# Meet your brain fundamentals of physics

### Introduction to physics (video) | Khan Academy

Fundamentals of Physics Extended, 9th edition, Halliday, Resnick, and Walker. A lab manual . on ALL problems yourself before you meet with your peers to work on the problems as a group. And if you get shortcut to rewiring your brain!. In this booklet, we describe what we know about how the brain works and how much there still is to learn. . left ear mainly reach the right cortex. However, the two This sort of research is a kind of “physics of vision”. Decisions about motion. When we look at the child as a whole: brain, body and mind, we begin to definition of neuropedagogy is when science and education meet, and whose of how the brain and the body encompass the physics of the mind.

There is a suggestion that knots and links in the network code for particles, with different knotting of the network coding for different particles. This suggests that space may have the energy transmitting properties of a superconductor based on the quantum vaccum being full of oscillating particles. The vacuum fluctuations are here seen as transmitters of force.

An alternative is that the quantised force binding together the quarks which make up the protons of the nucleus are themselves fundamental entities. Here again there is the idea of a non-continous structure in spacetime. In loop quantum gravity the geometry of spacetime is expressed in loops which may be the loops of the colour force binding the quarks and whose interrelation defines space.

The area of any surface comes in discrete multiples of units, the smallest unit being the Planck or the square of the Planck length. The geometry of spacetime changes as a result of the movement of matter. The geometry is here the relationships of the edges, areas and volumes of the the network, while of physics govern how the geometry evolves. Most of the information needed to construct the geometry of spacetime comprises information about its causal structure.

The discrete units of loop quantum gravity relate to the spin network concept earlier developed by Roger Penrose as a version of quantum geometry. The network is a graph labelled with integers, representing the spins that particles have in quantum theory. The spin networks provide a possible quantum state for the geometry of space. The edges of the network correspond to units of area, while the nodes where edges of the spin network meet correspond to unnits of volume.

The spin network is suggested to follow from combining quantum theory and realtivity. The network can evolve in response to changes and relates to the development of light cones. Penrose sees understanding and consciousness as being embedded in the geometry of spacetime.

Black holes and their significance: Light cannot escape from black holes thus creating a hidden region behind the horizon of the black hole. The entropy of the black hole is proportional not to its volume but to the area of the event horizon and is given as a quarter of the area of the horizon divided by h bar x the gravitational constant.

The horizon can be conceived as a computer screen with one pixel for even four Planck squares, which gives the amount of information hidden in the black hole. In fact, all observers are seen as having hidden regions bounded by horizons. The horizon marks the boundary from beyond which they will never receive light signals. The situation of an observer on a spaceship accelerating close to the speed of light is considered in relation to this.

There is a region behind the ship from which light will never catch up constituting a hidden region for the observer. At the same time, the observer on the spaceship would see heat radiation coming towards from in front. Uncertainty principle determines that space is filled by virtual particles jumping in and out of existence, but the energy of an accelerating spaceship or its equivalent in the form of extreme gravity close to the event horizon of a black hole would convert these virtual particles into real particles.

A recent experiment by Chris Wilson serves to substantiate this prediction that energy in the form of photons could be created out of empty space. In this the kinetic energy of an electron accelerated to a quarter of the speed of light was sufficient for the kinetic energy of the electon to turn virtual photons into real photons. The significance of this is to suggest that spacetime is not an abstraction but something real that is capable of producing particles, and also possibly capable of containing the configurations of consciousness and understanding.

A further suggestion here is that quantum randomness is not really on the basis of the whole universe but a measure of the information about particles which lie beyond the event horizon, but with which a particle is non-locally correlated. In contrast to Smolin, some other physicists regard spacetime as the fundamental aspect of the universe, with the quanta seen as merely disturbances of this underlying spacetime.

First, however, we take an excursion into some well established organic chemistry which is relevant to the systems discussed later. We start by discussing the role of electrons round atoms. The overlap of the atomic orbitals forms bonds between atoms, and thus creates molecules, and also determines the shape of the molecules.

