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KG was used for the encapsulation of LDS layers.
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The LDS layers were prepared as follows. Uniform layers were obtained when removed from the glass substrate.
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The emission spectra were measured by optically pumping samples using a monochromated light source using a luminescence spectrometer Perkin Elmer LS55B. Absorbance and fluorescence emission spectra of lumogen yellow dye. Devices were fabricated by directly depositing the LDS layers on top of the solar cells surface, using PMMA solution to glue the layers.
The deposited layers were left for three days to dry and stick to the cells. External Quantum Efficiency Measurements External quantum efficiency EQE measurement is an indicator of how well the solar cell converts incident photons of a specific wavelength to electricity. The EQE is the ratio of the number of charge carriers that are collected by the solar cell to the number of photons of a given wavelength entered into the solar cell [ 16 ].
The monochromatic beam area is 1. To obtain the AC signal, an optical chopper is used at frequency of Hz with a lock-in amplifier having a transformer that passes only the optically chopped signal to be amplified. However, in the case of DSSC cells, which have a particularly slow electron transport, it is necessary to either run the monochromatic probe beam in DC mode or use slower chopping frequencies, less than 10 Hz.
The DSSC output is passed through a transimpedance amplifier prior to being passed to the lock-in amplifier. The aim of this analysis was to validate the experimental results obtained and to gain an insight into LDS processes. This particular model was chosen because it is simple to implement and it has shown an excellent agreement with simulated EQE and measured EQE spectra in a number of studies [ 581819 ]. In this model, the incoming photon flux density was separated into two fractions, the absorbed fraction and the transmitted fraction.
The number of photons absorbed by the LDS layer compared to the incoming photons flux can be calculated for each wavelength using the Lambert-Beer law as follows: The term is a scaling factor which describes the absorption and it is directly proportional to the concentration of the luminescent species and the LDS layer thickness.
The number of photons transmitted can be calculated as follows: The effect of the absorbed fraction of light that has been downshifted to longer wavelength is described by introducing the LDS efficiency term. LDS is the fraction of the photons that is downshifted and reaches the solar cell to that absorbed by the LDS layer.
All the loss mechanisms illustrated in Figure 4 due to the LDS layer such as imperfect photoluminescent quantum yield, escape cone loss, and self-absorption are considered by the parameter. Therefore, can be estimated as follows: The reflectance due to the incorporation of the LDS materials in the matrix was considered to be zero for simplicity and any effect due to reflectance is considered in the term of 3.
Optical losses in LDS layers reproduced from [ 17 ]. For an efficient LDS layer, absorbed photons must be reemitted at wavelengths where the EQE of the solar cell is high so they can be readily converted into electricity. Therefore, emission spectral matching ESMwhich is defined as the fraction of the emission that overlaps with the EQE [ 517 ], is used in the model to calculate LDS efficiency.
ESM is given as follows: Results and Discussion 4. An excellent agreement is obtained of the simulated spectra for QD-LDS layer and its experimental data.
The improvement in EQE occurs because photons are absorbed by the QDs molecules and then reemitted at longer emission wavelengths. Downshifting in Japan In line with trends elsewhere, several studies show changing attitudes among Japanese consumers.
In a survey, 57 percent of the Japanese people indicated that they were more environmentally conscious and 84 percent preferred to buy environmentally friendly everyday consumer products McKinsey Shopping traffic in department stores decreased rapidly as did the sales of luxury goods a one year decline before the survey of 10 to 30 percent.
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Okano points at the increasing friita mentality, meaning that many young people prefer free time above the long working hours their parents were used to having. Matsuda argues in his extensive marketing study that the new generation is averse to corporate life, anti-materialistic, and far too frugal to spend. The Fukushima disaster in probably has strengthened downshifting trends. According to the survey on post-disaster consumer awareness conducted in December by Dentsu Inc.
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JFS chief executive Junko Edahiro argues that an increasing number of young people supports new values and lifestyles that are different from their elders: Summarising, I think that also in Japan people are rethinking lifestyles characterised by money and consumption and opt for less materialistic, more eco-friendly lifestyles. This means that downshifting indeed is a widespread transformation process in postmodern societies, which is closely connected with sustainability.
Studying Japanese people who actually try to reduce consumption could be very informative, because knowledge regarding experiences with downshifting and lifestyle changes might reveal new perspectives of sustainable lifestyles. Relevant questions therefore are: How do Japanese downshifters reduce expenses?
