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Though the constitution provides for religious freedom, the government has a long history of infringements upon this right. Any religious practices that can be considered in conflict to Shariah Islamic law are prohibited and Article 98 F of the Penal Code allows for prosecution for unorthodox practices and beliefs that are considered to be "insulting heavenly religions. Intwo men were convicted and sentenced to five and three years imprisonment under Article 98 F for allegedly advocating a tolerance of homosexuality in the Islamic faith.

Ineight individuals were convicted under the same article for holding unorthodox Islamic beliefs and practices. Sentences ranged from three years imprisonment for two of the offenders to a one year suspended sentence for those who were not accused of promoting their beliefs to others. Proselytizing is generally considered a violation of Article 98 F.

Inthere were 2, passenger cars andcommercial vehicles registered. Inin an attempt to alleviate Cairo's notorious traffic congestion, work began on a city subway system. Cairo Metro, modeled after the Paris Metro, is the first subway to be built in Africa.

Alexandria and Cairo are connected by both the Western Desert Highway, a high-speed toll road and the busier Delta Road. Railroads are managed by the state-owned Egyptian Railways, founded in As ofthere was some 5, km 3, mi of standard gauge railway that linked all parts of the country.

Alexandria and Port Said are the principal ports. Egypt's oceangoing merchant fleet of 77 ships totaled 1, GRT in However, the Nile River and the Suez Canal are the country's main inland waterways. Steamer service on the Nile is an important means of domestic transport. The modern Suez Canal was constructed between and under the supervision of the French engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps.

In Great Britain became the canal's leading shareholder, and the guarantor of its neutrality in under the Constantinople Convention. Management of the canal was entrusted to the privately owned Suez Canal Co. British rights over the canal were reaffirmed in the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty ofthen repudiated by Egypt in The canal was closed during the war with Israel and remained closed until 5 Junewhen it resumed operations after having been cleared of mines and debris by teams of US, UK, and Egyptian engineers.

During its first six months after resuming operations, the canal provided passage for a substantial number of dry-cargo ships but was used by only a comparatively small number of oil tankers, since the newer supertankers could not navigate the canal's ft depth.

The first phase of a project to widen and deepen the canal was completed inpermitting ships of ft draft up totons to pass through.

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The second phase includes increasing the navigable depth to 67 ft up totons. Egypt also announced plans to build five tunnels under the canal and dig a second channel to permit the two-way passage of convoys; the first tunnel at the southern end of the canal was opened to traffic in Cairo International Airport is used by numerous international airlines, including Egypt's own Egypt Air. Inabout 4. As ofEgypt had an estimated 87 airports. In a total of 72 had paved runways, and there were 2 heliports.

In early times, the desert provided protection against marauders, while the Nile River provided bread. Therefore, by bc the civilization of Egypt was well developed. The country was united about bc by Menes or Narmerking of Upper Egypt, who conquered Lower Egypt and established the first of some 30 dynasties, ruled over by a divine king, or pharaoh. Menes created a centralized state; under his dynastic successors, trade flourished, and the hieroglyphic form of writing was perfected.

During the so-called Old Kingdom, the pharaohs of the fourth dynasty c. The twelfth dynasty of the Middle Kingdom c. After a century of domination by Semitic peoples known as the Hyksos, who introduced the horse-drawn chariot, ancient Egypt attained its apex during the eighteenth dynasty c. In subsequent centuries, political instability weakened the kingdom, and Egypt was invaded by Assyria — bcannexed by Persia bcand conquered by Alexander the Great bc.

Alexander established the Macedonian dynasty of the Ptolemies, which ruled Egypt from to 30 bc. During this period, the city of Alexandria flourished as the intellectual center of the Hellenistic world. Egypt played an integral role in the Muslim world after the Arab conquest by 'Amr ibn-al-'As in — Egypt's conquerors brought in settlers from Arabia and established firm control under the Abbasid caliphate established in and the Fatimids —who founded Cairo as their capital in The Fatimids were overthrown by Saladin Salah ad-Dinfounder of the Ayyubid dynasty, which gave way about to a local military caste, the Mamluks.

