2, He will be paid his regular. Times Leader staff. ped by police during a pursuit on . In other business during the special meeting, the board learned the district is .. From Ford to Fe rra ri You r on e s top p re - ow n e d c a r c e n te r If you d on 't s e e it. 07 FO RD M USTA NG G T C O NV ERTIBLE A uto,25K. MUNICIPAL BRIEFS LUZERNE – Borough council will meet at 7 p.m. Wednesday at the borough 07 FO RD M USTA NG G T C O NV ERTIBLE A uto,25K . NEW FORD FUSION SEL Auto., AM/FM/CD, Alum. and hardwood staircase to the finished lower level with gym, game room, guest bedroom and bath. meets every Wednesday at p.m. at. 79 Bush Rd. .. Schotte Cabinet in , have grown to GtCO- Ford Escape, all extras, dark .. gym! Tennis court! For more in- formation and viewing, call Dieter.
Typically, in real time recording, the duration stamp is a constant value, for example, about 8 milliseconds. These frame stamp and duration values function to allow a playback apparatus to sequence and time the reproduced display. The audio may be interlaced with the video or may be a separate track recording. The recorded sequence of video and audio are then digitized and recorded on a video CD along with the control program described below and shown in the Figures herein.
The basic effect of the control program of the present invention is to control the rate at which the video frame is played and to correlate the playback to the exercise rate of the user on the exercise device 12 that is in communication with the system.
Therefore as the exercise rate increases, the frame rate of display increases. This creates the experience for a user that the scenery changes at a rate equivalent, or near equivalent, to the rate at which the scenery would change if the user were, for example, cycling or running at that rate where the video display was captured. Similarly, as the exercise rate of a user decreases, the video displays scenery at a slower and slower rate, until the user stops and the scene displayed stops also.
Thus the user achieves a visual sensation similar to that of actually traveling through the scenery shown in the video.
The process flow begins operationfor example, when the user begins pedaling the bicycle or walking on the treadmill. Thereafter, the program can set, in operationa cumulative time offset Tos to the current clock time of the CPU. This time offset tracks the total difference in time that the program modifies the video sequence due to the exercise rate of the user.
The program next queries, in operationwhether a stop video stream flag is set. However, if the Stop Video Flag is set, as when the user stops pedaling to rest for a period of time or stops running on the treadmill, a control passes to a wait operation Wait operation can, for example, be a process delay on the order of 10 milliseconds, after which the query in operation would then be repeated. If the Stop Video Stream flag is not set, control passes to operation In operationthe current frame time stamp value Tf is retrieved and the current frame duration value Td is retrieved from the decompressed stream data in content buffer Then the Adjustment value Tadj is obtained, in operationfrom the program sequence shown in FIG.
This is the clock time at which the next frame should be decompressed into the decompression buffer In operationthe query is made as to whether the current CPU clock time is equal to or greater than Tnext. If the clock time is not greater to Tnext, then the system continues to wait If the clock time is greater than Tnext, then the next video frame is decompressed and added to the decompression buffer in the content buffer block of the player CPU At this point, the content of the decompression buffer is copied to a frame buffer, which in this case is either frame buffer A or frame buffer Bwhichever is pointed to by a pointer.
The pointer is adapted and configured to alternate between the two frame buffers. As soon as the decompression buffer is copied to the pointed to frame buffercontrol is passed to operationwhere display objects such as the optional dashboard indicating the current heart rate, pulse icon and exercise status parameters, are overlaid into the buffer indicated by the pointer. Once the frame buffer contents are overlaid, control shifts to operation and the contents of the frame buffer pointed to is sent to the video display or television set.
In operationthe frame buffer pointer is switched to the other buffer. In operationthe contents of Tadj are added to the Tos register so as to keep track of total adjustments to the sequence. Control then passes to operation where the program queries whether there are any more video frames in the sequence.
