11 Incredible Points In The World Where Major Bodies Of Water Join Together
In geography, a confluence (also: conflux) occurs where two or more flowing bodies of water join together to form a single channel. A confluence can occur in several configurations: at the point where a tributary joins a larger river (main stem); or where two streams meet to become the source of a river . In German, this confluence is known as the "Deutsches Eck" ("German. When two or more bodies of water meet, like rivers, it's called a confluence. are determined by what debris, silt, vegetation or chemicals the water caries, which. What's the difference between a bight and a bay? Here is a rundown of the many different types of bodies of water, A stream (#1) tends to be the generic term for flowing water; a river (#2) is the largest, while a creek (#3) is a small stream In Scotland and England that's sometimes called a burn (#17).
See also artificial recharge. Groundwater storage capacity - The space or voids contained in a given volume of soil and rock deposits. Groundwater table - The upper surface of the zone of saturation, except where the surface is formed by an impermeable body. H Habitat - The local environment in which organisms normally live and grow. Habitat conservation plan HCP - An agreement between the Secretary of the Interior and either a private entity or a state that specifies conservation measures that will be implemented in exchange for a permit that would allow taking of a threatened or endangered species.
Habitat diversity - The number of different types of habitat within a given area. Habitat fragmentation - The breaking up of habitat into discrete islands through modification or conversion of habitat by management activities. Hardpan - A layer of nearly impermeable soil beneath a more permeable soil, formed by natural chemical cementing of the soil particles.
Hard water - Water high in multivalent cations, such as calcium and magnesium. This type of water does not lather easily when used with soap and forms a scale in containers when allowed to evaporate.
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Hatch box - A device used to incubate relatively small numbers of eggs. The hatch box is usually located adjacent to a stream, which supplies the box with water. Hazardous materials - Anything that poses a substantive present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
Headcut - A break in the slope at the top of a gully or section of a gully that forms a "waterfall" which in turn causes the underlying soil to erode and the gully to expand uphill.
Headcutting - The action of a bedscarp or headward erosion of a locally steep channel or gully. Headwater - Referring to the source of a stream or river. Heavy metals - Metallic elements with high atomic weights, e. They can damage living things at low concentrations, and tend to accumulate in the food chain. Hungry water - Clear water minus its expected suspended sediment load, usually released from an impoundment that has excess energy, which erodes sediment from the downstream channel.
Hydraulic gradient - The slope or the water surface. See also streambed gradient. Hydraulic radius - The cross-sectional area of a stream divided by the wetted perimeter. Hydrograph - A curve showing stream discharge over time. Hydrologic balance - An accounting of all water inflow to, water outflow from, and changes in water storage within a hydrologic unit over a specified period of time. Hydrologic region - A study area, consisting of one or more planning subareas, that has a common hydrologic character.
Hydrologic unit - A distinct watershed or river basin defined by an eight-digit code. Hydrology - The scientific study of water of the earth, its occurrence, circulation, and distribution, its chemical and physical properties, and its interaction with the environment, including its relationship to living things. Hyporheic zone - The area under the stream channel and floodplain where groundwater and the surface waters of a stream are exchanged freely.
I Impermeable channel - A material that has properties preventing movement of water through it. Incised river channel - A river that erodes its channel by a process of degradation to a lower base level than existed previously or is consistent with the current hydrology.
Infiltration soil - The movement of water through the soil surface into the soil. Inflow - Water that flows into a stream, lake, reservoir, or Forebay during a specified period.
Instream cover - The layers of vegetation, like trees, shrubs, and overhanging vegetation, that are in the stream or immediately adjacent to the wetted channel. Instream flows - 1 Portion of a flood flow that is contained by the channel. Instream use - Use of water that does not require diversion from its natural watercourse. For example, the use of water for navigation, recreation, fish and wildlife, aesthetics, and scenic enjoyment. Intermittent stream - Any nonpermanent flowing drainage feature having a definable channel and evidence of scour or deposition.
