Industrialization Immigration & Urbanization during the Gilded Age: APUSH by Cheyenne S on Prezi
Relationship Industrialization, Urbanization, and Immigration Between when New England textile mills employed thousands to turn the raw. Discover the connection between industrialization and urbanization and learn how economic growth increases the demand for city amenities. The industrial Revolution, starting in late 18th century, had a significant urbanizing effect. Industrialization is the basic driving force of urbanization and.
Streetcars helped, to an extent, but passenger lines that centered on downtown neighborhoods left large areas that could be occupied with housing for a growing working population, provided that these residents had their own way to get around.
It also revolutionized the entire concept of American production. He would make a market for his cars by producing them so cheaply that nearly every American could afford one. Ford could achieve both quality and a low price at scale because of the assembly line. In the same way that a single carcass was picked apart by men with specialized jobs as it moved along a line, mounted upon a hook, Ford arranged his new factory at Highland Park so that men with highly specialized assignments could build an automobile much faster than before.
The assembly line moved work to the men rather than forcing men to move to the work, thereby saving valuable time and energy. It also extended the concept of the division of labor to its logical extreme so that workers would only perform one function in a much larger assembly process all day, every day.
The applicability of these principles to the manufacturing of just about everything is what made Ford such an important figure in the history of industrialization. Mass production became possible for all kinds of things that had once seemed far removed from the automobile. Ford built Model Ts at three different facilities over the entire history of that vehicle.
He improved his production methods over time which included introducing and improving upon the assembly line so that he could produce them more cheaply and efficiently. Efficiency depended on speed, and speed depended upon the exact place in the factory where those machines were placed. Because Ford made only one car, he could employ single-purpose machine tools of extraordinarily high quality. The company also used lots of other automated manufacturing equipment, like gravity slides and conveyors, to get parts of the car from one place to another in its increasingly large, increasingly mechanized factories.
Because the assembly line moved the work to the men rather than the men to the work, the company could control the speed of the entire operation. Like earlier manufacturers, Ford depended upon standardized, identical parts to produce more cars for less, but the assembly line also made it possible to conserve labor—not by mechanizing jobs that had once been done by hand, but by mechanizing work processes and paying employees just to feed and tend to those machines.
This was not fun work to do. Before Ford came along, cars were boutique goods that only rich people could afford to operate. After Ford introduced the assembly line actually a series of assembly lines for every part of the carlabor productivity improved to such a degree that mass production became possible. Perhaps more important than mass production was mass consumption, since continual productivity improvements meant that Ford could lower the price of the Model T every year, while simultaneously making small but significant changes that steadily improved the quality of the car.
Industrialization, Urbanization, and Immigration - nashennSSpraxis 12
Mass production eliminated choice, since Ford produced no other car, but Ford built variations of the Model T, like the runabout with the same chassis, and owners retro-fitted their Model Ts for everything from camping to farming. The increased number of automobiles on city streets further congested already congested downtown areas.
Pedestrians died in gruesome traffic accidents. One of the basic requirements of having so many new cars on the roads was to improve the quality and quantity of roads.
Local city planners tended to attack such problems on a case-by-case basis, laying pavement on well-traveled roads and widening them when appropriate. New traffic rules, such as the first one-way streets, appeared in an effort to alleviate these kinds of problems.
Traffic control towers and traffic lights—the mechanical solution to a problem inspired by industrialization—also appeared for the first time during this era. Cities grew when industries grew during this era. Since people had to live near where they worked and few people lived in skyscrapersmany builders built out into undeveloped areas.
If a city had annexed much of the land around it previous to these economic expansions like Detroitthose areas became parts of a larger city. Chicago was so confident of further growth during this period that it built streetcar lines into vacant fields.
To meet rising demand for housing, homebuilders applied industrial principles to building—using standardized parts that were themselves the result of mass production techniques. By the s, buying pre-cut mail order houses became big business. The Origins of Mass Production Aftermechanization made factories even more productive thanks to technological improvements.
The electrical and chemical industries formed the vanguard for the blending of science and the useful arts during this era. By the s, engineers had been formally integrated into the management hierarchies of countless American industries. Reorganization of production merged with technological improvement had made mass production possible long before Ford developed the assembly line.
By the end of that decade, it could producecigarettes in a day. By the s, mass production had arrived in industries that produced goods that were much more expensive than cigarettes. Among the other manufacturers that used Fordist principles during the s were the makers of home appliances, like refrigerators and radios. General Electric, for example, built an eighteen million dollar assembly line for its Monitor Top refrigerator and sold a million refrigerators just four years after its introduction in People who moved from farms to cities desperately needed furniture for their new urban residences, but in industrial towns like Grand Rapids, Michigan, they could not afford pieces made by craftsman.
New mass-produced models made with minimal carving and overlays, based on stylish patterns, found a market all over the country. It helped that companies like Bassett, founded in Virginia indiscouraged their workers from forming unions, just like Ford did. An unorganized workforce made it easier for industrialists to impose changes in the production process without resistance from employees. The changeover from the Model T to the Model A, indemonstrated the limits of industrialized mass production.
The Model A was incredibly expensive, and Ford had to shut his main plant for months to retool the production line for his new models. While the new car sold well initially, sales dropped precipitously as the Depression deepened.
Urban building slowed precipitously during the Depression too. Since cities were the focal points of industrialization, urban citizens suffered disproportionately when production waned.
Of course, when the United States sank into the economic downturn of the Great Depression, both urban and industrial growth decreased sharply. Discussion of the Literature It is difficult to cite previous scholarship on either industrialization or urbanization from precisely the — period because both these trends pre- and post-date this period. Equally importantly, both are so broad, in the sense that they encompass all kinds of industries and locations that they include a huge range of books and other sources.