So an electron can be labelled as 2p, denoting an orbital energy of 2 and an angular momentum of 1. The electron orbital is viewed as being a wave function. The wave length or its reciprocal, the frequency, is related to the energy level of the individual electron. The probability of an electron being at a particular point in space can be referred to as its density plot. The wave function of these two lobes is out of phase.

Structure of an atom: The structure of an atom involves having electrons in the lowest energy orbital and working up from there. Hydrogen has one electron located in the lowest energy orbital, and helium has two electrons both in the lowest orbital.

Two electrons renders an orbital full. An orbital can be full with two electrons, half full with one electron or empty. With lithium which has three electrons, the third electron has to be placed in the second orbital. Atoms are the basis for molecules. The orbitals or atoms are wave functions and if these waves are in phase their amplitudes are added together. When this happens the increased amplitude works against the repulsive force acting between the psotively charged nuclei of neighbouring atoms, and thus acts to bind the atoms together.

This is referred to as a bonding molecular orbital.

## Introduction to physics

When the orbitals are out of phase, they are on the far side of the atomic nuclei, which continue to repel one another. This is known as the anti-bonding molecular orbital. The two are collectively known as MOs. The anti-bonding MOs usually ahve higher energy than the bonding MOs. Energy applied to an atom can promote a low-energy bonding orbital to a higher-energy anti-bonding orbital, and this can break the bond between the atoms.

Two further types of orbital can overlap with those in other atoms side-on, and these will not be symmetrical about the nuclear axis. These are described as pi orbitals and they form pi bonds. In discussing bonding, only the electrons in the outermost shell of the atom are usually relevant. For example, in a nitrogen molocule only the electrons in the second shell are involved in bonding. Nitrogen atoms have seven electrons, but only five in the outer shell are involved in bonding.

## CHEAT SHEET

When two nitrogen atoms are bound into a nitrogen molecule they form two pi bonds and one sigma bond. Molecular bonding can also occur between different types of atoms, but there is a requirement that the energy difference is not too great. Hybridisation is an important factor in the formation of molecular bonds. In its ground state, the carbon atom has two electrons in the first shell, and this is not normally involved in bonding.

Delocalisation and conjugation The joining together or conjugation of double bonds is important for organic structures. The structure of benzene is relevant in this respect. Benzene is based on a ring of six carbon atoms. These six electrons are spread equally over the six carbon atoms of the ring.

Delocalisation emphasises the spatial spread of the electron waves, and occurs over the whole of the conjugated system. This is sometimes referred to as resonance. Sequences of double and single bonds also occur as chains rather than rings.

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Conjugation refers to the sequence of single and double bonds that form either a ring or a chain. Double bonds between carbon and oxygen can be conjugated in the same way as double bonds between carbon atoms. Conjugation involves there being only one single bond between each double bond. Two double bonds together also do not permit conjugation.

The double bonds that are conjugated with single bonds are seen to have different properties from double bonds not arranged in this way.

Here again conjugation leads to a significantly different chemical behaviour. Chlorophyll, the pigment molecule in plants, is a good example of a conjugated ring of single and double bonds, and the colour of all pigments and dyes depends on conjugation. The colour involved depends on the length of the conjugated chain. Each bond increases the wavelength of the light absorbed. With less than eight bonds light is absorbed in the ultra-violet.

The colours of objects and materials around us are a function of the interaction of light with pigments. Pigments are characterised by having a large number of double bonds between atoms.

It is responsible for the high degree of stability in aromatic compounds such as benzene. In this molecule, the two carbon atoms are joined by a double bond. This bond prevents the rotation of the double bond between the carbon atoms. An important feature of benzene is the ability to preserve its ring structure through a variety of chemical reactions. Benzene and other compounds that have this property are termed aromatic.

A closed shell of electrons in bonding orbitals is a definition of aromacity. These electron orbitals are spread over, delocalised over or conjugated over all six carbon molecules in the benzene ring. Expressed another way, this type of delocalisation is an uninterrupted sequence of double and single bonds, and it is this which is described as conjugation.

