Photos: Kenya Otters swim team practises in Edmonton
Latest results for Cascade Swim Club. Meet Type. All, International Championship Swim Canada Junior Championships. Completed JP fiset invitational. Monday, November 26, - Sports The club will now send 19 athletes to Edmonton this weekend to compete at the JP Fiset invitational swim meet. of nine swimmers that came over from Africa to compete in the J.P. Fiset International Swim Meet at the Kinsmen Sports Centre from Nov Dec 2,
January 19th, Passed in: Cheticamp, Nova Scotia, CanadaPassed on: February 10th, We sadly announce the peaceful passing of our beloved Maman on Friday, Feb. Maman spent her entire life devoted to her family and to her community.
She felt blessed to have the love of her siblings followed by a large family of her own during her 53 year marriage to Placide. Her greatest pride was her family and she was able to express those words in her last days to her remaining seven children. Maman was a devoted Christian and member of Paroisse Saint-Pierre and sang in the church and community choirs for as long as her health permitted her to. Maman was also a wonderful cook, enjoyed her weekly Lexicon puzzle and her time spent at her hooking frame.
Her love of fiddle music was never as evident as when she was able to listen to her grandchildren Leanne and Brent play at the local Doryman. To see the tradition continue in the family was a source of great joy and pride to her. We know that she is now in a special place in heaven, reunited with our beloved younger sister Denise, our father Placide, her parents and her Boudreau siblings.
She was at peace and ready for her next journey. Funeral mass to celebrate her life will take place at All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.
Abstract The objective of the current study was to determine whether prenatal iron deficiency induced during gestation in guinea pigs affected locomotor activity and learning and memory processes in the progeny. Dams were fed either iron-deficient anemic or iron-sufficient diets throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were fed an iron-sufficient diet. The behavioural and cognitive tests revealed that the iron deficient pup group had increased locomotor activity, but solely on postnatal day 40, and that there were no group differences in the Morris Water Maze.
In the general discussion, we propose that prenatal iron deficiency induces an increase in nervousness due to anxiety in the progeny, which, in the current study, resulted in an increase of locomotor activity. Distributed throughout both developing and industrialized countries, it is especially common among pregnant women and children.
These alarming statistics raise concerns pertaining to the effects of maternal and childhood IDA on child development. In humans, brain development occurs primarily prenatally and during early childhood. Iron is a vital nutrient in this process. In the foetal phase, iron is responsible for tissue oxygenation, energy metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, and myelination of the central nervous system [ 23 ].
List of Kenyan records in swimming
For pregnant women, this means that their iron requirements increase dramatically in order to provide for fetal brain development [ 4 ]. In fact, pregnant women must consume three times their regular iron requirements, which is a major contributing factor to world-wide IDA [ 1 ]. Children who were iron deficient in the womb remain iron deficient throughout the first year of life despite iron supplementation [ 56 ]. This is a time when brain development is still in its prime: This is also when brain iron concentrations peak, indicating a relationship between iron and the neurophysiological processes of behavioural organization [ 7 ].
Conversely, ID during infancy has been proven to significantly reduce iron concentrations in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, two brain regions associated with learning and memory [ 8 ]. The effects of IDA in human children have been extensively reviewed, but few explore the effects of prenatal IDA, particularly from a cognitive perspective.
Several studies on prenatal ID have seen no effect [ 9 ], but irritability [ 10 ], immature reflexes [ 1011 ], and poor performance on psychomotor developmental scales [ 9 ] and cognitive tests [ 1213 ] have been observed in infants. Infants born to iron deficient mothers have also been shown to express decreased alertness and soothability [ 14 ]. Due to cofactors such as socioeconomic status and uncontrolled degrees of ID, the impact of prenatal ID in children remains inconclusive [ 37910121516 ].
Several studies have, however, demonstrated a relationship between low maternal iron status and low birth weights in infants [ 5617 ]. Knowledge pertaining to ID postpartum in human children is more widespread.
It is associated with poor performance in developmental tests [ 1819 ], learning tasks [ 1819 ], and long-term educational achievement [ 1920 ].
Additionally, children with postnatal ID display delayed maturation in auditory brainstem response tests ABR [ 21 ]. Unfortunately, conclusions on the impact of prenatal as well as postnatal IDA in humans are based on correlational studies, reinforcing the need for experimental research with animals [ 16 ].
