Brundtland Report/Chapter 2. Towards Sustainable Development - Wikisource, the free online library
"Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." businesses, civil society and people everywhere all have a role to play. Discover. Sustainable development is defined as “development that meets the needs of the It was an important step toward future dialog and active participation of civil for today's population and to continue to meet the needs of future generations. in the Interagency Consultation on Population and Sustainable Development, organized by UNFPA on . in June , but it also bears important lessons for the discussions of the international related policies, in order to meet the needs of.
Third, redistributive policies cannot be so precisely targeted that they deliver benefits only to those who are below the poverty line, so some of the benefits will accrue to those who are just a little above it. The number of years required to bring the poverty ratio down from 50 to 10 per cent ranges from: So with per capita national income growing only at 1 per cent a year, the time required to eliminate absolute poverty would stretch well into the next century.
If, however, the aim is to ensure that the world is well on its way towards sustainable development by the beginning of the next century, it is necessary to aim at a minimum of 3 per cent per capita national income growth and to pursue vigorous redistributive policies. Such growth rates could be environmentally sustainable is industrialized nations can continue the recent shifts in the content of their growth towards less material- and energy-intensive activities and the improvent of their efficiency in using materials and energy.
As industrialized nations use less materials and energy, however, they will provide smaller markets for commodities and minerals from the developing nations. Yet if developing nations focus their efforts upon eliminating poverty and satisfying essential human needs.
Hence the very logic or sustainable development implies an internal stimulus to Third World growth. Nontheless, in large numbers of developing countries markets are very small; and for all developing countries high export growth.
Thus a reorientation of international economic relations will be necessary for sustainable development, as discussed in Chapter 3. Changing the Quality of Growth Sustainable development involves more than growth, it requires a change in the content of growth, to make it less material- and energy-intensive and more equitable in its impact. These changes are required in all countries as part at a package of measures to maintain the stock or ecological capital, to improve the distribution of income, and to reduce the degree of vulnerability to economic crises.
The process or economic development must be more soundly based upon the realities or the stock or capital that sustains it. This in rarely done in either developed or developing countries. For example income from forestry operations is conventionally measured in terms of the value of timber and other products extracted.
The costs or regenerating the forest are not taken into account, unless money is actually spent on such work. Thus figuring profits from logging rarely takes full account of the losses in future revenue incurred through degradation of the forest.
Similar incomplete accounting occurs in the exploitation of other natural resources, especially in the case or resources that are not capitalized in enterprise or national accounts: Income distribution is one aspect of the quality or growth, as described in the preceding section.
For instance, in many developing countries the introduction or large-scale commercial agriculture may produce revenue rapidly, but may also dispossess a large number of small farmers and make People have acquired, often for the first time in history, both an idea of their relative poverty and a desire to emerqe from it and improve the quality of their lives.
As people advance materially, and eat and llve better, what were once luxuries tend to be regarded as necessities.
Brundtland Report/Chapter 2. Towards Sustainable Development
The net result is that the demand for food, raw materials, and power increases to an even greater degree than the population. In the long run, such a path may not be sustainable; it impoverishes many people and can increase pressures on the natural resource base through overcommercialized agriculture and through the marginalization of subsistence farmers.
Relying more on smallholder cultivation may be slower at first, but more easily sustained over the long term. Economic development is unsustainable if it increases vulnerability to crises. A drought may force farmers to slaughter animals needed for sustaining production in future years. A drop in prices may cause farmers or other producers to over exploit natural resources to maintain incomes.
But vulnerability can be reduced by using technologies that lower production risks, by choosing institutional options that reduce market fluctuations, and by building up reserves, especially of food and foreign exchange.
A development path that combines growth with reduced vulnerability is more sustainable than one that does not.
Yet it is not enough to broaden the range of economic variables taken into account. Sustainability requires views of human needs and well-being that incorporate such non-economic variables as education and health enjoyed for their own sake, clean air and water, and the protection of natural beauty. It must also work to remove disabilities from disadvantaged groups, many of whom live in ecologically vulnerable areas, such as many tribal groups in forests, desert nomads, groups in remote hill areas, and indigenous peoples of the Americas and Australasia.