The properties of this type of system are seen to be different from its component parts. This is referred to as a molecule being aromatic. Carbon and oxygen bonds It is not essential in these systems to have carbon-to-carbon bonds. Carbon and oxygen also often form double bonds, separated by just one single bond. Here to the behaviour of the double-bonded system is quite different from the behaviour of the component parts. Amide groups, amino acids and protein P.

The amide group is crucial to protein, and therefore to living systems as a whole, in that it forms the links between amino acid molecules that in turn make up protein, the basic building blocks of life. The amino group on one amino acid molecule combines with the carboxylic group on another amino acid molecule to give an amide group. When a chain of this kind forms it is a peptide or polypeptide, and longer chains are classed as proteins.

Structure of molecules The structure of the individual atom is also the basis for the structure of molecules. Atomic orbitals are wave functions, and the orbital wave functions of different atoms are like waves, in that if they are in phase, their amplitudes are added together.

When this happens, the increased amplitude of the wave function works against the mutual repulsion of the positively charged atomic nuclei of different atoms, and works to bond the atoms together. When the orbitals are out-of-phase, they are on the far sides of the atomic nuclei, which continue to repel one another due to like positive electric charges, and this arrangement is known as the anti-bonding molecular orbital.

Collectively the two types of molecular orbital are referred to as MOs. The antibonding MOs usually have higher energy than the bonding MOs. Energy applied to an atom can promote a low-energy bonding orbital to a higher-energy anti-bonding orbital, and this process can break the bond between two atoms.

Two other orbitals can overlap with those on other atoms side-on, and will not be symmetrical about the nuclear axis. In discussing bonding, only the electrons in the outermost shell of the atoms are usually relevant.

The nitrogen atom has seven electrons, so there are fourteen on the two atoms that bond to form a nitrogen molecule. Two electrons in the inner shell of each atom are not involved, leaving five on each atom and ten altogether in the second shells. The 2s electrons on each atom cancel out, and are described as lone pairs.

The bonding work thus devolves on three electrons in each atom, or six in the whole molecule. This is described as a triple-bonded structure. Orbitals overlap better when they are in the same shell of their respective atoms.

So electrons in the second shell will overlap more readily with other second shell electrons than with third or fourth shell electrons. Molecular bonding also applies to molecules that are formed out of different types of atoms, as distinct from molecules formed from atoms of the same element such as the nitrogen molecule discussed above.

If the atomic orbitals of different atoms are very different, they cannot combine, and the atom cannot form covalent bonds sharing the electron between two atoms. Instead an electron can transfer from one atom to another, transforming the first atom into a negative ion, and the second atom into a positive ion, with the molecule now held together by the attraction between the oppositely charged ions. This is known as ionic bonding. Covalent bonds with overlapping orbitals can only be formed when the difference in energy is not too great.

Hybridisation Hybridisation is an important factor in the formation of molecular bonds. This view was crystallised by the 9. Tegmark, paper published in the prestigious journal, Physical Review E.

The paper itself was not remarkable. For reasons that have never been properly explained, it used a model of quantum processing that has never been proposed elsewhere, and it failed to discuss or even mention arguments for the shielding of quantum processing in the brain.

Nevertheless, it succeeded in confirming in a prestigious way the views of the numerous opponents of quantum consciousness. The situation remained like that between andafter which the debate over quantum states in biological systems was moved to a new stage by the discovery that quantum coherence has a functional role in the transfer of energy within photosynthetic organisms Engel et al, This moved the discussion of what sort of coherent biological features could support consciousness on from a phase of pure theorising, to a phase, in which ideas can be related to features that have been shown to exist in biological matter.

The Engel study The Engel et al paper studied photosynthesis in green sulphur bacteria. The photosynthetic complexes chromophores in the bacteria are tuned to capturing light and transmitting its energy to long-term storage areas. It should be stressed that in this system, photons the light quanta only provide the initial excitation, and the coherence and entanglement discussed here involves electrons in biological systems.