The Mamluks continued to control the provinces after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in Egypt remained a Turkish satrapy for four centuries. Inan energetic Albanian soldier, Muhammad 'Ali, was appointed ruler wali of Egypt.

He succeeded in establishing his own dynasty, which ruled the country, first under nominal Ottoman control and later as a British protectorate. Muhammad 'Ali destroyed Mamluk feudalism already weakened by Napoleon's Egyptian campaign instabilized the country, encouraged the planting of cotton, and opened the land to European penetration and development.

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After the completion of numerous ambitious projects, including the Suez CanalEgypt became a world transportation hub and heavily burdened by debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, England seized control of Egypt's government in and, at the time of the outbreak of World War Imade Egypt a protectorate.

After the war, inthe United Kingdom took account of the gathering momentum of Egyptian nationalism and recognized Egypt as a nominally sovereign country under King Fuad, but retained control over the conduct of foreign affairs, defense, security of communications, and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

The conditions of association were revised in the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, under which Britain maintained armed forces only in specified areas and especially along the Suez Canal. In that year, Faruk ascended the throne. Egyptian nationalism gathered further momentum in World War IIduring which Egypt was used as an Allied base of operations, and in the government in Cairo abrogated the treaty.

Royal extravagance, government corruption, the unsuccessful Palestine campaign against Israel inand delays in long-expected social and political reforms motivated a successful coup on 23 July by a group called the Society of the Free Officers. Faruk was dethroned and replaced by his seven-month-old son. A republic was proclaimed on 18 Junewith Gen. Muhammad Naguib Najibthe nominal leader of the officers, as its first president.

He, in turn, was forced out of power in by a younger man, Lt. To increase the productive capacity of his country, Nasser entered into preliminary agreements with the United Statesthe United Kingdom, and the UN to finance in part a new high dam at Aswan. At the same time, he also negotiated economic aid and arms shipments from the Soviet Bloc when he was unable to obtain what Egypt needed from the West.

Financial backing for the dam was subsequently withheld by the United Stateswhereupon, on 26 JulyPresident Nasser proclaimed the nationalization of the Suez Canal and announced that profits derived from its operations would be used for the building of the dam. The last British occupation troops had been evacuated from their Suez Canal bases a month earlier.

The dam was completed with aid and technical assistance from the USSR. Simultaneously, a crisis erupted between Egypt and Israel. Incidents involving Egyptian and Palestinian guerrillas fadayin and Israeli border patrols multiplied. On 29 Octoberas part of a three-nation plot to bring down Nasser and reassert control over the Canal, Israeli armed forces swept into Egypt's Sinai Peninsula. The United Kingdom and France then issued an ultimatum to the belligerents to cease-fire.

When Egypt rejected the ultimatum, Britain and France took military action in the Port Said area, at the northern end of the canal, landing troops and bombing Egyptian cities from the air. On 1 FebruaryEgypt and Syria proclaimed their union in the United Arab Republic UARunder one head of state, one flag, a common legislature, and a unified army. The proclamation was approved by a plebiscite vote of Nasser became president of the UAR, and a new cabinet was formed in Marchconsisting of 2 Egyptian and 2 Syrian vice presidents, as well as 22 Egyptian and 12 Syrian ministers.

Differing economic and political conditions prevented a complete fusion of the two regions, however. Nasser's economic measures were generally accepted, but his program of socialism and nationalization of banks and other commercial establishments were resented and opposed by Syrian businessmen. Syrian opposition to the union was crystallized when Nasser eliminated the separate regional cabinets and set up a unified cabinet in August On 28 September, the Syrian army revolted, and two days later it proclaimed Syrian independence.

Even after the failure of the merger with Syria, Egypt, consistent with its Arab unity ideology, persisted in its attempts to form a union with other Arab states.

Cooperation agreements were signed with IraqYemenSyria again, and Libya during the s and early s. None of these agreements produced a lasting, meaningful political union. One reason for these political maneuverings was the continuing tension with Israel, which again erupted into open warfare on 5 Juneafter the UN Emergency Force had on 19 May been withdrawn from the Egyptian-Israeli border at Egypt's demand; on 23 May, Egypt closed the Gulf of Aqaba to Israeli shipping.