While none of the following suggestions are exact fits for these subjects during this time, they are all worth reading because they cast at least some light on industrialization and urbanization during this particular time period. It covers a few very important industries in detail like automobile manufacturingbut it is at its best when dealing with the similarities in production technologies from industry to industry.
My own Industrialization and the Transformation of American Life is a simplified introduction to these principles and a summary of their effects on many aspects of American history during this period, including urbanization.
My own Refrigeration Nation is a close study of the American ice and refrigeration industries. The best works of urban history published since then tend to deal with particular cities or with the relationship between cities and surrounding suburban communities.
Building Suburbia by Dolores is a detailed work that covers a similar subject over the same time period. Chicago and the Great West is the classic explanation of the relationship between the fastest-growing city of the late 19th century and all the natural resources that surrounded it. Early labor history, for example, was often written by economists.
Therefore, it showed a tendency towards looking at the effects of technological change upon workers. Early sociologists who practiced during this period used to do field work in the cities where their universities were located. While a return to this kind of study seems unlikely, more attempts to study the broader economic forces that made social change happen would likely be appreciated by scholars working in multiple disciplines.
Primary Sources and Links to Digital Materials The best place to start any study of the — period is to look at the published literature during that time. Luckily, because any book or magazine published before is in the public domain, people searching in the United States can find primary sources on just about any topic by searching on Google Bookswith their Advanced Book Search.
A broad search will bury you in relevant material, so you may have to do a lot of reading before you find hits that match your topic exactly. With respect to industrialization, trade journals, like Iron Age or Electrical Worldare particular helpful for understanding the exact technological changes that took place during these years. Many such periodicals are available in full on Google Books, but to find articles on a particular topic can require enough patience to search inside the bound volumes of those journals one year at a time.
Nevertheless, the fact that, only a few short years ago, one had to travel to a major research library in order to read them at all, demonstrates the wonders of digitization. Chronicling Americathe online repository of the Library of Congress for digitized American newspapers is a particularly important resource for studying urban history during this era.
Begin with their Advanced Search tab, and you can limit the results to papers from the state or city of your choice. While they currently have few papers from a city as big as Chicago, they are strong on papers from New York City and Washington, D. The excellent online resources of the Library of Congress include a collection of Panoramic Maps of cities and towns of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. American businesses, including those that go as far back as this period, tend to restrict access to their archives by outsiders for legal reasons.
Industrialization and Urbanization in the United States, 1880–1929
Even if you can see materials that no historian has seen before, there is a good chance that these materials will not be processed, which will make using them much harder. Therefore, many studies of industrialization on the ground during this era center on the few large companies whose records are available. Further Reading Braverman, Harry. Labor and Monopoly Capitalism: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century. Monthly Review Press, The Managerial Revolution in American Business.
Harvard University Press, Chicago and the Great West. Green Fields and Urban Growth, — The Response to Industrialism — University of Chicago Press, From the American System to Mass Production, — Johns Hopkins University Press, The Suburbanization of the United States.
Oxford University Press, Edison, Westinghouse, and the Race to Electrify the World. A Nation of Steel: The Making of Modern America — Science, Technology, and the Rise of Corporate Capitalism. Social Meaning of a New Technology, — The Rise of Big Business — Industrialization and the Transformation of American Life: Warner, Sam Bass, Jr.
A History of the American City. McGraw Hill, Sharpe, On regional differences see Sam Bass Warner Jr. Misa, A Nation of Steel: The Making of Modern America, — Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Wright, Economic History of the United States, Jill Jonnes, Empires of Light: Random House, Oxford University Press, Ernest Freeberg, The Age of Edison: Penguin, Alice Sparberg Alexiou, The Flatiron: Thomas Dunne, Misa, A Nation of Steel, Rees, Industrialization and the Transformation, Riis, How the Other Half Lives: Belknap, Basic Books,— Hounshell, From the American System, Vintage, ; Richard R.
Bythe nation had only 25 cities with more than 50, people. Bythere were 58 cities that size with nearly 12 million people. Most were in the Northeast and near the Great Lakes. The vast majority of cities grew with only minimal, if any planning. Most choices about land use and construction were made by individual landowners, developers, and builders who wanted to make large profits.
Consequences of Rapid Urbanization On the positive side, urbanization brought new jobs, new opportunities, new housing, and new transportation; but on the negative side, urbanization gave rise to widespread urban poverty, sub-standard housing, environmental degradation, increasing crime and violence, violent clashes between labor and management, and political corruption.
Housing problems… Urbanization in the late s was especially bad in New York City. Then a leader built public support by spending tax funds on various charities, helping the poor, and funding construction projects. The poor and those receiving jobs and construction contracts, in turn, were expected to vote for the politicians. When helping construction businesses, city governors expected kick backs from the already inflated construction budgets, as well as votes.
It all worked like a well-greased machine. When a machine amassed great power - as it did in New York City, it would often have a well-known boss. Major Factors for Immigration Push - The forces that push - either through encouragement or force - people to immigrate.
Encouraging push factors include diminishing land resources, unemployment, poverty, drought, economic depression.
Forceful push factors include enslavement and imprisonment. Pull - The attractive forces that pull persons to search out a new life in a distant place. These can political, ideological, and economic - but again, most pull factors are economic. The progress that accompanied urbanization came at a high cost to Americans.
On the positive side, urbanization brought new jobs, new housing opportunities, modern building construction and transportation techniques, and more consistent wages. On the negative side, urbanization gave increasing impetus to racial and class conflict, widespread poverty, environmental degradation, violent clashes between union workers and their corporate managers, inadequate housing, crime, and political corruption.
The corporate industries of late 19th Century America were the first beneficiaries of the welfare state.