners of those who were patronizing it.
By the same token, it was apt then for the economic to be at a short distance from the Mosque, rather than adjacent to it, since the market was receptive to virtually all lawful goods to be traded, irrespective of their character, quantity, origin and odor. Even camels and livestock were traded there. Besides, there still existed many Arab ancient traditions in the market, some of which were quite objectionable but Prophet Muhammad pbuh was yet to openly disallow them.
The Prophet pbuh adopted this strategy in view of the fact that the revelation of Islam itself was a gradual process which lasted about 23 years 13 in Makkah and 10 in Madinahproviding instructions, responses and answers to various dilemmas and developments that the community was going through, so that the heart of Prophet Muhammad pbuh and the hearts of his followers may be tranquilized and strengthened.
The matter was as gradual and prudent a course of action as the imposition of a majority of the precepts of Islam. The misdemeanors committed in the market for the most part were related to noise, communication, cleanliness and neatness. Hence, the market with its multifarious bustling life was rather unfit to abut the Mosque Complex. Prophet Muhammad pbuh explicitly prohibited conducting trade within his Mosque Abu Dawud, tradition No.
However, due to the deep-seated transformations that the city-state of Madinah was subjected to, the existing markets proved inadequate to meet the demands of the new Islamic perceptions of work, of commerce, of production, of distribution, of consumption, etc.
A new market was thus established. In it, work was looked upon as a form of worship. Material wealth was looked upon as a means, an instrument, a carrier of the spiritual side. It is because for Prophet Muhammad pbuh, religion was not a private and individual matter but the total response of his personality as the messenger of Allah. His acts were responding to the religious and intellectual aspects of life which in present day situation covered economic, social, and political changes.
The most important social change that had been brought about by Muhammad included two political traditions in Islam - one that transformed Medina as an Islamic state where Muhammad was himself a statesman.
While in Mecca the Prophet had brought a revolution that greatly changed the societies into which Islam was brought. Historians generally agree that changes in areas such as social security, family structure, slavery and the rights of women improved not only in Arab society, but also the world over. For example, Islam rejected hierarchy, and adopted a formula of the career open to the talents.
All these would not have happened if it was not due to the creative and innovative approach that had been taken by Prophet Muhammad pbuh. In the history of Islam there were two records which showed how Prophet Muhammad pbuh encouraged creativity.
In those records two persons took the initiative to create something new. They created the wordings of zikr by themselves which the Prophet had never taught them. When the Prophet heard those zikr the Prophet commended them. Ibnu Umar is a companion of the Prophet. The two hadiths above are examples of how Prophet Muhammad pbuh encouraged initiatives and creativity.
Some basic principles practiced by the Prophet are outlined as follows: When the companions do something they were not asked to do, he gave commendation. When the Prophet commended, what he commended were the results of the work, not the person.
If the doings were done openly, then the Prophet will commend openly. Commendation was given immediately, i. Irrespective of where it was done, the commendation was given right there. He gave a ring to each one of his wives and reminded them not to tell the others.
A case when a woman came to Prophet Muhammmad and his companions and gave oranges to the Prophet as a gift. But he ate all of the oranges and did not share. When asked, Rasulullah told that the Regional Seminar on Islamic Higher Educational Institutions SeIPTI orange were very sour, so that he did not want his companions to think that he had the heart to share the sour orange with them.
They use this matter to show the wickedness of Islam. As we know, there are many reasons behind his marriages, some of which are to set the slaves free, providing protection and dignity to widows so that the others may follow, to forge friendly relations for the sake of Islam, the desire to be related to the prophet, to break a taboo and show a good example for people. When Muhammad was 25, i.
But what kind of job should he engaged in to suit his supreme character?
Ijtihad and science
So Muhammad worked under Khadijah for a trade caravan to Syria. Khadijah paid him a high fee, which was double of what she paid to any other person.
She also gave Muhammad the services of a young man by the name of Maisarah who would look after him in the journey. This example may be used by young person in choosing a career. This has not only made his messages clearer for his followers to implement, but also served as an effective tool in teaching them the rulings and methods of the religion.
In this regard, one of the most important and fundamental principles of creativity of the Prophet pbuh can be seen from his practice of the concept of ijtihad. It refers to the intellectual struggle — critically and legally — in search of answers to new problems. It is inherently creative and dynamic, and is considered as an indispensable religious duty Umar, In the process of ijtihad, a person must expend the best of his cognitive and moral efforts to achieve the desired goal.
He must utilize the existing resources and methods and consider the possibilities and implications of his decision. In other words, the person must not only attempt to express novel ideas for solving problems or satisfying needs, but the solution proposed must also be appropriate and suitable to be implemented.
Thus towards a certain extent, the concept of ijtihad coincides with that of creativity in terms of definition Sternberg, Similarly, both require expertise; whether technical, procedural and intellectual knowledge, flexible thinking skills and high level of motivation to be successfully implemented Harvard, Yet, ijtihad implies on the ethical and legal dimensions of Islam as a means of deriving at a specific religious ruling.
It also requires a certain set of skills and sound knowledge of the religious methods and its sources. In his capacity as a prophet and religious leader of the Muslims, the Prophet pbuh also practiced ijtihad in many instances throughout his life.
For example, at the dawn of Islam in Mecca, the Prophet pbuh has carefully strategized his method of propagating Islam to his people. He has also chosen the house of al-Arqam as the meeting place with his followers. Thus, he was able to attract a considerable number of followers amongst his family members, relatives and close friends for three years before he was ordered by Allah SWT to propagate openly to the Meccan people al-Buti, In doing so, the Prophet has demonstrated the excellent qualities of a religious leader, who was not only focused towards spreading the message of Islam but also considerate enough to ensure the safety of his followers apart from assessing the political and social conditions of Mecca at that time and planning for the future.
Nonetheless, if the policy or decision made by the Prophet pbuh was deemed by Allah SWT as not the best of choices, the revelation also served to remind him of his ultimate objective. For example, in the aftermath of the Battle of Badr, the Prophet has decided, after consulting his Companions, to allow each of the prisoners captured during the battle to redeem themselves through material means.
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However, Allah SWT has reminded him that it was not commendable since many of the prisoners were arch enemies of Islam and by allowing their release might be harmful for the religion of Islam and Muslims. In addition, the prophet has also inculcated the concept of ijtihad amongst his Companions. In a hadith, the Prophet has actively encouraged the creative process of ijtihad by promising rewards to whoever practiced it regardless of the outcome.
Yet, to exercise ijtihad in the religious domain requires fulfillment of a number of conditions. Thus, the Prophet often used creative measures in attempting to reflect the understanding of his Companions on this important religious precept.
If a claimant comes to you for legal recourse, what judgment would you give? I would deliver the judgment in the light of the Quran. Again the Prophet asked him: I would act on the way the Messenger of Allah has done and deliver the judgment according to that.
Once more the Prophet asked: What if the solution is not found even in my practice? In such a situation I would exercise ijtihad. These questions are fundamental in nature as they reflect the principles of deriving the religious rulings on a certain matter based on the religious sources.
Some of his Companions understood his order literally and they did not pray until they arrived at the place of Quraizah.