Israel quickly crippled the Egyptian air force and occupied the Gaza Strip and the Sinai to the Suez Canal, which was blocked and remained so until June A cease-fire was established on 8 June On 22 Novemberthe UN Security Council passed a resolution calling on Israel to withdraw from occupied Arab territories and for the recognition by the Arab states of Israel's right to independent existence within peaceful and secured frontiers.

But neither side would agree to peace terms, and Israel continued to occupy the Gaza Strip and the Sinai. During the years aftera "War of Attrition" was fought along the Canal with each side shelling the other and Israeli planes bombing Egyptian cities.

When Nasser died on 28 Septemberhis vice president, Anwar al-Sadat, became president. After a political crisis that resulted in the dismissal from office in May of 'Ali Sabri and other left-wing leaders who had been close to Nasser they were subsequently convicted of treasonPresident Sadat firmly established his hold on the government and began to implement pragmatic economic and social policies.

Beginning in July with the announcement of a year development program, he quickly followed with the introduction in September of a permanent constitution and a series of financial measures designed to give more freedom to the banking system and to encourage investment of foreign and domestic capital. In a surprise move on 18 JulySadat ordered the expulsion of the 15, Soviet military advisers and 25, dependents who had come to Egypt after the war.

After the ouster of the Russians, Egypt was able to improve relations with the United States, Europeand the more conservative Arab states, which provided substantial financial assistance under the Khartoum Agreement to replace Suez Canal revenues which had ceased when the Canal was closed by the war with Israel. Frustrated in his ambition to recover the Sinai, President Sadat broke the cease-fire agreement on 6 October by attacking Israeli forces in the Sinai Peninsula; this assault was coordinated with a Syrian attack on Israeli forces occupying the Syrian Golan Heights.

After initial successes, the Egyptian strike forces were defeated by the rapidly mobilized Israeli troops, who then crossed the Canal south of Isma'iliyah, destroyed Egypt's surface-to-air missile sites, and cut off the Egyptian 3d Army. A cease-fire that came into effect on 24 October left Egyptian troops in the Sinai and Israeli troops on the west bank of the Canal.

President Sadat took a bold step toward establishing peace with Israel by going to Jerusalem in November and by receiving Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin at Isma'iliyah the following month.

The treaty provided for the staged withdrawal of Israeli forces from the Sinai, which was completed on schedule by 25 April ; set limits on forces and armaments for both sides; established a UN force to supervise the terms of the treaty; and called for full normalization of relations.

However, the two nations were unable to agree on the question of autonomy for the Palestinians of the West Bank of the Jordan and in Gaza, as provided for in the Camp David framework.

But other Arab leaders denounced the accords and sought to isolate Egypt within the Arab world. Domestically, Sadat encouraged a shift from Nasser's socialism to greater free-market conditions and some political liberalization, one result of which was an upsurge of activity by religious extremists.

In early SeptemberSadat ordered the arrest of 1, Muslims, Christian Copts, leftists, and other persons accused of fomenting violent acts.

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One month later, on 6 October, Sadat was assassinated in Cairo by four Muslim fundamentalists. The vice president, Muhammad Hosni Husni Mubarak, who had been Sadat's closest adviser, succeeded him as president, instituted a state of emergency, and immediately pledged to continue Sadat's policies, particularly the terms of the peace treaty with Israel. Relations with Israel cooled duringhowever, especially after Israeli troops moved into Lebanon. Inrenewed efforts at normalization of diplomatic relations with Israel led to the resolution in Egypt's favor of a dispute over Taba, a tiny sliver of land, which had not been returned with the rest of the Sinai.

Egypt quickly renewed diplomatic relations with a number of Arab states and in May ended its isolation by rejoining the Arab Leaguethe headquarters of which returned to Cairo.

Mubarak continued Sadat's policies of moderation and peacemaking abroad and gradual political liberalization and movement towards free market reforms at home.

In Julyhe became chairman of the Organization of African Unity for one year.