The Engel study documented the dependence of energy transport on the spatially extended properties of the wave function of the photosynthetic complexes. In the latter case, rapid destruction of coherence would prevent it from influencing the system. Limited dephasing Another researcher in this area, Martin Plenio, argues that where temperatures are relatively high, there is likely to be some dephasing of the quanta, but contrary to the popular view that this would be the end of quantum processing, the efficiency of energy transportation could actually be enhanced by this limited dephasing.

Referring to a quantum experiment with beam splitters and detectors, he suggests that partial dephasing might actually allow the wider and therefore more efficient exploration of the system. One experiment looked at two chromophore molecules.

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The system provided near unity efficiency of energy transfer, and also demonstrates energy transfer between the chromophores. The experiment also shows that the time for dephasing of these molecules is substantially longer than would have been traditionally estimated.

The traditional approach in particular ignored the coherence between donor and acceptor states. The adaptive advantages of this lie in the efficiency of the search for the electron donor. The longer time to dephasing of one as compared to the other of the experimental chromophores was taken to indicate a strong correlation of the energy fluctuations of the two molecules.

This meant that the two molecules were embedded in the same protein environment. Another study by Fleming et al that also observed long-lasting coherence in a photosynthetic indicated that this could be explained by correlations between protein motions that modulate the transition energies of neighbouring chromophores.

This suggests that protein environments works to preserve electronic coherence in photosynthetic complexes, and thus optimise excitatory energy transfer. The experiment examined polymer samples with different chain conformations at room temperature, and recorded intrachain, but not interchain, coherent electronic energy transfer. It is pointed out that natural photosynthetic proteins and artificial polymers organise light absorbing molecules chromophores to channel photon energy.

The excitation energy from the absorbed light can be shared quantum mechanically among the chromophores. Where this happens, electronic coupling predominates over the tendency towards quantum decoherence, loss of coherence due to interaction with the environmentand is viewed as comprising a standing wave connecting donor and acceptor paths, with the evolution of the system entangled in a single quantum state. Within chains of polymers there can be conformational subunits 2 to 12 repeat units long, which are the primary absorbing units or chromophores.

Neighbouring chromophores along the backbone of a polymer have quite a strong electronic coupling, and electronic transfer between these is coherent at room temperature. Quantum entanglement considered — Sarovar et al In a paper, Sarovar et al The paper starts by discussing quantum coherence between the spatially separated chromophore molecules found in these systems.

Modelling of the system showed that entanglement would rapidly decrease to zero, but then resurge after about femtoseconds.

Entanglement could in fact survive for considerably longer than coherence, with a duration of five picoseconds at 77K, falling to two picoseconds at room temperature.

The entanglement examined here is the non-local correlation between the electronic states of spatially separated chromophores. Coherence is a necessary and sufficient state for entanglement to exist. Ishizaki and Fleming This paper Where this deals with the sites to be excited by the light energy, the initial entanglement rapidly decreases to zero, but then increases again after about femtoseconds.

This is thought to be a function of the entanglement of the initial sites being transported and localised at other sites, but remaining coherent at these other sites, from which further entanglement can subsequently resurge. Other studies appear to confirm the existence of picosecond timescales for entanglement in chromophores.

It is not clear to the authors that entanglement is actually functional in chromophores. Coherence appears to be sufficient for very efficient transport of energy, and entanglement may be only a by-product of coherence.

This looks to remain an area of scientific debate. In the Ishizaki and Fleming paper, the equation supplied by the authors suggest that coherence could persist for several hundred femtoseconds even at physiological temperatures of Kelvin. This study deals with the Fenna-Matthews-Olson FMO pigment-protein complex found in low light-adapted green sulphur bacteria.