If there are none, the program ends in operation If there are additional frames, control passes again to the wait operation and the above steps are repeated as many times as necessary to achieve the desired output. Video reproduction rate thus is modifiable by adding time or subtracting time from a prerecorded video frame duration stamp value.
In other words, the value of Tadj changes and thus modifies the effect of Td. For example, the sequence of operations in FIG. As will be appreciated from the examples below, the manner of corresponding the video stream to a user's exercise rate can be accomplished in a variety of ways and from a plurality of inputs, including a biological parameter measurement device as shown in FIG.
By way of an illustrative example, a sequence begins in operation where, for example, the wheel speed input signal from the wheel pickup is fed through the interface unit into the CPU through an input such as keypad The current speed, corresponding to miles per hour or kilometers per hour, can be obtained from the raw signal in operation So, for example, the current speed can be continually updated as long as there is a wheel speed thread from the interface unit In addition, validity checks are performed in this operation to ensure that the signal is, in fact, a correct wheel speed signal.
Control then shifts to operation where a query is made whether current speed equals the last speed. If so, control returns to operation for another input from wheel speed. If not, the query is made in operation whether current speed is equal to zero. If not, control transfers to operation where the query is made whether the Stop Video Flag is set. If this flag is not set, then control passes to operation where the video adjust factor, Tadj is set to a table value corresponding to the current speed.
Values can be empirically determined to give the appearance to the user of smooth transitions between frames and may be different for different operating systems and different video player machine speeds. Control then shifts to operation where Last Speed is set equal to New Speed and control again transfer to operation where another signal from the wheel sensor is awaited.
If the Current Speed is equal to zero in operationcontrol transfer to operation where the Stop Video Stream flag is set and current clock time is saved. The Stop Video Stream flag may also be required in operation to cover the situation where the user stops to rest after beginning a sequence. In that instance, the current clock time when this flag is set must be saved because, after the start, in operationclock time is continuously running.
Therefore, if the user stops momentarily, requiring the video sequence to freeze, the duration of the stopped period must be added to the time offset in order to keep the sequence operating properly based on current clock time. When the user again using the device by, for example, pedaling, a signal will be produced in operation This addition to Tos accounts for the lapse while the user was idle.
Control then transfers again to operation where the video adjust factor T. The sequence illustrated in FIG. Therefore this program sequence is constantly updating during the exercise activity. In contrast, the sequence illustrated in FIG. Turning now to FIGS. There are basically two ways in which the audio data is encoded on the video compact disc.
The audio data chunks may be in a separate file from the video file or the audio data chunks may be interleaved with the video frame data chunks in the same file. Either case may be used dependent upon variables such as buffer space and storage medium drive speed. A digital pointer is set to one of at least two audio buffers in operation and control passes to operation where an audio data chunk is retrieved from the decompression content buffer The audio data chunk is then loaded into the buffer pointed to by the audio pointer in operation As soon as the audio chunk is loaded into this buffer, contents of the buffer begin to play in operation Meanwhile, operation control is passed to operation where the query is made whether the audio stream is complete.
If so, control passes to operation and the audio play stream stops. If the audio stream is not complete, control passes to operation where the pointer is shifted to the next buffer and control is passed back to operation This process repeats until there are no more audio data chunks signifying that the audio stream is complete. In the case just described, the audio continues to play, even when the video slows in response to the actions of the user on the exercise device Referring now to the interleaved audio flow diagram in FIG.
First, a pointer is set to one of at least two audio buffers in operation Control then passes to operation where an audio data chunk associated with the current video frame is retrieved from the decompression content buffer This data chunk is then loaded into the audio buffer pointed to in operation and play of this audio chunk immediately begins in operation At the same time, control shifts to operation where the stream is queried to determine if the audio stream is complete.
If not, the query is made, in operationwhether the next audio data chunk is available. Thus, the query in operation is whether the next video frame has been called for display.
This becomes important when the user is slowing down the video display by reducing his or her exercise rate, e.