Consequently, studies have been conducted using animal models to mimic the effects of IDA on development. Previously, many animal studies opted to focus on postnatal IDA. As with children, these studies have demonstrated that postnatally iron deficient animals had lower weights than those fed iron sufficient diets [ 2223 ]. Postnatal ID research has also exhibited learning deficits in T-tests with piglets [ 24 ], reduced swimming speed and impaired memory and learning capabilities in water maze problems in rats [ 25 — 27 ], increasing inactivity in rats [ 2228 ], and weakened grip-strength in mice [ 29 ].
Recently however, the amount of studies observing the effects of postnatal ID has significantly decreased, and the focus has shifted towards the effects of prenatal ID [ 30 ]—a prevailing worldwide issue [ 1 ]. The peak of brain development in several animal models, for example the rhesus monkey [ 3132 ], piglet [ 24 ], and guinea pig [ 33 — 37 ], occurs during the gestational period, similarly to that of humans, making them strong models for prenatal ID studies. In past studies with rhesus monkeys and our previous studies with guinea pigs, the effects of prenatal ID on cognition and behaviour were analyzed.
Both the rhesus monkey and guinea pig had no visible cognitive effects. However, they had opposing results concerning behaviour: Newborn guinea pigs born to dams fed an iron deficient diet also behaved similarly to their iron-sufficient counterparts in object recognition and novelty tasks [ 37 ], but prenatally iron-deprived rhesus monkeys were found to be less fearful and tended to manipulate novel objects more frequently [ 31 ].
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Surprisingly, rats and mice, whose brain development occurs mainly after birth, especially when compared with rhesus monkeys, piglets, and guinea pigs, demonstrate ample effects in prenatal ID studies.
Rats presented poor water-maze [ 3839 ], trace conditioning [ 40 ], and passive avoidance abilities [ 41 ], and displayed pre-pulse inhibition PPI deficits in acoustic-startle response tasks [ 42 ].
They were also hesitant in novel settings [ 38 ], increasingly inactive and anxious [ 43 ], had low birth weights [ 3044 ], poor sensorimotor development scores [ 3839 ], and had high mortality rates [ 30 ]. Prenatally iron deficient mice also had low water-maze performance scores, had attenuated startle responsiveness, and demonstrated reduced grip-strength [ 23 ]. The results of the studies presented above pertaining to the effects of prenatal ID are in discordance with those of our previous study with 24—40 day-old guinea pig pups [ 36 ].
Most studies have demonstrated a decrease in learning abilities, whereas we had no effects. With regard to behaviour, most studies suggest a diminution in activity, but our pups exhibited elevated activity levels. However, our previous studies with newborn guinea pigs [ 37 ] demonstrated no effect on activity. Mobility was also reduced in many studies—yet again our results were contradictory: Our previous study [ 36 ] had surprising results; however, data was collected manually, making it susceptible to human error [ 45 ].
The general purpose of the present study was to reassess the impact of prenatal and early postnatal iron deficiency anemia in the domestic guinea pig with regards to locomotor activity and learning and memory processes. To reach this objective, we replicated the study by Leblanc et al. The addition of dependent variables allowed us to further identify which aspects were affected by maternal IDA, which was not possible in the former study.
As outlined by Walsh and Cummins [ 46 ] and Stover et al. Swim path distance and escape latency are the most common indexes of cognitive performance in the MWM [ 48 ].
In Leblanc et al. However, this is not necessarily a good measure of learning ability [ 49 ]. As described by Lindner [ 50 — 52 ], the length of the swimming path taken by the animal is a better determinant of learning ability. In contrast with Leblanc et al. Additionally, as stated by Shadish et al. Several studies outline the advantages of automatic tracking systems over manual methods, stating that they are more accurate [ 45 ], consistent [ 4554 ] and identify behavioural information that may otherwise be missed [ 455455 ].
Since we improved the precision of our instrumentation and added dependent variables by passing from manual scoring to automatic detection, the current study allowed us to further identify which aspects of locomotor activity and learning and memory processes are affected by prenatal iron deficiency anemia in guinea pig pups.
All animals were given ad libitum access to water and food. They were caged in groups of two animals or more and had access to a running wheel. Before surgery, animals were anesthetized with a solution of They were sacrificed by decapitation. All efforts were made to minimize suffering. Due to complications in the mating phase, four additional males of the same age were purchased see Mating and Delivery.