On Nationalism and Fascism, Part 1 | World Affairs Journal
We are seeing a return to nationalism because it is no Liberal revolutions were by definition nationalist because they were risings against multinational empires. These ideas have no connection to fascism whatsoever. Fascism though cannot be defined simply as just a form of Regarding its relationship with nationalism, nationalist ideas are linked with each. Fascism” and “nationalism” usually get thrown around willy-nilly. requires careful examination and comparison of real-world examples. in the exact same manner as Mussolini, the only difference being that the former won.
This principle leads to a fundamental contradiction within fascism: Eco sees in these attitudes the root of a deep tension in the fundamentally hierarchical structure of fascist polities, as they encourage leaders to despise their underlings, up to the ultimate Leader who holds the whole country in contempt for having allowed him to overtake it by force.
As Eco observes, "[t]he Ur-Fascist hero is impatient to die. In his impatience, he more frequently sends other people to death.
Fascists thus hold "both disdain for women and intolerance and condemnation of nonstandard sexual habits, from chastity to homosexuality.
As no mass of people can ever be truly unanimous, the Leader holds himself out as the interpreter of the popular will though truly he dictates it.
Fascists use this concept to delegitimize democratic institutions they accuse of "no longer represent[ing] the Voice of the People. Emilio Gentile[ edit ] Italian historian of fascism Emilio Gentile described fascism in as the "sacralization of politics" through totalitarian methods  and argued the following ten constituent elements: James Gregor[ edit ] A professor of political science emeritus at the U.
He has denied that fascism is "right-wing extremism.
Definitions of fascism - Wikipedia
The core myth that inspires this project is that only a populist, trans-class movement of purifying, cathartic national rebirth palingenesis can stem the tide of decadence  Griffin writes that a broad scholarly consensus developed in English-speaking social sciences during the s, around the following definition of fascism: As such it is an ideology deeply bound up with modernization and modernity, one which has assumed a considerable variety of external forms to adapt itself to the particular historical and national context in which it appears, and has drawn a wide range of cultural and intellectual currents, both left and right, anti-modern and pro-modern, to articulate itself as a body of ideas, slogans, and doctrine.
In the inter-war period it manifested itself primarily in the form of an elite-led "armed party" which attempted, mostly unsuccessfully, to generate a populist mass movement through a liturgical style of politics and a programme of radical policies which promised to overcome a threat posed by international socialism, to end the degeneration affecting the nation under liberalism, and to bring about a radical renewal of its social, political and cultural life as part of what was widely imagined to be the new era being inaugurated in Western civilization.
The core mobilizing myth of fascism which conditions its ideology, propaganda, style of politics and actions is the vision of the nation's imminent rebirth from decadence. Hayek[ edit ] Classical liberal economist and philosopher Friedrich Hayekin his book The Road to Serfdomargued that socialism and national socialism had similar intellectual roots.
On Nationalism and Fascism, Part 1
Werner Sombart was hailed as a Marxist and persecuted for his beliefs, but when he later rejected internationalism and pacifism in favor of German militarism and nationalism, he became an intellectual force for national socialism early on. Johann Plengeanother early national socialist intellectual, saw national socialism as a German adaptation of socialism.
Fascism, I suggest, is best conceived of as a type of regime, political system, or state on the same order as democracy, authoritarianism, dictatorship, oligarchy, totalitarianism, and the like.
That is, fascism, like other types of regimes, political systems, or states, is fundamentally concerned with how regimes, political systems, or states are structured and organized. Fascism may also be conceived of as an ideology or as a movement, group, or organization. Fascism as an ideology is a set of core beliefs that justify and promote fascism as a type of regime, political system, or state, while fascism as a movement, group, or organization is a human collective that shares a fascist ideology.
A fascist individual would obviously be someone who believes in such an ideology. Fascism as a type of regime, political system, or state; fascism as a set of beliefs about the correct organization of a regime, political system, or state; and fascism as a human collective with a fascist ideology all presuppose an existing state that should be transformed into one that corresponds to fascist ideals. Fascism and fascists aspire to change existing non-fascist regimes, political systems, or states into fascist regimes, political systems, or states.
BBC NEWS | UK | Magazine | What is a fascist?
Fascism and fascists may aspire to do so legally, democratically, and constitutionally or they may aspire to do so illegally, undemocratically, and unconstitutionally, but their end goal is always anti-democratic. The type of regime, political system, or state that fascism and fascists aspire to create is generally acknowledged to be a variant of authoritarianism or totalitarianism.
As the quintessential fascist, Benito Mussolini was the charismatic leader of a movement with a fascist ideology that proceeded to establish a fascist regime within an already existing Italian state.
Adolf Hitler, if you consider Nazism to be an extreme variant of fascism, acted in the exact same manner as Mussolini, the only difference being that the former won power in an election while the latter seized it. Francisco Franco came to power by winning a civil war.
The way in which fascists seize power may therefore vary, but where they seize it within an existing state and what they then do transform it into an authoritarian state with a charismatic leader is pretty much constant.