CRX Community Forum • View topic - NorCal EF's vs DA 10th Anniversary Meet w/ NorCal CRX Owners
6 days ago maybe manslaughter, vs. John Scow). 8. Meet disaster in Altamont Pass (5 injured in 2 accidents). (Mrs. E.F. Aylward) auto accident victim (broken collar bone). DA says no (Coliseum) vote possible. HN. Apr Department ef Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contracf .. ences to meet the present and anticipated needs of. LLNL programs. Jun lip. NTIS $; $ (ef). From CUBE symposium; Livermore, California, USA (23 Oct ). a oil shale process bed preparation s is treated indivi necessary to meet stated. Northrop, D.A. (Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, N. Mex.
GPs were asked not to routinely contact patients who had a resistant organism reported. If patients did contact the surgery, the local laboratory report was available to the GP, as is usual clinical practice. Patients were given an information sheet explaining the study. The sheet also advised that drinking plenty of fluids usually helps to ease the burning pain when passing urine. Patients were asked to complete a symptom diary for up to 10 days, at least until they had been symptom-free for 2 days; this diary was developed and validated in a Health Technology Assessment-funded UTI study.
A similar approach to recording severity of symptoms has been used for other acute infection studies 18 and was sensitive to symptomatic change. Symptom diaries were returned in stamped, addressed envelopes.
Symptom resolution was defined as a symptom score of 0 normal or 1 very little problem for each individual symptom. To determine whether persistent bacteriuria was more common in patients with a UTI due to a resistant organism, all enrolled patients were posted a 4 week follow-up MSU kit and symptom questionnaire.
The MSU kit was the same as that used at enrolment and, as before, the sterile universal container did not contain preservative. Patients were asked to complete the request form, specimen pot details and questionnaire and return all three, in the plastic wallet provided, to their GP's surgery. These were then forwarded to the local laboratory by the normal transport system.
Data analysis showed that delivery to the laboratories was not significantly slower than for enrolment urine samples. Samples taken outside 21—42 days post-enrolment were excluded from the analysis.
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A researcher telephoned each patient 3 days after initiation of treatment, to check on compliance with the diary completion, and at 28 days, to remind them to return the follow-up questionnaire and urine sample. Details of patients who reconsulted were retained within the dataset for analysis. Outcome measures Primary outcome measures were the number of patients with symptom resolution at 5 and 7 days, the number of days to complete symptom resolution.
Secondary outcome measures were reconsultation with urinary symptoms and the presence of bacteriuria at 4 weeks. GP records for all enrolled patients were retrospectively examined for consultations with urinary symptoms in the 1 month following initial consultation. The researchers were blinded to antibiotic-susceptibility results.
Antibiotics prescribed for urinary symptoms were noted. Written informed consent was obtained from patients after a verbal explanation by a clinician. Analysis of data This was a prospective observational study, comparing outcomes in terms of symptom resolution in those women who had a trimethoprim-resistant pathogen with those where the pathogen was trimethoprim-susceptible. Factors associated with culture positivity and trimethoprim resistance were assessed using chi-squared tests and multivariable logistic regression analysis.
Those subjects who did not have the particular symptom under analysis during the study period were excluded from that symptom resolution analysis. In those patients where the symptom either relapsed or who developed the symptom after recruitment, the symptom was considered to have resolved only when it did not return. Additionally, astronauts inhabit a large proportion of this environment.
The microbial composition of ISS particulates has been reported; however, its functional genomics, which are pertinent due to potential impact of its constituents on human health and operational mission success, are not yet characterized.
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Methods This study examined the whole metagenome of ISS microbes at both species- and gene-level resolution. Air filter and dust samples from the ISS were analyzed and compared to samples collected in a terrestrial cleanroom environment. Furthermore, metagenome mining was carried out to characterize dominant, virulent, and novel microorganisms. The whole genome sequences of select cultivable strains isolated from these samples were extracted from the metagenome and compared.
Results Species-level composition in the ISS was found to be largely dominated by Corynebacterium ihumii GD7, with overall microbial diversity being lower in the ISS relative to the cleanroom samples.
When examining detection of microbial genes relevant to human health such as antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, it was found that a larger number of relevant gene categories were observed in the ISS relative to the cleanroom. Strain-level cross-sample comparisons were made for Corynebacterium, Bacillus, and Aspergillus showing possible distinctions in the dominant strain between samples.
Conclusion Species-level analyses demonstrated distinct differences between the ISS and cleanroom samples, indicating that the cleanroom population is not necessarily reflective of space habitation environments. The overall population of viable microorganisms and the functional diversity inherent to this unique closed environment are of critical interest with respect to future space habitation. Observations and studies such as these will be important to evaluating the conditions required for long-term health of human occupants in such environments.
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi: International Space Station, Microbiome, Functional metagenomics, Built environment, Cleanroom, Propidium monoazide Background The microbial content of built environments is an area of increasing study, particularly with the expansion of culture-independent sequence-based assessments [ 12 ].
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The ecology of indoor environments with continuous human contact is of great interest due to potential impact on human health; this is of particular concern in built environments that are spatially confined with long-term human occupants [ 34 ]. These environments are typified by enclosures associated with extraterrestrial habitation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA has a strong interest and motivation to understand the microbial content and ecology of these environments, particularly the International Space Station ISS as a test bed for other analogs of closed systems [ 5 ] and future human habitation on Mars [ 6 ].
Previous microbial assessments of the ISS have largely been restricted to the examination of smaller subsets of microorganisms using culture-based microbiology or quantitative PCR [ 78 ]. Microbial survey units based on detection of specific bacterial biomarkers have also been deployed to the ISS [ 9 ]. Further studies have used Sanger sequencing in an effort to identify a panel of potential pathogens in potable water [ 10 ].
Recent examination of microbial content associated with astronauts has explored the degree to which the human microbiome adjusts to habitation within the ISS [ 1112 ]. Implications of these data for maintenance of crew health are critical when evaluating design and maintenance of this highly specialized built environment [ 6 ]. These studies were coupled with propidium monoazide PMA treatment, eliminating detection of non-cellular DNA and DNA associated with cells exhibiting a compromised membrane, and providing culture-independent quantification of viable microorganisms.
These studies revealed important distinctions in diversity between the built environments of the ISS and terrestrial cleanrooms from the Spacecraft Assembly Facility SAF at JPL, demonstrating that the ISS microbiome is strongly impacted by human skin-associated microbes. Through application of Illumina and pyrosequencing techniques to targeted amplicons, these previous studies provided a broader survey of the bacterial and fungal microbiome [ 13 — 16 ].
An inherent limitation of amplicon sequencing, however, is that the wider metagenome is not examined, which limits taxonomic resolution and prohibits a study of the functional genetic content of the microbiome. Knowledge of the functional capabilities of the microbiome could be critical to determining whether the population poses a potential threat to human health.
Recent studies have just begun to explore the potential of whole metagenome data for examining the functional genomics of microbial communities associated with spacecraft in a terrestrial environment [ 17 ]. Further application of these techniques to space habitats will be critical.
It has been suggested that the immune profile of astronauts may be modulated following exposure to microgravity and space travel [ 1218 ]; thus, the response to microbial presence and activity may be difficult to predict, and a complete portrait of that activity is important to risk assessment. Of particular interest is the genetic potential for resistance to antimicrobials, as the presence of such microorganisms could significantly jeopardize health both during and after completion of the mission.