If the next video frame has not been called, the next audio data chunk will not be available. In this case, operation transfers control back to operation and the current audio data chunk is replayed. Once the next video frame is called, the query in operation will transfer control to operation where the pointer is set to another buffer.
Control then transfers back to operation to get another audio data chunk and operations,and are repeated until the last of the audio stream is processed. In this case, control is transferred to operation where the audio play is stopped.
The audio buffers provide a smooth sequencing of audio chunk play. In the present invention, a plurality of audio can be played with the video. For example, a first audio can be played at a constant rate independent of the video frame, while a second audio is played at a rate which corresponds to the rate at which the video is played. This facilitates a first audio pitch and tempo remaining a pleasing audio signal, as would be perceived at the location while a second audio pitch changes to correspond to the pace at which footfalls, for example, would occur at the rate of exercise perceived by the user, while a third audio can occur at a rate intended to mimic a training pace or quickening pace of a training partner in response to a differential input by a user or calculated based on user parameters such as age, health and training objectives.
Also, as the user slows down, the on-location sounds would not change appreciably. However, the audio volume could be made to increase or decrease as the user increases or decreases speed respectively. Therefore looping these audio chunks of wind and road noise back during slow exercise periods as described in FIG. Additionally, the audio of, for example, the sounds of footfalls can further be divided into individual sound packets that are played in bursts at a tempo or pace corresponding to the desired pace without altering the rate or speed of audio.
Alternatively, an audio of a series of, for example, footfalls which includes a footfall followed by an interval of silence before a subsequent footfall and so on can be alternately speeded up during the intervals of silence only. Another variation, shown in FIGS. The prerecorded video may include coded data for setting the exercise device to predetermined resistance values.
In this case, the program would include a control thread which accesses the control data associated with the video frame which sets the resistance. This data would then be translated into setting values which would be transmitted to the servomotor or stepper motor connected to the resistance control such as resistance wheel on the exercise stand. The interface unit can be adapted and configured to include a battery, a programmable interrupt controller PIC or processor, a biological parameter measurersuch as a heart rate receiver tuned to the transmission frequency of the heart rate transmitter, a series of shift registers, a 10 MegaHertz clock, wheel speed input terminals which mate with the contacts on the exercise machine 12, and a nine pin output connector which connects the interface unit to a controller keypad The PIC processor can, for example, be an 8 bit device, which processes the incoming tics, or beats from the wheel speed sensor and the ticks from the output of the heart rate receiver.
The shift registers in the interface unit convert the data from the PIC Processor to 32 bit words for compatibility of communication with a player. The interface unit 32 is adapted and configured to collect data from the heart rate and wheel speed inputs and transmits the heart rate and wheel speed data to the player when queried by the main program.
Provision may also be included in the interface unit for providing a signal to a stepper motor or servomotor on the exercise device to vary the resistance provided by the resistance roller. When the user turns on the player activates the playing of a video, the interface unit processor starts in operation The output rolls over at This equates to a rollover time of about a maximum of 2 milliseconds. Operation initializes several flags and registers to zero.
Specifically, a load pulse flag, a heart beat flag, a heart tic flag, a wheel rotation flag and a wheel tic flag are set to zero. Also, a heart count register, a heart store register, a wheel count register, and a wheel store register are set to zero. The heart count registers and wheel count registers are used to accumulate time tics between input pulses from the heart rate receiver and the wheel rotation reed switch as will become more apparent below. Control then transfers to operation where the run time crystal clock is set to This clock then counts up to and then rolls over to zero and continues counting torolling over, and repeating.
This works out to about 2 milliseconds between rollovers. Control then shifts to operation where the query is made whether the RTCC has rolled over. The actual query is whether the RTCC is less than If yes, the RTCC is reset to 99 in operation and the heart tic and wheel tic flags are set in operation Control then proceeds to operation If the RTCC has not yet rolled over, control passes directly to operation without passing through operations and Operation queries whether a load pulse flag has been set by the control program.