Changing the quality of growth requires changing our approach to development efforts to take account of all of their effects. For instance, a hydropower project should not be seen merely as a way of producing more electricity: Thus the abandonment of a hydro project because it will disturb a rare ecological system could be a measure of progress, not a setback to development.
Economic and social development can and should be mutually reinforcing. Money spent on education and health can raise human productivity. Economic development can accelerate social development by providing opportunities for underprivileged groups or by spreading education more rapidly. Meeting Essential Human Needs The satisfaction of human needs and aspirations is so obviously an objective of productive activity that it may appear redundant to assert its central role in the concept of sustainable development.
All too often poverty is such that people cannot satisfy their needs for survival and well-being even if goods and services are available. At the same time, the demands of those not in poverty may have major environmental consequences.
The principal development challenge is to meet the needs and aspirations of an expanding developing world population. The most basic of all needs is for a livelihood: Between and the labour force in developing countries will increase by nearly 6O0 million, and new livelihood opportunities will have to be generated for 60 million persons every ear.
More food is required not merely to feed more people but to attack undernourishment. For the developing world to eat, person for person, as well as the industrial world by the yearannual increases of 5. Though the focus at present is necessarily on staple foods, the projections given above also highlight the need for a high rate of growth of protein availability.
In Africa, the task is particularly challenging given the recent declining per capita food production and the current constraints on growth. In Asia and Latin America, the required growth rates in calorie and protein consumption seem to be more readily attainable. But increased food production should not be based on ecologically unsound production policies and compromise long-term prospects for food security. Energy is another essential human need, one that cannot be universally met unless energy consumption patterns change.
The most urgent problem is the requirement of poor third World households, which depend mainly on fuelwood. By the turn of the century, 3 billion people may live in areas where wood is cut faster than it grows or where fuelwood is extremely scarce. The In the developing world, mostly in the Third World, we realize that the main problem we have is that we do not have employment opportunities, and most or these people who are unemployed move from rural areas and they migrate into the cities and those who remain behind always indulge in processes — for example charcoal burning - and all this leads to deforestation.
So maybe the environmental organizations should step in and look or ways to prevent this kind or destruction.
Kennedy Njiro WCED Public Hearing Nairobi, 23 Sept minimum requirements for cooking fuel in most developing countries appear to be on the order at kiloqrammes of coal equivalent per capita per year. This is a fraction of the household energy consumption in industrial countries. The linked basic needs of housing, water supply, sanitation, and health care are also environmentally important, Deficiencies in these areas are often visible manifestations of environmental stress.
In the Third World, the failure to meet these key needs is one or the major causes or many communicable diseases in such as malaria, gastro-intestinal infestations, cholera, and typhoid.
Population growth and the drift into cities threaten to make there problems worse.
Planners must find ways or relying more on supporting community initiatives and self-help efforts and on effectively using low-cost technologies. Ensuring a sustainable Level or Population The sustainability of development is intimately linked to the dynamic: The issue however, is not simply one of global population size. A child born in a country where levels or material and energy use are high place a greater burden on the Earth's resources than a child born in a poorer country.
A similar argument applies within countries. Nonetheless, sustainable development can be pursued more easily when population sizeis stabilized at a level consistent with the productive capacity of the ecosystem. In industrial countries, the overall rate of population growth is under 1 per cent, and several countries have reached or are approaching zero population growth.
The total population or the industrialized world could increase from its current l 2 billion to about 1. The greater part or global population increase will take place in developing countries, where the population of 3. Hence the challenge now is to quickly lower population growth rates, especially in regions such as Africa, where these rates are increasing. Birth rates declined in industrial countries largely because at economic and social development.
Rising levels or income and urbanization and the changing role or women all played important roles. Similar processes are now at work in developing countries. These should be recognized and encouraged. Population policies should be integrated with other economic and social development programmes — female education, health care, and the expansion of the livelihood base of the poor.
- What Is Sustainability and Why Is It Important?
- What is Sustainable Development?
But time is short, and developing countries will also have to promote direct measures to reduce fertility, to avoid going radically beyond the productive potential to support their populations. In fact, increased access to family planning services is itself a form of social development that allows couples, and women in particular, the right to self-determination.
Population growth in developing countries will remain unevenly distributed between rural and urban areas. UN projections suggest that by the first decade or the next century, the absolute size or rural populations in most developing countries will start-de-lining. Nearly 90 per cent of the increase in the developing world will take place in urban areas, the population or which in expected to rise from 1.