The FMO complex is a trimer of identical sub-units, each comprised of seven bacteriochlorphyl BChl molecules. This structure has been extensively studied. BChl 1 and 6 are orientated towards the chlorosome antenna, and are the initially excited pigment, and BChl 3 and 4 are orientated towards the reaction centre.

Even at the physiological temperatures, quantum coherence can be observed for up to femtoseconds in this structure. This suggests that long-lived electronic coherence is sustained among the BChls, even at physiological temperatures, and may play a role in the high efficiency of EET in photosynthetic proteins. BChl 1 and 6 are seen as capturing and conveying onward the initial electronic energy excitation.

Quantum coherence is suggested to allow rapid sampling of pathways to BChl 3 that connects to the reaction centre. If the process was entirely classical, trapping of energy in subsidiary minima would be inevitable, whereas quantum delocalisation can avoid such traps, and aid the capture of excitation by pigments BChl 3 and 4. BChl 6 is strongly coupled to BChl 5 and 7, which are in turn stongly coupled to BChl 4, ensuring transfer of excitation energy.

Delocalisation of energy over several of the molecules allows exploration of the lowest energy site in BChl 3. The study predicts that quantum coherence could be sustained for femtoseconds, but if the calculation is adjusted for a possible longer phonon relaxation time, this could extend to femtoseconds, still at physiological temperatures. Cia et al Cia takes the view that entanglement can exist in hot biological environments.

Cia says traditional thinking on biological systems is based on the assumption of thermal equilibrium, whereas biological systems are far from thermal equilibrium.

He points out that the conformation of protein involves interactions at the quantum level. These are usually treated classically, but Cia wonders whether a proper understanding of protein dynamics does not require quantum mechanics. It is said not to be clear, whether or not entanglement is generated during the motions of protein, but that it is possible that entanglement could have important implications for the functioning of protein. The model studied by the Cia et al paper suggests that while a noisy environment, such as that found in biological matter, can destroy entanglement, it can also set up fresh entanglement.

It is argued that entanglement can recur in the case of an oscillating molecule, in a way that would not be possible in the absence of this oscillation. The molecule has to oscillate at a certain rate relative to the environment to become entangled. This process allows for entanglement to emerge, but this would normally also disappear quickly. Something extra is needed for entanglement to recur or persist.

It is suggested here that the environment, which is normally viewed as the source of decoherence, can play a constructive role in resetting entanglement, when combined with classical molecules.

Environmental noise in combination with molecular motion provides a reset mechanism for entanglement.

The oscillation of the molecule combined with the noise of the environment may repeatedly reset entanglement. The studies are seen as having established the existence of quantum entanglement in biologically functional systems that are not in thermal equilibrium.

However, this does not necessarily mean that entanglement has a biological function. The authors point out that the modern discussion of entanglement has moved and from simple arrangements of particles to entanglement in larger scale systems.

Measurements of excitonic energy transport in photosynthetic light harvesting complexes show evidence of quantum coherence in these systems. The FMO serves to transport electronic energy from the light harvesting antenna to the photosynthetic reaction centre.

Coherence is present here at up to K. The authors draw attention to the relationship between electronic excitations in the chromophores and those in the surrounding protein.

The electronic excitations in the chromophores are coupled to the vibrational modes of the surrounding protein scaffolding. One study Scholak et al, shows a correlation between the extent of entanglement and the efficiency of the energy transport.

The study went on to claim that efficient transport requires entanglement, although the authors of this paper query such a definite assertion. The pigment-protein dynamics generates entanglement across the entire FMO complex in only femtoseconds, but followed by oscillations that damp out over several hundred femtoseconds, with a subsequent longer contribution continuing beyond that for up to about five picoseconds.

Long-lived entanglement takes place between four or five of the existing seven chromophores. The most extended entanglement is between chromophores one and three, and these are also two of the most widely separated chromophores. Overall studies indicate long-lived entanglement of as much as five picoseconds between numbers of excitations on spatially separated pigment molecules.