This includes what are sometimes referred to as ephemeral streams if they meet these two criteria. Invertebrate drift - Stream and terrestrial invertebrates that float with the current. Irrigation diversion - Generally, a ditch or channel that deflects water from a stream channel for irrigation purposes. Irrigation efficiency - The efficiency of water application and use. Computed by dividing evapotranspiration of applied water by applied water and converting the result to a percentage.
Efficiency can be computed at three levels: Irrigation return flow - applied water that is not transpired, evaporated, or deep-percolated into a groundwater basin but returns to a surface water supply.
K Key watershed - As defined by National Forest and Bureau of Land Management District fish biologists, a watershed containing 1 habitat for potentially threatened species or stocks of anadromus salmonids or other potentially threatened fish, or 2 greater than six square miles with high-quality water and fish habitat.
Keyway key - The notch excavated into the side of a gully or stream to anchor a check dam or other structure. Lake - An inland body of standing water deeper than a pond, an expanded part of a river, a reservoir behind a dam. Landscape - A heterogenous land area with interacting ecosystems that are repeated in similar form throughout. Landscape diversity - The size, shape, and connectivity of different ecosystems across a large area.
Landscape features - The land, water, vegetation, and structures that compose the characteristic landscape. Landslide - a movement of earth mass down a steep slope.
Large woody debris LWD - Pieces of naturally occurring wood larger than 10 ft long and 6 in. Leaching - The flushing of minerals or pollutants from soil or other material by the percolation of applied water. Leaf area index - A measure of the total area of leaves, twigs, stems, etc. Levee - An embankment constructed to prevent a river from overflowing flooding.
Lifts - Layers of loose soil. Used to specify how much loose soil should be laid down at a time before it must be compacted or wrapped in geotextile fabric. Limiting factor - A requirement such as food, cover, or another, physical, chemical, or biological factor that is in shortest supply with respect to all resources necessary to sustain life and thus "limits" the size or retards production of a population.
Limnology - The study of life in lakes, ponds, and streams. Loading - The influx of pollutants to a selected water body. Longitudinal profile - A graphic presentation of elevation vs. Lotic - Meaning or regarding things in running water.
Macroinvertebrate - Invertebrates visible to the naked eye, such as insect larvae and crayfish. Macrophytes - Aquatic plants that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye.
Main stem - The principal channel of a drainage system into which other smaller streams or rivers flow.
Mass movement - The downslope movement of the earth caused by gravity.
TPWD: Glossary of River Terminology
Includes but is not limited to landslides, rock falls, debris avalanches, and creep. It does not however, include surface erosion by running water. It may be caused by natural disturbances e. Mean annual discharge - Daily mean discharge averaged over a period of years. Mean annual discharge generally fills a channel to about one-third of its bank-full depth. Mean velocity - The average cross-sectional velocity of water in a stream channel.
Surface values typically are much higher than bottom velocities. May be approximated in the field by multiplying the surface velocity, as determined with a float, times 0. Meander - The winding of a stream channel, usually in an erodible alluvial valley. A series of sine-generated curves characterized by curved flow and alternating banks and shoals. Meander amplitude - The distance between points of maximum curvature of successive meanders of opposite phase in a direction normal to the general course of the meander belt, measured between centerlines of channels.
Meander belt width - The distance between lines drawn tangential to the extreme limits of fully developed meanders.
Not to be confused with meander amplitude. Meander length - The lineal distance downvalley between two corresponding points of successive meanders of the same phase. Mesic - Moderately wet. Mineralization - The process whereby concentrations of minerals, such as salts, increase in water, often a natural process resulting from water dissolving minerals found in rocks and soils through which it flows.
Moisture stress - A condition of physiological stress in a plant caused by lack of water. Morphology - the form, shape, or structure of a stream or organism. Multipurpose project - A project designed to serve more than one purpose. For example, one that provides water for irrigation, recreation, fish and wildlife, and, at the same time, controls floods or generates electric power.
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Natural flow - The flow past a specified point on a natural stream that is unaffected by stream diversion, storage, import, export, return flow, or change in use caused by modifications in land use. Net water demand net water use - The amount of water needed in a water service area to meet all requirements.