Developing-country cities are growing much faster than the capacity of authorities to cope. Shortages or housing, water. A growing proportion of city-dwellers live in slums and shanty towns, many of them exposed to air and water pollution and to industrial and natural hazards.
Further deterioration is likely, given that most urban growth will take place in the largest cities. Thus more manageable cities may be the principal gain from slower rates or population growth.
Urbanization is itself part or the development process.
The challenge is to manage the process so as to avoid a severe deterioration in the quality of life. Thus the development of smaller urban centres needs to be encouraged to reduce pressures in large cities. Conserving and Enhancing the Resource Base It needs are to be pier on a sustainable basis the Earth's natural resource base must be conserved and enhanced.
Major changes in policies will he needed to cope with the industrial world's current high levels or consumption, the increases in consumption needed to meet minimum standards in developing countries, and expected population growth. However, the case for the conservation or nature should not rest only with development goals. It is part of our moral obligation to other living beings and future generations.
One of the biggest is globalization and how to spread the benefits of industrialization worldwide and without unsustainable impacts on water and other natural resources.
And yet, worldwide, an estimated million people remain without access to an improved source of water and 2. More than half the world already lives in urban areas and byit is expected that more than two-thirds of the global population of 9 billion will be living in cities. Furthermore, most of this growth will happen in developing countries, which have limited capacity to deal with this rapid change, and the growth will also lead to increase in the number of people living in slums, which often have very poor living conditions, including inadequate water and sanitation facilities.
Therefore, the development of water resources for economic growth, social equity and environmental sustainability will be closely linked with the sustainable development of cities. Perhaps the most important challenge to sustainable development to have arisen in the last decades is the unfolding global ecological crisis that is becoming a barrier to further human development.
From an ecological perspective, the sustainable development efforts have not been successful. Global environmental degradation has reached a critical level with major ecosystems approaching thresholds that could trigger massive collapse. The economic loss from the inadequate delivery of water and sanitation was estimated to amount to 1.
Water-related disasters are the most economically and socially destructive of all natural disasters. Since the original Rio Earth Summit in floods, droughts and storms have affected 4. July The present prototype global sustainable development report is the result of a collaborative effort of more than two thousand scientists and 50 staff from 20 UN entities from all world regions.
The report illustrates a range of potential content and discusses potential overall directions for the Global Sustainable Development Report. Chapter 6 focuses on the special theme 'the climate-land-energy-water-development nexus' with integrated assessments of the interlinked issues. Water in the post development agenda and sustainable development goals. The paper looks at 5 integral points, the first gives the basis of the discussion background: A Post Global Goal for Water: It contains within it two key concepts: Let me pause here and examine an assumption raised by this definition.
In one the two key concepts put forward, the environment is limited in its ability to provide for the needs of the present and future. That is, resources on earth are finite. However, is this really the case? Yes we all know of species extinction and biodiversity loss. Non-renewable energy in the form of coal, oil and natural gas are exactly that because once used up, cannot be replaced. On the other hand, we have witnessed the Green Revolution, which enabled India to feed its booming population without the need for increased agricultural resources.
We also know that more and more technology is available to allow us to harness the use of renewables.
What is Sustainable Development? – Sustainability X™
Thus, the reliance on finite resources can be compensated by developments in science and technology. The Brundtland Report alludes to as such: The direction of technological developments may solve some immediate problems but lead to even greater ones. Large sections of the population may be marginalised by ill-considered development. Furthermore, if development is not properly carried out, it might have considerable harmful impact on climate and the environment.
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What, then, is sustainable development really about? Sustainable development requires that societies meet human needs both by increasing productive potential and by ensuring equitable opportunities for all. In short, sustainable development is about eradicating poverty and closing the inequality gap both within countries and among countries.
It recommends a certain course of action that governments and society can take to make this world a better place for all. A more condensed definition would simply recognise that sustainable development is about integrating economic, social and environmental aspects, regardless of whether the outcome is to reduce poverty or to moderate consumption patterns. At the same time, it is not just about raising standards of living, but also about human rights, building on the Millennium Development Goals to achieve what could not be done previously and protecting the environment.