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InEgypt played a key role in the coalition to expel Iraq from Kuwait and in and was active in promoting the Israeli-Palestinian peace accord. Mubarak was reelected president in and Parliamentary elections in were termed the fairest since ; members of the opposition were elected to the seat chamber.

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Opposition political forces, however, had become increasingly disenfranchised over the years and after Mubarak's third election, he conceded to their concerns and announced the government would hold a National Dialogue to hear the grievances of any legal political party. Representatives of the Muslim Brotherhoodan illegal but tolerated political grouping with massive appeal, were not invited.

Just before the meeting, the Nasserists and the New World Party announced they would not participate, essentially nullifying the work of the congress. Inlegislative elections were again held, but, unlike the polling, the opposition parties announced they would not boycott these elections.

The elections were held on 29 November and 6 December and the ruling National Democratic Party NDP won seats, losing several but retaining a vast majority. Although independents won more than seats, nearly all of them were in reality firmly allied with the NDP.

In JanuaryMubarak replaced the sitting prime ministerDr. Alif Sidqi, with Kamal Ahmed al-Ganzouri. The most serious opposition to the Mubarak government comes from outside the political system. Religious parties are banned and, as a consequence, Islamic militants have resorted to violence against the regime, singling out Christian Copts and posing a threat to tourism, a major source of foreign exchange earnings.

Starting in the mids, security forces cracked down hard on the militants, resorting to authoritarian measures, including arbitrary arrest, imprisonment, and torture to subdue the movement.

However, it continued to gather strength, fueled by discontent with poor economic conditions, political autocracy, corruption, secularism, and Egypt's ties with the United States and Israel.

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In Novembermilitants murdered over 70 persons at a popular tourist site in Luxor. It was alleged that Gamma Islamiyya, one of Egypt's Islamic groups, was responsible for the attacks. However, in and the number of violent incidents decreased, and the government began releasing some of the jailed members of Islamist groups, said to number 20, by that time. In Septemberweeks after surviving an assassination attempt, Mubarak was elected to a fourth six-year term as president, running unopposed.

Political opponents and Western observers criticized the ruling NDP's refusal to open up the political system, one result of which, they said, would be to channel some of the political passion now given to outlawed Islamists into legal political parties, who could then use it to create a more open society—thus further marginalizing the extremists. However, the government refused to implement electoral reforms.

In Februarythe state of emergency first declared in was renewed for another three years by President Mubarak. Following the 11 September terrorist attacks on the United States, the United States called upon all states to adopt counterterrorism measures. The attacks on the United States gave Egypt a reason for increasing its restrictions on the Islamic opposition, including members of the Muslim Brotherhood and Gamaa Islamiyya.

After 11 September, Egyptian authorities referred increasing numbers of cases of Islamic militants to military courts. The high-profile positions of these Egyptians in the al-Qaeda organization caused some to place increased scrutiny on Egypt's ability to control Islamic extremism. Terrorist attacks on tourists and others continued into and In Octoberbomb attacks targeted Israeli tourists on the Sinai peninsula; 34 people were killed. In Aprila suicide bomber killed three tourists in Cairo; later that month, another bomb attack in Cairo killed an Egyptian man.

On 23 Julynearly 90 people were killed in bomb attacks in the Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheikh. In Egypt changed its constitution to allow the opposition to contest presidential elections. Potential candidates must meet strict criteria for participation, however, and religious parties remain banned. The Muslim Brotherhood—the only opposition organization with broad popular support—remains outlawed. In the presidential election held on 7 SeptemberMubarak gained a fifth consecutive term as president.

The election was the first under the new system whereby multiple candidates may stand. In previous elections, Egyptians voted yes or no for a single candidate chosen by parliament. In this election, all candidates were permitted to campaign freely and were given equal time on television.

Mubarak faced nine opponents in the September election, although only two—Ayman Nour of the Tomorrow party, and Noaman Gomaa of the Wafd party—had any real following. Without monitors in place in most of the nearly 10, polling stations, Mubarak supporters engaged in various acts of voter intimidation. Other voting irregularities existed as well. The opposition to Mubarak came largely from a movement called "Kifaya" or "Enough.