This is described here as long-lived coherence because energy transfer through the FMO complex is on a time span of a few picoseconds meaning that the up to five picoseconds of entanglement seen between the chromophores represents a functional timescale. However, the authors do not consider this by itself to be a conclusive argument for entanglement being functional in the FMO.

LHCII is the most common light harvesting complex in plants. Entanglement decreases at first, but then persists at a significant proportion of the maximum possible value. This is also an important feature of the FMO complex. In both these complexes entanglement is seen to be generated by the passage of electronic excitation through the light harvesting complexes, and to be distributed over a number of chromophores. Entanglement persists over a longer time and is more resistant to temperature increase than might have been previously expected.

A functional biological role is suggested by the persistence of entanglement over the same timescale as the energy transfer within the light harvesting complexes. Light harvesting complexes LHCs are densely packed molecular structures involved in the initial stages of photosynthesis. These complexes capture light, and the resulting excitation energy is transferred to reaction centres, where chemical reactions are initiated.

LHCs are particularly efficient at transporting excitation energy in disordered environments. Simulations of the dynamics of particular LHCs predict that quantum entanglement will persist over observable timescales. Entanglement here would mean that there are non-local correlations between spatially separated molecules in the LHCs. The molecules in the LHCs, referred to as chromophores, are close enough together for considerable dipole coupling leading to coherent interaction over observable timescales.

The existence of coherence between molecules in these systems has been recognised for a decade or more. This condition is seen as the basis for entanglement. Coherence in this area, known as the site basis, is necessary and sufficient for entanglement, and any coherence in the area will lead to entanglement, and can be viewed in experiments as a signature of entanglement.

The authors base part of their study on the description of the dynamics of a molecule in a protein in an LHC. This model indicates the coupling of some pairs of molecules due to proximity and favourable dipole orientation, thus effectively forming dimers.

The wave function of the system is delocalised across these dimers. Using this equation, the interface of the LHC with light energy leads to a rapid increase in entanglement for a short time, followed by a decay punctuated by varying amounts of oscillation. The initial rapid increase reflects the coherent coupling of some parts of the LHC system. This entanglement decreases again as the excitation comes into contact with other parts of the protein.

Some of the entanglement seen is not between immediately neighbouring molecules, but between more distant parts of the LHC. Entanglement in LHC is estimated to continue until the excitation reaches the reaction centre.

The authors view this as a remarkable conclusion, since it shows that entanglement between several particles can persist in a non-equilibrium condition, despite being in a decoherent environment. The spatial arrangement of the pigment molecules and their electronic interaction is known to relate to this efficiency. Recent experimental studies of photosynthetic protein have shown that it can sustain quantum coherence for longer than previously expected, and that this can happen at the normal temperature of biological processes.

This has been taken to imply that quantum coherence may affect light harvesting processes.

The spatial arrangement of pigment molecules and their electronic interactions is known to be involved with this high efficiency. There is an implication that quantum coherence may affect the light harvesting process. Some studies point to very efficient energy transport as the optimal result of the interplay of quantum coherent with decoherent mechanisms.

Roles proposed for quantum coherence vary between avoidance of energy traps that are not at the overall lowest energy level, and actual searches for the overall lowest energy level. In this paper, it is suggested that the function of quantum coherence goes beyond efficiency of energy transport, and includes the modulation of the photosynthetic antennae complexes to deal with variations in the environment.

The role of quantum entanglement There is some debate as to whether quantum entanglement plays a role in the functioning of the light-harvesting complexes, or is just a by-product of quantum states. The authors here argue that entanglement may be involved in the efficiency of the system, and they use the FMO protein in green sulphur bacteria as the basis of their study. They suggest that entanglement could play a role in light-harvesting by allowing precise control of the rate at which excitations are transferred to the reaction centre.

Long-range quantum correlations have been suggested to be important as a mechanism helping quantum coherence to survive at the high temperatures sustained in light harvesting antennae. This paper claims to show that in the FMO complex long-lived quantum coherence is spatially distributed in such a way that entanglement between pairs of molecules controls the efficiency profile needed to cope with variations in the environment. The ability to control energy transport under varying environmental conditions is seen as crucial for the robustness of photosynthetic systems.

