–02 India–Pakistan standoff - Wikipedia
Tension has dominated relations between India and Pakistan since their independence from British rule in The Dec. 13, , attack on. Groups targeting the peace process between India and Pakistan . in , Pakistan's participation in the global war on terror changed the. This was the first major military standoff between India and Pakistan since the Kargil War in.
India did not mobilise its troops. Pakistan moved its troops towards the border, albeit only briefly, which were withdrawn after few days of talks. The case, besides lacking sufficient evidence to hold any particular organisation or state responsible, received an unusual media lacklustre in India. An operation that lasted nearly three days resulted in all six terrorists dead along with seven security personnel and a civilian. The Indian intelligence agencies linked the terrorists to Jaish-e-Mohammed, based on the evidence tracked from the phone calls and GPS.
Almost all debates on the news channels and editorials of newspapers in India pursued the theme that the terrorist attacks should not derail the peace process between the two countries. These five major terrorist attacks in India that had originated in Pakistan show us the changing conflict terrain in nuclearized South Asia during the last two decades. This implies that the space for an armed conflict in South Asia has definitely reduced.
This, in turn, has paved the way for diplomatic dialogues, both official and unofficial, as a breakdown of diplomacy leaves no option other than military action.
- Key events in India-Pakistan relations since Partition
- Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts
- India–Pakistan relations
Militant groups, some of them nurtured and supported by the Pakistani state for its own goals, became self-sustaining in terms of funding and recruitment.
Over a period, the groups splintered and some of them turned against the state. During the last two years or so, the Islamic State or Daesh has made its presence felt in the Af-Pak region attracting many fighters from the older groups. Even the groups dormant within Pakistan such as Jaish-e-Mohammed and Lashkar-e-Toyiba, which were sometimes referred to as good terroristshave started showing signs of rebellion.
Timeline: India-Pakistan relations | News | Al Jazeera
For instance, Masood Azhar, the Jaish-e-Mohammad founder sought by India for the Pathankot and other attacks, has threatened retaliation if Pakistan shuts down terrorist groups operating against India. The capture of Swat Valley by Taliban in and ; the Lal Masjid operation in ; the Peshawar School massacre in December ; the Safoora Goth bus attack in ; and the Bacha Khan University attack in January are stark reminders of this fact.
Consequently, the change in narrative seems inevitable and is slowly becoming visible. The task of improving relations with India, however, is not easy and there is still a lot of ground to cover. The state power in Pakistan is shared by the civil government, led by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and the military under the army chief Raheel Sharif.
Pakistan insists it only offers them moral support. The nuclear race India first began building its own nuclear weapons in the mids, after China began nuclear tests.
Mahatma Gandhi had wanted independence without partition InIndia conducted its first nuclear test - the so-called "Smiling Buddha" detonations in the Rajasthan Desert. A few years later, Pakistan began to develop its own programme of nuclear weapons. Both countries were also developing and testing both short-range and intermediate-range missiles.
In AprilPakistan finally tested its new Ghauri intermediate-range nuclear missile, named after a 12th century Muslim warrior who conquered part of India.
This test is thought to have prompted India's nuclear tests the following month. On Monday May 11, India announced it had conducted three underground tests at Pokhran in the northern state of Rajasthan. Two days later it announced that another two explosions had taken place.
India's actions were widely condemned by the international community and Pakistan was urged not to retaliate. But on May 28, Pakistan announced that it had conducted five nuclear tests of its own in south-western Baluchistan. The tests were widely criticised throughout the world, and led to the imposition by some countries of sanctions.
A war had broken out in East Pakistan in Marchand soon India was faced with a million refugees. India declared war on December 3, after Pakistani Air Force planes struck Indian airfields in the Western sector. Two weeks later, the Indian army marched into Dhaka and the Pakistanis surrendered.
A brief history of the Kashmir conflict
In the Western sector the Indians managed to blockade the port city of Karachi and were 50 km into Pakistani territory when a ceasefire was reached.
In Indira Gandhi, the Indian prime minister, and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, her Pakistani opposite number and father of Benazir Bhutto, a later Pakistani premiersigned the Simla Agreement, which reiterated the promises made in Tashkent. The two sides once again agreed to resolve the issue peacefully, as domestic issues dominated.
Both India and Pakistan had other important domestic problems which kept Kashmir on the back-burner. In Indira Gandhi declared a state of national emergency, but she was defeated in the general elections.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was overthrown and hanged in ; Pakistan reverted to military dictatorship under Gen Zia ul Haq.
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The balance of influence had decisively tilted in Pakistan's favour by the late s, with people's sympathy no longer with the Indian union as it had been in and Mrs Gandhi's attempts to install puppet governments in state capitals, manipulating the democratic process in the state legislatures, deeply angered the Kashmiris. The status quo was largely maintained until when pro-independence and pro-Pakistan guerrillas struck in the Indian Kashmir valley.
They established a reign of terror and drove out almost all the Hindus from the valley before the Indian army moved in to flush them out. Meanwhile Indian and Pakistani troops regularly exchanged fire at the border. Whereas in India took the Kashmir issue to the UN and was all for a plebiscite, by the s it hid behind the Simla agreement and thwarted any attempts at UN or third-party mediation. Over the decades the plebiscite advocated by India's great statesman Jawaharlal Nehru became a dirty word in New Delhi.
These developments have led many to believe that Delhi has squandered the Kashmiri people's trust and allegiance. India and Pakistan both tested nuclear devices in Mayand then in April test-fired missiles in efforts to perfect delivery systems for their nuclear weapons. Although Pakistan claims that its missiles are an indigenous effort, in July Indian customs agents seized components shipped from North Korea which they claim were destined for Pakistan's missile programme.