Different groups affiliated with the Kifaya movement staged demonstrations for several months prior to the election. In parliamentary elections held in November and Decemberthe Muslim Brotherhood won 34 seats, doubling the number of seats its members held in all of the last parliament, elected in Nevertheless, the Muslim Brotherhood's candidates run as independents, due to the outlaw status of the group.

The Muslim Brotherhood solidified its position as the strongest opposition group in Egypt by winning an additional 42 seats in the second round of voting, and 12 in the third, to make a total of 88 seats in the new parliament.

In total, the ruling NDP won seats, noticeably fewer than the it held in the outgoing parliament, but nonetheless still above the two-thirds majority necessary to control legislation. The elections were marred by clashes between voters and security forces, leaving 12 dead. In April the parliament voted to extend the state of emergency, in place sinceuntil The constitution declares Egypt to be a democratic socialist state and an integral part of the Arab nation.

The state of emergency, in effect since the Sadat assassination inand tough new antiterrorism laws against Islamists have given the government sweeping powers of repression, reminiscent of the Nasser era.

The president of the republic is the head of state and supreme commander of the armed forces. He appoints and retires as many vice presidents and cabinet members as he wishes; he also appoints the prime minister.

In addition, he appoints and retires civil, military, and diplomatic personnel in accordance with the law. The president's power to declare war and conclude treaties with foreign countries is subject to the approval of the People's Assembly, a unicameral legislative body consists of elected and 10 appointed members serving five-year terms.

A member advisory body, the Shura Council, was formed in Untilthe People's Assembly nominated the president, who had to be confirmed by plebiscite for a six-year term. The constitution was amended by popular referendum in to permit Sadat to serve more than two terms.

Vice President Mubarak, who became president upon Sadat's assassination, was confirmed in that office in national referendums in October,and An amendment passed by parliament in May and approved in a public referendum provides that the president is to be elected in direct public elections to be contested by more than one candidate. In the presidential election held in SeptemberMubarak was opposed by nine candidates.

Official results had Mubarak winning Ayman Nour of the Tomorrow party, who came in second place, took 7. Suffrage is universal at age The Arab Socialist Union ASU; founded by President Nasser as the Egyptian National Union in was the sole legal political party untilwhen President Sadat allowed three minor parties to participate in parliamentary elections.

Inhowever, Sadat denounced the SLP as the "agent of a foreign power," and 13 of the party's deputies defected either to join the NDP or to become independent members of the legislature, thus reducing the number of SLP seats to The New Wafd Delegation Party, the middle class successor of the dominant party of the pre-Nasser period allied with the Muslim Brotherhood, won Inthe opposition contested the elections, but to little effect.

Balloting was held on 29 November and the NDP won a huge majority of the body's seats. Although independents won more than seats, they are so closely allied with the NDP that nearly all of them joined the party after the elections.

Since the beginning of a campaign of terror against tourists and Egypt's Coptic minority, the government has clamped down on Islamist parties, notably the Muslim Brotherhood, which had always been technically illegal. The Mubarak regime has resorted to strict authoritarian measures and holds thousands of suspected Islamic militants in prison.

Non-Muslim Brotherhood-affiliated parties took 14 seats, including the neo-liberal Wafd Party, traditionally recognized as Egypt's largest opposition party. The rest of the seats were won by independents. Under the local government system established inEgypt is organized into 26 governorates, each headed by an appointed governor.

The governorates are responsible for social, health, welfare, and educational services and for the social and economic development of their region.

They are also required to supervise the city and village councils, which are constituted in a similar manner. Real authority resides in Cairo in a highly centralized regime, heavily burdened by bureaucracy. Sincevillage mayors, who were previously elected, have been appointed by the Ministry of the Interior.

A tension exists between civil law derived from France and competition from promoters of Islamic law. Islamic activists succeeded in amending the constitution to state that Shariah Islamic law is in principle the sole source of legislation. However, Shariah applies primarily to Muslims with regard to family, personal status, and inheritance matters, and non-Muslims have been allowed to maintain separate legislation in all matters except inheritance.