This flag will be set if the program is ready to receive input from the interface unit In this case, control transfers to operation where the interface unit 32 output registers are loaded with the contents of the heart store and wheel store registers.
These output registers are then immediately read by the operating system through the connection through a user input interface, such as keypad Whether or not the load pulse flag is set by the player, control then passes to operation where the query is made whether a heartbeat flag has been set, i. If a beat has been received, control passes to operation where the heart count register contents are transferred to the heart store register.
Then, in operationthe heart count register is reset to zero and the heart beat flag is reset in order to sense another heartbeat.
Control then proceeds from operation to operation If no heartbeat has been received in the heart rate receiver, and thus the heart beat flag is not set, operation transfers directly to operation In operation using a bicycle, for example, as exercise device 12, a query is made whether the wheel rotate flag has been set by passage of a wheel magnet past a reed switch.
If not, control passes to operation If the wheel rotate flag is set, control passes to operation where the contents of the wheel count register are moved to the wheel store register. Control then transfers to operationwhere the wheel count register is set to zero and the wheel rotate flag is reset in order to sense receipt of another wheel rotation.
Operation queries whether the heart tic flag is set. If so, control transfers to operation where the heart count register is incremented and the heart tic flag is reset. Control then transfers to operation If the heart tic flag is not set, operation transfers control directly to operation Operation queries whether the wheel tic flag is set.
If so, control transfers to operation where the wheel count register is incremented and the wheel tic flag is reset. Control then passes back to operation If the wheel tic flag is not set, operation passes directly back to operation The sequence of operations described in FIG.
The net effect of the sequence is to constantly update the heart count, wheel count, heart store, and wheel store registers as wheel rotations and heart beats are received. This information is passed into the output registers for transmission to the control system whenever the control program requests input which is about 60 times per second.
It is to be understood that the above description is exemplary of one embodiment only. As will be appreciated by this disclosure similar logic can be applied to other exercise devices to achieve similar results. Other programmed method variations and equivalents for providing the above exercise device and user input to the playing device will become readily apparent to those skilled in the art.
In addition, other playing devices may be utilized in place of the system. For example, an MPEG-2 compatible player coupled to a personal computer may be used, or another CD player using a different operating system such as a Sony video game CD player. In these cases, the hardware in the interface unit may have to be modified to achieve bit compatibility with the particular player input devices. However, the basic logic flow of the example described above could still apply.
Many of the above methods related to type and characteristic of the audio footfall file played back also apply in this type of implementation. Examples Example 1 In one example, the pace of the video stream changes with the pace of the footsteps which corresponds to the rate at which a user is exercising as described above.
The rate of the correlated audio can be set-up to increase as a user increases the speed at which the user performs. Thus, the pace of the video, i. In the s, surfing made a comeback. Two different clubs helped revive the sport. The sport caught on in both Hawaii Hawaii is a group of islands.
Some of the favorites among and California and soon, surf surfers include Oahu and Maui. California and Hawaii are still the most popular places to surf in the United States today.
Duke Kahanamoku helped teach people in Hawaii and California how to surf. Here he is in with his surfboard in Hawaii. The boards weighed around pounds.
In the early s, surfer Tom Blake patented a hollow surfboard. Because it was lighter, it was easier to carry, which allowed more people to surf. He later added a fin to the board, which helped with steering and angling. By the late s, wood was being replaced with foam and fiberglass, which were lighter still and could be shaped more easily.
Skimboarding starts on the shore, where the surfer waits for the right wave to approach. When it does, the person throws the board across the sand toward the water, jumps on it, and attempts to ride the wave back to shore.
Like stand-up surfers, bodyboarders can also ride the tube, or inside, of a wave. Boards are now made in different sizes, depending on the tricks or stunts to be performed. For instance, longboards which are usually more than 9 feet long are used for smaller waves and by beginners, since they are steadier than Tom Blake was the first to create a hollow surfboard, take photographs while surfing, add fins to surfboards, and write a book exclusively on surfing, called Hawaiian Surfboard.