It is the sum of evapotranspiration of applied water ETAW in an area, the irrecoverable losses from the distribution system, and the outflow leaving the service area; does not include reuse of water within a service area such as reuse of deep-percolated applied water or use of tailwater.
Nick point - The point at which a stream is actively eroding the streambed to a new base level. Non-cohesive soil - Soil particles that have no natural resistance to being pulled apart at their point of contact, for example, silt, sand, gravel. Non-point source pollution NPS - Pollution that does not originate from a clear or discrete source.
Normalization - The mathematical manipulation of a variable to allow comparisons with an otherwise different variable. Normalized demand - The process of adjusting actual water use in a given year to account for unusual events such as dry weather conditions, government interventions for agriculture, rationing programs, or other irregularities. O Off-channel area - Any relatively calm portion of a stream outside of the main flow. Overbank flow - Water flow over the top of the bankfull channel onto the floodplain.
Outfall - The mouth or outlet of a river, stream, lake, drain or sewer. Oxbow - An abandoned meander in a river or stream, caused by cutoff. Used to describe the U-shaped bend in the river or the land within such a bend of a river. Pathogens - Any virus, bacteria, or fungi that cause disease.
Peat - Partially decomposed plants and other organic material that build up in poorly drained wetland habitats. Per capita water use - The water produced by or introduced into the system of a water supplier divided by the total residential population; normally expressed in gallons per capita per day gpcd.
Perched groundwater - Groundwater supported by a zone of material of low permeability located above an underlying main body of groundwater with which it is not hydrostatically connected. Percolation - The downward movement of water through the soil or alluvium to a groundwater table.
Perennial streams - Streams that flow continuously. Perennial yield - The maximum quantity of water that can be annually withdrawn from a groundwater basin over a long period of time during which water supply conditions approximate average conditions without developing an overdraft condition. Sometimes referred to as sustained yield. Permeability - The capability of soil or other geologic formations to transmit water. Phytoplankton - Minute plants, usually algae, that live suspended in bodies of water and that drift about because they are too small or too weak to swim effectively against the current.
Piping - The process by which water forces an opening around or through a supposedly sealed structure, such as a check dam or levee. As water flows through, the opening usually grows larger and the water carries awat sediment or levee material. Point bar - The convex side of a meander bend that is built up due to sediment deposition. Point Source PS - 1 A stationary or clearly identifiable source of a large individual water or air pollution emission, generally of an industrial nature.
Point source is also legally and more precisely defined in federal regulations. Contrast with non-point source NPS pollution. Point source PS pollution - Pollutants discharged from any identifiable point, including pipes, ditches, channels, sewers, tunnels, and containers of various types.
See non-point source NPS pollution. Pollutant - 1 Something that pollutes, especially a waste material that contaminates air, soil, or water. Pollution of water - The alteration of the physical, chemical, or biological properties of water by the introduction of any substance into water that adversely affects any beneficial use of water.
Pond - A body of water smaller than a lake, often artificially formed. Pool - A reach of a stream that is characterized by deep, low-velocity water and a smooth surface. Used to describe fish habitat rearing quality. Probability of exceedence - The probability that a random flood will exceed a specified magnitude in a given period of time.
Pumped storage project - A hydroelectric power plant and reservoir system in which water released for generating energy during peak load periods is stored and pumped back into the upper reservoir, usually during periods of reduced power demand. R Rapid - A reach of stream that is characterized by small falls and turbulent, high-velocity water. Rapid drawdown - Lowering the elevation of water against a bank faster than the bank can drain, leaving a pressure imbalance that may cause the bank to fail.
Reach - A section of stream between two defined points. Rearing habitat - Areas in rivers or streams where juvenile fish find food and shelter to live and grow. Rearing pond - An artificial impoundment in which juvenile fish are raised prior to release into the natural habitat.
Recharge basin - A surface facility, often a large pond, used to increase the percolation of surface water into a groundwater basin. Recreational rivers - Rivers or sections of rivers that are readily accessible by road or railroad, that may have some development along their shoreline, and that may have undergone some impoundment or diversion in the past.