A mechanism involving quantum coherence and entanglement might be effective in controlling the response to different light intensities.

This paper describes X-ray crystallography studies of two types of marine cryptophyte algae that have long-lasting excitation oscillations and correlations and anti-correlations, symptomatic of quantum coherence even at ambient temperature.

Distant molecules within the photosynthetic protein are thought to be connected to quantum coherence, and to produce efficient light-harvesting as a result. The child will most likely be mis-classified as having ADHD or a learning disability, which ultimately leads to inefficient or worse ineffective solutions. If the interventionists applied an interdisciplinary Neuropedagogical Approach, a different and more effective outcome may have played out. Neuroscience has looked at the brains, personalities, strengths and weaknesses of people born after and compared them with brains, personalities, strengths and weaknesses of people born before The studies show a significant difference between the two.

The first group is digital natives; the second digital immigrants. Digital natives have brains that have weakened pathways for interaction, decreased activity in anterior cingulate gyrus and medial orbital frontal cortex, increased isolation, aggression, passivity, loneliness, etc, increase in cortisol due to excessive brain fatigue, decreased hippocampal size.

Digital immigrants, the ones who have the capacity to hand down life experiences effectively via examples and who can communicate thoughts personally are ones who are usually comfortable with familiar technology and shy away from change in that department.

They have been found to have faster PFC circuitry as they have had abilities to strengthen neuronal circuits with numerous life experiences, including delaying gratification. With all of the Brain Element Neuropedagogy, one can proceed to appreciate understanding the body and its unique processes. The Body Element Neuropedagogy In our modern society, people are perceived initially from the way they present themselves. Usually what is displayed from the external body is what immediately connects one person to the next.

The body by itself is a complete sensory organ, however it has been proven by evidence-based practice that the seven senses are the checkpoints of the body: Research in this area was pioneered by Dr. Jean Ayres and current practitioners include Dr.

Lucy Jane Miller and Carol Kranowitz all of who have contributed to the education and learning landscape. One simply cannot function by brain alone! Education in the twentieth and now twenty-first century tends to teach to two types of learners: Yet, research has shown that multiple types of learners exist, not just two. Teaching methodologies need to start designing lessons, activities and classrooms not only for the typically forgotten or ever present kinesthetic learners, but for the quiet introvert and the shy extrovert and multiple combinations of them.

Simple modifications such as state changes, strategically planned brain gym breaks or yoga ball chairs have shown to improve the executive functioning skills of sustained attention and task persistence. Additionally, when inserting brief yet planned breaks of any type, students are given an opportunity to work on set-shifting a skill in high demand in the modern digital-world. Modifications for the introvert include quiet spaces in the classroom or projects with an option to work alone.

The shy extrovert, may benefit from group projects with assigned jobs. However, this type of differentiated instruction is believed to be fitting only to the special education population. Meanwhile, that potential intelligence lays mostly dormant because teachers are not teaching to them, and were probably never taught how.

Neuropedagogy recognizes the learning process that processes from a brain and proceeds into the body offers perspective and solutions to teaching with the body in mind. The brain and the mind are used interchangeably in the realm of education; however, scientists have discovered that although they do seem to be influential of the other, the brain and mind affect each other in very different but significant ways.

However, a thought may occur from consciousness which may alter the neuronal process that was intended to happen and vice versa. The mind discussion includes: Neuropedagogy of the mind starts with the premise that the mind of a child is complex. The Belief-Desire Reasoning from H. Thinking, perception, sensations, beliefs, cognitive emotions, physiology, basic emotions are all interconnected and simultaneously interacting to produce desires, intentions, actions and inevitably reactions.

Educators who understand and teach with Executive Function Skills such as Metacognition, Emotional Control and Response Inhibition in mind, essentially have x-ray vision, which provides them the insight to ask the questions that will reveal the iceberg.