What does this actually mean for them? What do consumers see as positive and negative aspects of their experiences? And how does living with less money relate to sustainability? Moreover studying Japanese downshifters could give a necessary contribution to international comparative studies of consumer behaviour.
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This study, therefore, addresses the following topics, questions and hypotheses: The first main topic is downshifting, which is simply defined as reducing expenses, regardless the intention, voluntarily or involuntarily. In this study downshifting is operationalised as concrete behavioural practices.
Since previous studies demonstrated that the voluntary or involuntary nature of downshifting could significantly influence results, the Japan study included both voluntary and involuntary downshifters. The second topic explored is the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of downshifters.
Contrary to the popular belief that voluntary downshifting is predominantly an upper middle class phenomenon, empirical data have revealed this not to be the case. Blue-collar and white-collar workers are equally represented Schorwhile high income groups did have fewer numbers of downshifters. Finally, all studies reported that people in their thirties are more likely to downshift than those in their forties and fifties.Downshift AUS 2018 - Car Meet
These considerations led to the following research question: What are the characteristics of downshifters in Japan? Are there important differences between voluntary and involuntary downshifters? Living with less money affects important life domains because of the reduction of specific expenditures Schreurs We collected empirical data on changes in consumption expenditures so that we could explore how consumers prioritised expenses.
How do Japanese downshifters adjust their consumption expenditures, and are there differences between voluntary and involuntary downshifters? For which goods and services did voluntary and involuntary downshifters increase expenditures? Japanese downshifters tend to adjust their consumption expenditures in similar manners as downshifters in Europe or the USA. The fourth topic explored experiences of downshifting in the context of postmodern consumer society.
Downshifters reported feelings of relief or a sense of personal freedom. Downshifters also reported of developing a more critical attitude towards society and higher levels of active social engagement. Greater emphasis on caring for health has also been noted Drake Lastly, Hamilton concluded that downshifting is a change process in which money and material possessions play a minor role.
Downshifters also reported negative experiences, for instance increased anxiety over finances. Disciplined financial planning and careful spending have thus been perceived as negative aspects of downshifting Schreurs ; Drake These findings directed the following questions and hypotheses: What are the main positive experiences of living with less money of Japanese voluntary and involuntary downshifters?
What are the main negative experiences of living with less money of Japanese voluntary and involuntary downshifters? The Netherlands study Living with Less Schreurs found that voluntary downshifters were confronted with reproach and critique from their peer group, and this appears to be confirmed by Breakspear and Hamilton who also reported that the downshifters in their study received negative reactions from their social environment. These findings further encouraged us to test the following hypotheses: Involuntary downshifters have higher scores on the negative experiences than voluntary downshifters.
Voluntary downshifters experience more social critics than involuntary downshifter. Since downshifters do not live in a social vacuum but interact with their social-cultural context, a major objective of this study was to examine this interplay, in particular with regard to the attitudes: Social-cultural consumption theories in the tradition of VeblenBourdieu and the anthropologist, Douglasform the academic frame of reference for our study of downshifting De Geus ; Holt ; ; Schor ; We assumed that downshifting as a consumption phenomenon is entangled with postmodern tendencies of hyper-consumption.
In the Netherlands Schreurs we showed negative reactions and critiques from the social environment. Since all propositions in this scale address practices and not values, this measure appeared to be congruent with the general research focus on concrete consumer behaviour, and two propositions 9 and 10 measure feelings of autonomy and independence.
Based on these deliberations the following research question and hypotheses were included: What are the scores of Japanese downshifters on the frugality scale, and are there differences between voluntary and involuntary downshifters? Japanese downshifters are very disciplined in spending money and less receptive to inter-personal or commercial influences than other people. Japanese downshifters have strong feelings of autonomy and self-determination, and a strong tendency to organise their life according to their own system of standards and values.
The sixth topic in this study is sustainability. Due to recent discussions on energy shortage and climate change, the call to moderate consumption has become increasingly more compelling. Although technical solutions remain the primary focus of attention, seeking to change consumer behaviour is receiving increasing support.
This attention is not limited to reducing the use of fossil fuels. It also includes generally lowering CO2 emissions, limiting waste, and moderating the use of resources.
These steps are perceived as not only necessary but also inevitable if we are to increase sustainability Jackson ; Assadourian