Simple police offenses, misdemeanors, and civil cases involving small amounts are subject to the jurisdiction of single-judge summary tribunals. The trial courts of the central tribunals, consisting of three justices each, sit in cases exceeding the jurisdiction of summary courts and also consider appeals.

Traffic in narcotics and press offenses, considered serious crimes, are tried by the courts of appeals of the central tribunals in the first instance, sitting as assize courts. The highest tribunal is the Court of Cassation, composed of 30 justices, which sits in panels of at least 5 justices.

The constitution declares that the judiciary is independent of other state powers and that judges are independent and not subject to enforced retirement. The Supreme Constitutional Court is responsible for enforcing adherence to laws and regulations and for interpreting legislation and the constitution. The Office of the Socialist Public Prosecutor is responsible to the People's Assembly for the security of the people's rights, the integrity of the political system, and other matters.

The president appoints all civilian judges, from nominations by the Supreme Judicial Council, a body designed to assure the independence of the judiciary and composed of senior judges, lawyers, law professors, and the president of the Court of Cassation.

Judges are appointed for life, with mandatory retirement at age The judiciary has demonstrated a good degree of independence from the executive branch. The state of emergency in place since after the assassination of President Anwar Sadat led to detention without due process for many persons. Emergency security courts try suspected terrorists whose only recourse upon conviction is an appeal for clemency to the president or prime minister. There were alsoreservists divided among all services.

The Army hadactive personnel, equipped with 3, main battle tanks, reconnaissance vehicles, armored infantry fighting vehicles, 4, armored personnel carriers and 4, artillery pieces. The Egyptian Air Force in had 30, active personnel, which were equipped with combat capable aircraft, including fighters, fighter ground attack aircraft and attack helicopters.

The Air Defense Command is a separate service. As ofactive personnel numbered 80, Equipment included both missile and gun-based air defense batteries. The Egyptian Navy had an estimated 18, active personnel, including 2, coast guard personnel. Egypt's paramilitary forces were estimated atactive members, including a national guard of 60, a central security force of , and 12, border guards.

The country is a member of the WTO. Between andEgypt made several attempts to establish united or federated states with its Arab neighbors. Egypt and Syria formed the United Arab Republic from February to Septemberwhen Syria broke away; the United Arab States, consisting of Egypt, Syria, and Yemen, survived formally from March through Decemberalthough never a political reality; and a federation between Egypt, Syria, and Iraq, officially established in Aprilwas never implemented.

A formal merger attempt between Egypt and Libya, nominally consummated on 1 Septemberdissolved in practice when relations between the two countries soured. Egypt became the first Arab state to normalize relations with Israel following the conclusion of the peace treaty. As a result of this act, however, Egypt's membership in the League of Arab States was suspended; Egypt did not rejoin the League until The attributes in take the form of an asyndetic list, composed of the vocative name and ten compound epithets referring to the military sphere.

Most evoke concrete images of a warrior in action. The list then develops in linesboth formally and semantically. The twist may symbolise 14 The images do not cohere, in that Ares has both a golden and a bronze helmet at consecutive line-ends.

This incompatibility admits various interpretations: But we will see further inconsistent epithets below. Agesilaus 14, Van den Berg This juxtaposition poses a problem: Again the multiple-word attributes are capped by a syntactically complex participial phrase which repeats the semantic shift to Ares the planet.

The following clause pulls us towards the latter interpretation, with its first-person singular: Ares are highly structured in both form and meaning. They set up a range of thematic material: Ares the warrior, Ares the civic-minded supporter of justice, Ares the fiery planet.

But one could cite Orph. His suggestion that it is unique is refuted by Orph. Hence hymnic attribute-lists are either a designed selection, or at most a representative sample of what can be said. The Hymn to Ares would be an example of a designed selection.

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A pair of anonymous and undated hymns preserved in the Palatine Anthology 9. In brief, West argued it was by Proclus. Gelzer rejected this for two reasons: Van den Berg Ares certainly prompts a turn in how one perceives Ares. If the hymn is not Proclan, one can still see why he imitated it: See the next page [currently attached as last page of this document] for a text of the hymn to Apollo. Both alphabetical hymns choose as their midpoint the last epithet of v.