Recycled water - Urban watershed that becomes suitable, as a result of treatment, for a specific direct beneficial use. See also water recycling. Reforestation - The natural or artificial restocking of an area with forested trees. Regime theory - A theory of channel formation that applies to streams that make a part of their boundaries from their transported sediment load and a portion of their transported sediment load from their boundaries.
Channels are considered in regime or equilibrium when bank erosion and bank formation are equal. Restoration - The return of an ecosystem to a close approximation of its condition prior to disturbance. Return flow - The portion of withdrawn water not consumed by evapotranspiration or system losses that returns to its source or to another body of water. Reuse - The additional use of previously used water.
Revetment - A facing of stone, bags, blocks, pavement, etc. Riffle - A reach of stream that is characterized by shallow, fast-moving water broken by the presence of rocks and boulders. Rift - A shallow or rocky place in a stream, forming either a ford or a rapid. Rill erosion - Removal of soil particles from a bank slope by surface runoff moving through relatively small channels. The water collecting from these small channels may then concentrate into a larger channel downhill to form the start of a gully.
Riparian area - An area of land and vegetation adjacent to a stream that has a direct effect on the stream. This includes woodlands, vegetation, and floodplains.
Riparian habitat - The aquatic and terrestrial habitat adjacent to streams, lakes, estuaries, or other waterways. Riparian - Located on the banks or a stream or other body of water. Riparian vegetation - The plants that grow adjacent to a wetland area such as a river, stream, reservoir, pond, spring, marsh, bog, meadow, etc. Ripple - 1 A specific undulated bed form found in sand bed streams.
Riprap - Rock or other material with a specific mixture of sizes referred to as a "gradation" used to stabilize streambanks or riverbanks from erosion or to create habitat features in a stream. River channels - Large natural or artificial open streams that continuously or periodically contain moving water, or which form a connection between two bodies of water. River miles - Generally, miles from the mouth of a river to a specific destination or, for upstream tributaries, from the confluence with a main river to a specific destination.
River reach - Any defined length of river. River stage - The elevation of the water surface at a specified station above some arbitrary zero datum level. Riverine - Relating to, formed by, or resembling a river including tributaries, streams, brooks, etc.
Riverine habitat - The aquatic habitat within streams and rivers. Rock - A naturally formed mass of minerals. Rootwad - The mass of roots associated with a tree adjacent to or in a stream that provides refuge for fish and other aquatic life. Run in stream or river - A reach of stream characterized by fast-flowing, low turbulence water.
Runoff - Water that flows over the ground and reaches a stream as a result of rainfall or snowmelt. S Salinity - The concentration of mineral salts dissolved in water. Salinity may be measured by weight total dissolved solidselectrical conductivity, or osmotic pressure. Where seawater is known to be the major source of the salt, salinity is often used to refer to the concentration of chlorides in the water.
Salinity intrusion - The movement of saltwater into a body of freshwater. It can occur in either surface water or groundwater bodies. Salt marsh - Saltwater wetlands that occur along many coasts.
Amazing: A place where two oceans meet but do not mix
Saltwater barrier - A physical facility or method of operation designed to prevent the intrusion of saltwater into a body of freshwater. Sand - Small substrate particles, generally from 0. Sand is larger than silt and smaller than gravel. Scenic rivers - Rivers or sections of rivers that are free of impoundments, with shoreline and watersheds still largely primitive, and shorelines largely undeveloped, but accessible in places by roads.
Scour - the erosive action of running water in streams, which excavates and carries away material from the bed and banks. Scour may occur in both earth and solid rock material and can be classed as general, contraction, or local scour. Seasonal application efficiency SAE - The sum of evapotranspiration of applied water and leaching requirement divided by the total applied water, expressed as a percentage: Secchi depth - A relatively crude measurement of the turbidity cloudiness of surface water.
The depth at which a Secchi disc diskwhich is about in. Secchi disc - A circular plate, generally about in Its primary use is in the study of lakes.