Many seasoned surfers also enjoy surfing on longboards. Shortboards around 5 feet, 8 inches to 6 feet, 10 inches long are harder to stand on but better for trick riding.
Bodyboards, or boogie boards, which became popular in the s, are small boards that people ride while lying on their belly.
Professional surfers have their boards custom made just for them. Bishop Museum Three skimboards. Fun boards seen here above on the right are shorter than longboards shown above on the left but larger than shortboards. Fun boards are usually between 7 and 9 feet long and are best to use when the waves are smaller.
Most surfers today need only a board and a wetsuit to protect themselves from the cold water. Many surfers also wear an ankle strap with a flexible cord on it, called a leash, which connects them to their surfboard. They wax their boards to help keep from slipping off.
Some protect their feet from rocks and barnacles by wearing booties. Big-wave surfers don t always paddle out to the waves on their boards anymore. They are often taken out to the swells by Jet Ski, and then towed into the waves. Another form of surfing, called stand-up or paddle surfing, uses a board 12 feet or longer and a paddle.
Since the surfer remains standing at all times, the paddle is used to get through the waves and to steer. Two early influential female surfers were Mary Ann Hawkins in the s and Kathy Kohner better known as Gidget, pictured here in the s.
InFrederick Kohner wrote the bestselling novel Gidget about his daughter Kathy s surfing life in Malibu. Inthe popular movie Gidget, which was based on the book, came out. People then flocked to the beaches to surf. Trivia Time Surfing isn t just big in the United States. Australia and New Zealand are also known for their great waves and awesome surfers. Although surfing in Iceland may sound cold, there s one benefit: Inshe was the first female on the cover of a surf magazine.
But surfing wasn t yet very popular with women until Lisa Andersen came along. Andersen turned pro at the age of 17 and has won four consecutive world titles. Since she started surfing, more women have been inspired to ride the waves. I was the first person in my sport to stare down a shark and win a national surf title with ONE arm! Bethany Hamilton 8 Kathy Kohner Inwhile she was surfing, Bethany Hamilton was attacked by a shark and lost her left arm.
She has since returned to the sport and has won 5th place in the National Surfing Championships. Photos by Noah Hamilton 9 Sharing the Ocean Before anyone goes out and tries to learn how to ride a wave, he or she must know about the dangers involved. First and foremost, people who surf have to be good swimmers. The water can be rough, and people need to be strong and experienced enough to conquer the waves.
This is especially true with the newest craze: This is so dangerous that it should be reserved for highly qualified surfers. Second, surfers are sharing the ocean with sea creatures, such as sharks, jellyfish, and stingrays. Shark attacks are rare, but they re a real danger. It is also important to watch out for other surfers. Riding too close to someone else can be dangerous, and it s considered poor surfing etiquette to take someone else s wave.
A good rule of thumb is that surfers always need to be aware of their surroundings. Since the water is so unpredictable, many surfers check the weather before heading out, looking online or at the weather channel for updates on wave and wind conditions. Lifeguards sometimes display colored flags showing whether the waves are safe or good enough to surf on. Trivia Time As if surfing big waves isn t hard enough, Australians Jonathan Durrant and Stefan Hunt have finished their mission to be the first to surf all 50 of the United States.
Starting in California, they traveled clockwise around the states, surfing in Alaska and the states nowhere near the ocean. How did they surf without water? The extreme surfing duo got creative and used the steps of the Philadelphia Art Museum in Pennsylvania and a mountain of beets in Idaho.
Surf n Turf Learn the Lingo Barrel or tube: There are more than 2. What s more, the activity has had a domino effect, sparking ideas for new sports. See the sections on skateboarding, BMX, and snowboarding to learn about surfing s influence on these sports. Jonathan Durrant and Stefan Hunt showed that with some creativity, surfing can be fun no matter what state you live in.