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We propose the synonymy of C. The results also reinforce previous observations that linked C.
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Interpretations of the population structure of these fungi suggest that host tree history has heavily influenced their modern distributions; however, the complex issues related to co-migration of these fungi with their tree hosts remain unclear at this time. Background Several investigators [ 1 - 13 ] have explored intercontinental patterns of ectomycorrhizal fungus species distributions in a phylogenetic context, but there is little information on the origin and patterns of speciation in these fungi.
Mushrooms in the genus Cortinarius, section Calochroi calochroid cladewith over species, represent one of the most conspicuous ectomycorrhizal members of contemporary Northern Hemisphere forest ecosystems [ 14 ]. Previous studies of species in Calochroi show various patterns of geographic distributions, including local C.
In most instances fungus species distributions correspond to that of their host trees within continents and often disjunct distributions across the Northern Hemisphere show a similar pattern [ 15 - 18 ]. Overall, the patterns of species distribution in the Calochroi roughly matches the range of genera of the host tree families Fagaceae Castanea, Castanopsis, Chrysolepis, Fagus, Notholithocarpus, Quercus and Pinaceae Abies, Larix, Picea, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Tsuga [ 17 - 21 ], however, a few Calochroi species form ectotrophic associations with members of the Betulaceae Alnus, Corylus, Carpinus [ 2223 ], Cistaceae Cistus, Helianthenum [ 2425 ] and Malvaceae Tilia [ 2425 ].
Host specificity of Calochroi species may be restricted to a single host species, with host-switching events being less common and often restricted to closely related plant species [ 171820 ]. Species with a broad distribution provide excellent models for examining their present patterns of spatial variation, especially where there is an obligate association as with an ectotrophic fungus.
An evaluation of contemporary geographic patterns of these species can provide a better understanding of speciation and habitat requirement as well as determine host preference and host-switching events that have occurred over time.
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To date a major difficulty in many mushroom genera, including species of Cortinarius, section Calochroi is the difficulty of identifying species [ 1426 ], which historically has been a major impediment to understanding their patterns of geographical distribution, ecology, diversity and evolutionary relationships.
There are a limited number of unique morphological features [ 14 ] that can be used to construct robust evolutionary hypotheses within and between closely related species in section Calochroi. Based on similarities in basidiomata morphology and colour some widespread species with largely allopatric distributions in the Old World Europe and the New World North America e. On the other hand, the discovery of certain phenotypic differences between European populations and their North American counterparts has led to the recognition of infraspecific taxa, for example C.
Similarly, detailed observations of morphological variation between European collections of C.
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In contrast, we also found relatively low levels of genetic divergence within and between species with allopatric distributions in North America and Europe that display substantial colour variation in major components of the basidiomata.
While, considerable progress has been made in reconstructing interspecific relationships within the section Calochroi through analyses of morphological features and DNA sequences [ 1426 ], however, further studies are needed to examine how sequence divergence relates to the separation or divergence of species over time at continental and inter-continental levels. Differences in genetic structure among extant species can be used to infer their evolutionary histories.
As previously stated, rapidly evolving ITS regions of rDNA from disjunct species of section Calochroi found in regions of Europe and North America show different levels of sequence divergence. However, to date there has not been sufficient data to draw consistent conclusions concerning the genetic variation and divergence of these species. For example, maximum likelihood ML analyses [ 14 ] suggest a complex evolutionary history within C.
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In contrast, a close phylogenetic relationship was found between species considered to be morphologically separate from one another; European C. To gain a more complete understanding of the evolutionary histories of Calochroi species including phylogeographic structure, character variation, and gene flowwe selected four species for study: Our species concept is anchored in the morphology macroscopic, chemical, microscopic characteristics of the basidiomata or mushrooms, which is the structure associated with sexual reproduction of basidiospores.
Morphological and molecular evidences show that the four species treated here are each clearly distinct from other known Cortinarius species. The four selected species are somewhat rare to uncommon especially C. For half a year inthere was an antifeudal and anticlerical peasant revolt in Transylvaniathe Budai Nagy Antal Revoltwhich was strongly influenced by Hussite ideas. From a small noble family in Transylvania, John Hunyadi grew to become one of the country's most powerful lords, thanks to his outstanding capabilities as a mercenary commander.
He was elected governor then regent. He was a successful crusader against the Ottoman Turks, one of his greatest victories being the Siege of Belgrade in His election was the first time that a member of the nobility mounted to the Hungarian royal throne without dynastic background. He was a successful military leader and an enlightened patron of the arts and learning.
Matthias' mercenary standing army, the Black Army of Hungarywas an unusually large army for its time, and it conquered parts of Austria, Vienna and parts of Bohemia. Decline of Hungary — [ edit ] King Matthias died without lawful sons, and the Hungarian magnates procured the accession of the Pole Vladislaus II —supposedly because of his weak influence on Hungarian aristocracy.
The resulting degradation of order paved the way for Ottoman pre-eminence. The early appearance of Protestantism further worsened internal relations in the country.Jeff Gutt Performs "Hallelujah" - THE X FACTOR USA 2013
Ottoman wars —[ edit ] Main articles: With the conquest of Buda by the Turks inHungary was divided into three parts and remained so until the end of the 17th century. The north-western part, termed as Royal Hungarywas annexed by the Habsburgs who ruled as Kings of Hungary.
The eastern part of the kingdom became independent as the Principality of Transylvaniaunder Ottoman and later Habsburg suzerainty. The remaining central area, including the capital Buda, was known as the Pashalik of Buda. After some more crushing defeats of the Ottomans in the next few years, the entire Kingdom of Hungary was removed from Ottoman rule by The last raid into Hungary by the Ottoman vassals Tatars from Crimea took place in The ethnic composition of Hungary was fundamentally changed as a consequence of the prolonged warfare with the Turks.
A large part of the country became devastated, population growth was stunted, and many smaller settlements perished.
The uprisings lasted for years. The Hungarian Parliament was reconvened in to handle financial needs. A liberal party emerged and focused on providing for the peasantry. Lajos Kossuth — a famous journalist at that time — emerged as leader of the lower gentry in the Parliament. A remarkable upswing started as the nation concentrated its forces on modernization even though the Habsburg monarchs obstructed all important liberal laws relating to civil and political rights and economic reforms.
Lajos KossuthRegent-President during the Hungarian Revolution of On 15 Marchmass demonstrations in Pest and Buda enabled Hungarian reformists to push through a list of 12 demands. The Habsburg Ruler and his advisors skillfully manipulated the Croatian, Serbian and Romanian peasantry, led by priests and officers firmly loyal to the Habsburgs, and induced them to rebel against the Hungarian government, though the Hungarians were supported by the vast majority of the Slovak, German and Rusyn nationalities and by all the Jews of the kingdom, as well as by a large number of Polish, Austrian and Italian volunteers.
Lajos Kossuth escaped into exile.