Moreover both hymns use the epithets like a 4x24 grid where vertical as well as horizontal juxtapositions are suggestive. In the main text, I provide word-for-word translations.

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I am grateful to Peter Watts and Richard Bell for drawing to my attention the similar alphabetical acrostics in the Hebrew of Psalms 25, 34, and Luz69 refers to Christian hymns in Greek which imitate this. This vertical juxtaposition involves a kind of confirmation, in that the earlier thought can now be reapplied to Delphi: Such vertical juxtapositions become operative, for an oral audience as well as for a reader, thanks to a further aspect of this list of exclusively single-word epithets: Metrical practice in the hexameter restricts a four-word line to certain shapes.

In this hymn to Apollo, eleven of the twenty-four lines in the epithet-list — including five consecutive lines — have their three word-breaks at the strong caesuras of the second and third feet and the bucolic diaeresis. I do not find it helpful to take these alphabetical hymns as mere linguistic games devoid of religious intent. Consider the following passage from the eighteenth hymn, whose papyrus dates to the 4th century CE: Line-numbers and references to other magical hymns follow PGM ii.

This specification of polyonymy seems to be carried through by the four epithets of v. If long lists have a feeling of enumeration, this one pointedly flouts basic numeracy. Graf discusses PGM hymn 18, but without mentioning the flouting of numeracy.

Both lists of names involve a heterodox syncretism of Artemis, Persephone, Hecate and the Moon, without which the act of naming would be different and, potentially, ineffectual. These passages eschew attribution through relative clauses and participles and so, given the structure of the hexameter, the attributes tend to fall into a pattern of four per line, or three of which either the first or last is extended into a multiple-word noun-phrase.

Unlike in the alphabetic hymn, the magical context here gives particular point to the rhythmic emphasis which derives from anaphora and more regularly spaced word-breaks, since it brings these parts of the hymn towards the generic codes of incantation — that is, a specific mode of performance of divine invocations.

Regarding the regulation of word-breaks I am reminded particularly of the sequence in the binding song at A. A connection of such effects to rhythmical entrainment and trancing could perhaps be drawn with sufficient space and caution, but not here. I take the Hymn to Athena 32 as my example: Eleven epithets follow, then three lines of requestand three further attributes in the final line. The arrangement of attributes of different types single-word, multiple-word, participial, relative is therefore not made a basis of patterning as in the Hymn to Ares.

The two prepositions in 16 show that it is corrupt, and the problem repeats one in Whereas in the Hymn to Ares I compared the trajectory of the attribute-list to a rocket-launcher, here attributes with semantic connections appear in blocks. Line 3 introduces a characteristic Orphic variation on this blocking: We shall return to this block below. The end of line 3 and the relative clause in form a further block of favoured haunts. The rest of lines bring us to a stage where it becomes clear that these blocks are interacting with each other.

Line 9 helps to integrate this new facet of Athena: Guthriecompares Orph. I suggest that the odd idea that Athena likes caves and peakswhich Ruhnken wanted to seclude to avoid the anomaly may be interpretable in terms of this coherence. Other phrases also allude from within the hymn to the way verbal interactions between humans and gods may work. Most obviously, the hymnist prays to a queen who receives many prayers 17hence situates himself within ritual tradition and normalises his request. But we have seen that the build- up is different: Such an attempt requires tools of analysis which may be esoteric.

In an Orphic context, there are outsiders, initiates mystaiand full initiates epoptai — or local variants of these strata — who have different levels of knowledge about the mysteries. Hence the interpretative requirements imposed by an attribute-list allow for the hymn to reinforce the hierarchy of knowledge within the cult: My aspiration is not, of course, to discover all those tools.

For example, I fail to see why Athena is called a snake in this particular context She discusses logic- bending juxtapositions also on pp.

For lists and ineffability in medieval liturgy cf. Guthrieon her iconographical connection to snakes.