Sagittal suture - Wikipedia
In Figure 3, B and A mark the middle [and extremity] of the coronal suture on the left and the sagittal suture meets the coronal, the os frontis is thinner and weaker nose and presses the middle finger straight down upon the top of the head. The 'suture' is the 'meeting point' of the osteogenic fronts of two adjacent bones. The maintenance The lambdoid, sagittal and coronal sutures fuse around 40 years of age. Sutures .. New York: Oxford University Press; pp. 35– The black and yellow dashed lines indicate frontal and parietal bones respectively; the coronal and sagittal sutures are indicated by black and purple.
October 29, Citation: J Forensic Res 3: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Cranial suture closure is one trait that has been used since the 16th century for age estimation after 2nd decade of life.
There exists considerable debate about its applicability and reliability in age estimation. To find out the pattern of cranial vault suture closure in relation to age in 3rd to 5th decades of life; to detect bilateral and bisexual variations in cranial suture closure; and to specify any relationship between progression of union of cranial suture and age.
November to October All the autopsy cases, between 21 to 50 years of age were studied for relation between age and cranial suture closure.
Ectocranial and endocranial closure pattern were studied for sagittal coronal and lambdoid sutures. Endocranial fusion of cranial suture was more regular than ectocranial fusion, and was observed as early as years. Coronal suture was the first to fuse. Closure was found earlier in females compared to males. No definite correlation was found to exist between age and suture closures.
Keywords Age; Cranial sutures; Suture closure; Forensic anthropology; Endocranial; Ectocranial; Suture Introduction Assessment of suture closure for age estimation dates back towhen Krogman concluded that suture closure seems promising for age estimation despite a deficiency in the amount of study devoted to suture obliteration [ 1 ].
Dwight identified that the posterior portion of sagital suture and inferior portion of coronal suture shows first sign of obliteration, lambdoid closes slower than coronal and the frontal suture is the last to close [ 2 ]. This means that when inspecting a human skull, if the suture is still open, one can assume an age of less than twenty-nine.
Conversely, if the suture is completely formed, one can assume an age of greater than thirty-five. The bregma is formed by the intersection of the sagittal and coronal sutures. The vertex is the highest point on the skull and is often near the midpoint of the sagittal suture. At birth, the bones of the skull do not meet.
If certain bones of the skull grow too fast then "premature closure" of the sutures may occur. This can result in skull deformities. If the sagittal suture closes early the skull becomes long, narrow, and wedge-shaped, a condition called scaphocephaly. InVirchow hypothesised about the pattern of growth across a fused suture.
These clinical entities are now named after them. This process involves mesenchymal cell proliferation and subsequent differentiation into osteoblasts at the bone margins. The maintenance of a suture relies on sufficient new bone cells being recruited into the bone fronts as well as undifferentiated cells within the suture. In the postnatal period, these sutures allow the much needed growth of the infant brain that almost doubles in volume in the first 6 months.
The sutures serve as growth sites where new bone is deposited in response to the continuing separation of the osteogenic fronts between the opposing bones.
Virchow believed,[ 13 ] this is due to abnormality in the suture itself, whereas Moss blamed the abnormal development of the cranial base, which affects the suture through the dural attachment.
Biomechanical forces and genetically determined local expression of growth factors have been implicated in the aetiology of craniosynostosis. These events lead to the development of abnormal shapes of the skull depending upon the timing, location and multiplicity of the sutures involved. The orbital shape and volume may be affected leading to exophthalmoses or corneal exposure and ocular muscle imbalance.
Three of the five major cranial sutures are paired, i.