Secondary treatment - In sewage, the biological process of reducing suspended, colloidal, and dissolved organic matter in effluent from primary treatment systems. Secondary treatment usually involves the use of trickling filters or the activated sludge process.
Sediment - Soil or mineral material transported by water or wind and deposited in streams or other bodies of water. Sedimentation - 1 The combined processes of soil erosion, entrainment, transport, deposition, and consolidation. Sediment load - The soil particles transported through a channel by stream flow. Seepage - The gradual movement of a fluid into, through, or from a porous medium. Setback - Denotes the positioning of a levee or structure in relationship to a stream bank.
A setback levee is placed a substantial distance from a stream to allow it to meander without consequences to the levee and to accommodate a floodplain that can store and convey flood flows. A setback regulation of a certain number of feet can be a requirement for the placement of urban buildings away from a stream channel bank. Sewage - The liquid waste from domestic, commercial, and industrial establishments.
Shear - Force parallel to a surface as opposed to directly on the surface. An example of shear would be the Tractive force that removes particles from a stream bank as flow moves over the surface of the slope; a floating log that directly strikes the bank would not be a shear force.
Sheet erosion - The removal by surface runoff of a fairly uniform layer of soil from a bank slope from "sheet flow" or runoff that flows over the ground surface as a thin, even layer not concentrated in a channel. Silt - Substrate particles smaller than sand and larger than clay 3 to 60 um. Siltation - the deposition or accumulation of fine soil particles.
Sinuosity - The ratio of channel length to direct down-valley distance. Also may be expressed as the ratio of down-valley slope to channel slope. Slope - The ratio of the change in elevation over distance.
Slope stability - The resistance of a natural or artificial slope or other inclined surface to failure by mass movement. Slough - A shallow backwater inlet that is commonly exposed at low flow or tide. Sloughing or sloughing off - Movement of a mass of soil down a bank into the channel also called slumping.
Sloughing is similar to a landslide. Snag - Any standing dead, partially dead, or defective cull tree at least 10 in. Snags are important riparian habitat features. Soft water - Water that contains low concentrations of multivalent cations, such as calcium and magnesium.
This type of water does not precipitate soaps and detergents. Soil bioengineering - Also referred to as biotechnical slope protection. Involves the use of live and dead woody cuttings and poles or posts collected from native plants to revegetate watershed slopes and stream banks. The cuttings, posts, and vegetative systems composed of bundles, layers, and mats of the cuttings and posts provide structure, drains, and vegetative cover to repair eroding and slumping slopes. Soluble minerals - Naturally occurring substances capable of being dissolved.
Spawning - The depositing and fertilizing of eggs or roe by fish and other aquatic life. Spillway - A channel for reservoir overflow. Stable channel - A stream channel with the right balance of slope, planform, and cross section to transport both the water and sediment load without net long-term bed or bank sediment deposition or erosion throughout the stream segment.
Stone - Rock or rock fragments used for construction. Stream - A general term for a body of water flowing by gravity; natural watercourse containing water at least part of the year.
In hydrology, the term is generally applied to the water flowing in a natural narrow channel as distinct from a canal. Stream bank - The side slopes of an active channel between which the streamflow is normally confined. Stream channel - A long narrow depression shaped by the concentrated flow of a stream and covered continuously or periodically by water.
Stream gradient - A general slope or rate of change in vertical elevation per unit of horizontal distance of the bed, water surface, or energy grade of a stream. Stream morphology - The form and structure of streams. Stream order - A hydrologic system of stream classification. Each small unbranched tributary is a first-order stream. Two first-order streams join to make a second-order stream. A third-order stream has only first and second-order tributaries, and so forth.
Stream reach - An individual segment of stream that has beginning and ending points defined by identifiable features such as where a tributary confluence changes the channel character or order.
Streambank erosion - The removal of soil from streambanks by flowing water. Streambank protection works - Structure placed on or near a distressed stream bank to control bank erosion or prevent failure. Streambank stabilization - The lining of streambanks with riprap, matting, etc. Streambed - 1 The unvegetated portion of a channel boundary below the baseflow level. Streamflow - The rate at which water passes a given point in a stream or river, usually expressed in cubic feet per second cfs.
