Information and communications technology in agriculture - Wikipedia
Education For All (EFA) is a global movement led by UNESCO aiming to meet the learning . This allows countries to receive support to help achieve the educational goals. This can be helpful for countries that are less fortunate in financial and. English. Etymology. Univerbation of part of a phrase in Genesis in the King James Version: “an helpe meet” for Adam (i.e. a helper suitable for. This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. No cleanup reason has been specified. Please help improve this article if you can. ( April ) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). Trade marketing is a discipline of marketing that relates to increasing the demand at wholesaler.
Through self-help groups the bank can serve small rural depositors while paying them a market rate of interest.
This does not include SHGs that have not borrowed. Besides, financing through SHGs reduces transaction costs for both lenders and borrowers. While lenders have to handle only a triple SHG account instead of a large number of small-sized individual accounts, borrowers as part of an SHG minimise expenses on travel to and from the branch and other places for completing paper work and on the loss of workdays in canvassing for loans.
Where successful, SHGs have significantly empowered poor people, especially women, in rural areas. SHGs have helped immensely in reducing the influence of informal lenders in rural areas. Many big corporate houses are also promoting SHGs at many places in India. SHGs help borrowers overcome the problem of lack of collateral.
Women can discuss their problem and find solutions for it. Srinivasan and Rodger Voorhies, "Managing to go down market: Upon the addition of section When applications were highly contested, federal agencies held public hearings to allow public comment on the bank's lending record. In response many institutions established separate business units and subsidiary corporations to facilitate CRA-related lending. Local and regional public-private partnerships and multi-bank loan consortia were formed to expand and manage such CRA-related lending.
Discussing the reasons for the Clinton administration's proposal to strengthen the CRA and further reduce red-lining, Lloyd BentsenSecretary of the Treasury at that time, affirmed his belief that availability of credit should not depend on where a person lives, "The only thing that ought to matter on a loan application is whether or not you can pay it back, not where you live.
Niskanenchair of the Cato Institutecriticized both the and sets of proposals for political favoritism in allocating credit, for micromanagement by regulators and for the lack of assurances that banks would not be expected to operate at a loss to achieve CRA compliance. He predicted the proposed changes would be very costly to the economy and the banking system in general. Niskanen believed that the primary long-term effect would be an artificial contraction of the banking system.
Niskanen recommended Congress repeal the Act.
In response to the aggregate concerns recorded by then, the Federal financial supervisory agencies the OCC, FRB, FDIC, and OTS made further clarifications relating to definition, assessment, ratings and scope; sufficiently resolving many of the issues raised in the process.
The agencies jointly reported their final amended regulations for implementing the Community Reinvestment Act in the Federal Register on May 4, The final amended regulations replaced the existing CRA regulations in their entirety. This law repealed the part of the Glass—Steagall Act that had prohibited a bank from offering a full range of investmentcommercial bankingand insurance services since its enactment in A similar bill was introduced in by Senator Phil Gramm but it was unable to complete the legislative process into law.
Trade marketing - Wikipedia
Resistance to enacting the bill, as well as the subsequent bill, centered around the legislation's language which would expand the types of banking institutions of the time into other areas of service but would not be subject to CRA compliance in order to do so.
The Senator also demanded full disclosure of any financial "deals" which community groups had with banks, accusing such groups of "extortion".Dedicating Your Life To A Man
The Act also mandated two studies to be conducted in connection with the "Community Reinvestment Act": The obligations to adhere to 25 percent for services and 25 percent for investments became optional and the means to securing a satisfactory CRA rating was left to the discretion of the qualifying thrifts instead See the notes in the "" column of Table I. The agencies use the Consumer Price Index to adjust the asset size thresholds for small and large institutions annually.
The agency referenced several factors for the proposed realignment, in particular, that a consistent CRA standard applied to both the banking and the thrift industries would facilitate objective evaluations of CRA performance; ensure accurate assessments of banks and thrifts that operated in the same markets; and permit the public to make reasonable comparisons of bank and thrift CRA performance.
Reaffirming the basis for the revised rules as first proposed, Reich stated, "OTS is making these revisions to promote consistency and facilitate objective evaluations of CRA performance across the banking and thrift industries.
Consistent standards will allow the public to make more effective comparisons of bank and thrift CRA performance. These four changes generally mirror the ones made by the other three federal agencies in late All the affected Federal financial supervisory agencies have one year after the date of enactment to issue rules in final form to implement the change into the Code of Federal Regulations CFR according to Title X, Subtitle C, Section of the Act.
CRA is responsible for the repackaging of sub-prime mortgages and credit agencies complicit in rating them AA concluding in the mortgage crises.
Community Reinvestment Act
There were 15 witnesses from government and the private sector. Doing so would allow them favorable consideration under their Community Reinvestment Act responsibilities.
It had recently begun a two-year pilot project with an initial group of 31 banks. The proposed revisions to CRA rules are intended to revise the term "community development" to "include loans, investments and services that support, enable or facilitate projects or activities" that meet the criteria described in the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of HERA and are conducted in designated target areas identified under the Neighborhood Stabilization Program established by HERA and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of ARRA.
Among other things, this would expand the range of persons served to include middle-income households. Perspectives on the Future of the Community Reinvestment Act,  which assembles views from a wide range of academic researchers, regulators, community development practitioners and financial service industry representatives on how to improve the CRA going forward.
- Self-help group (finance)
- India–United States relations
- Education For All