Stream power - Directly related to the sediment transport rates of a stream and measured as the loss of potential energy per unit length of stream channel. It refers to the ability of a stream to do work. Substrate - 1 The composition of a streambed, including either mineral or organic materials. Subsurface drainage - Rainfall that is not evapotranspirated or does not become surface runoff. Superfund list - A list of the hazardous waste disposal sites most in need of cleanup.
The list is updated annually by the U. Supply augmentation - Alternative water management programs such as conjunctive use, water banking, or water project facility expansion that increase supply. Surface erosion - The detachment and transport of soil particles by wind, water, or gravity. Or a group of processes whereby soil materials are removed by running water, waves and currents, moving ice, or wind.
Surface supply - Water supply from streams, lakes, and reservoirs. Surface water - All water whose surface is naturally exposed to the atmosphere, for example, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, streams, impoundments, seas, estuaries, etc.
Surplus water - Developed water supplies in excess of contract entitlement or apportioned water. Suspended sediment load - Sediment suspended in a fluid by the upward components of turbulent currents, moving ice, or wind. Suspended sediment load - That portion of a stream's total sediment load that is transported within the body of water and has very little contact with the streambed.
Swale - Small depressions, natural or artificial, that carry water only after a rainfall. Tailwater - 1 The area immediately downstream of a spillway. Terrace - An abandoned floodplain that is located at a higher elevation than the current active floodplain. Tertiary treatment - In sewage, the additional treatment of effluent beyond that of secondary treatment to obtain a very high quality of effluent for reuse.
Texture - Refers to relative proportions of clay, silt, and sand in soil. Thalweg - 1 The lowest thread along the axial part of a valley or stream channel. Tidal flats - Saltwater wetlands that are characterized by mud or sand and daily tidal fluctuations. Toe - The break in slope at the foot of a stream bank where the bank meets the bed.
Top of bank - The break in slope between the bank and the surrounding terrain. Torrent - 1 A turbulent, swift-flowing stream. Total dissolved solids TDS - A quantitative measure of the residual minerals dissolved in water that remain after evaporation of a solution.
Usually expressed in milligrams per liter. Trash rack - A barrier placed at the upstream end of a culvert to trap debris but allow water to flow through.
Tractive force - The drag on a streambed or bank caused by passing water, which tends to pull soil particles along with the streamflow. Transpiration - An essential physiological process in which plant tissues give off water vapor to the atmosphere. Tributary - A stream that flows into another stream, river, or lake.
Turbidity - A measure of the content of suspended matter that interferes with the passage of light through the water or in which visual depth is restricted. Suspended sediments are only one components of turbidity.
U Unravel - The lose material from the edges of a revetment. This occurs when two streams join to become one river or, as in the examples below, when a tributary joins a larger river. As you can see in these stunning pictures, confluences take place all over the world and create some beautiful scenery with the distinct colors they display. These color differences are determined by what debris, silt, vegetation or chemicals the water caries, which clearly contrast the river they join into.
The two rivers meet in Canyonlands National Park in Utah. It carries less sediment than the Ohio River, giving it a greener tinge.
The Ohio River is the largest tributary of the Mississippi and contains high levels of sediment, turning it a brown color. They are both major rivers of Northern India, and the Alaknanda travels miles through the Alaknanda Valley before meeting the dam filled and turbulent Bhagirathi River in Deyprayag.
Despite its name, the Rio Negro is not technically black, but does harbor a very dark color. When it meets the Rio Solimoes, which is the name given to the upper stretches of the Amazon River in Brazil, the two rivers meet side by side without mixing.
There certainly is a stark contrast between the deep colored Rio Negro and the sandy hued Amazon River. It supports plenty of fish life and is distinguished be clear colored water, much cleaner than the Yangtze River of which it feeds into. The Yangtze River is the longest river in Asia and is very culturally and historically important to the country.