Similarly, the last bilateral series between India and Pakistan was held in Where cricket changes political outcomes, politics also inevitably. Undeniably, it has been a great shame for cricket in Pakistan with a , is perhaps the obvious showpiece to showcase Pakistan's changing “When I was at the ICC, relations between India and Pakistan were excellent. Explore India Pakistan Relations profile at Times of India. While there was not much change in the positions taken by both countries on key.
Significance of cricket diplomacy Cricket is considered the most popular game in the world but it is the most popular one in India and Pakistan. Diplomatic progress was shattered in when alleged militants based in Pakistan mounted terrorist attacks in Mumbai.
Then the peace talk resumes in World cup cricket match between the two countries. Result of this match was in the form of new initiation of peace talks between the two old rivals. In a goodwill gesture ahead of this cricket match, Pakistani government also freed an Indian national, Gopal Das, who has been languishing in a Pakistani prison for 27 years as an alleged spy March It shows that a game can change the fate of nation and its people.8 Unforgettable Friendship Moments between India and Pakistan in Cricket History - BEST TEAM SPIRIT
Cricket can be used for ushering diplomatic relations and media can be an effective tool in this and political leader too if desirous can enhance the relations between both the nuclear powers of Asia i.
Cricket diplomacy consists of using the game of cricket as a political tool to enhance or worsen the diplomatic relations between two cricket playing nations.
The cricket rivalry between the national cricket teams of India and Pakistan is one of the most intense sports rivalries in the world. After independence inboth nations laid foundations for the emergence of an intense sporting rivalry between the two nations who had erstwhile shared a common cricketing heritage.
People feel that Cricket diplomacy is a positive move, which made both authorities to visit the opposite nation and enhance the relationship between the two nuclear powers of Asia. Cricket matches have in the past used as meeting opportunities and for discussions or icebreakers on the sidelines. Sports diplomacy describes the use of sport as a means to influence diplomatic, social, and political relations. Experts suggest that sports diplomacy may transcend cultural differences and bring people together.
In a statement9 on 18 July at Islamabad, Pakistan President Asif Ali Zardari referred to the resumption of cricketing ties with India as a formidable confidence building measure and a way forward to encouraging people-to-people contact.
Undoubtedly, such inputs suggest it would add to the positive atmosphere which has been witnessed by the two countries after resumption of the bilateral dialogue. Former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Syed Yousuf Raza Gilani also stated10 that World Cup semifinal match between India and Pakistan in Mohali proved to be a catalyst for improving ties between the two countries and that it had brought the two governments and two nations closer.
However, sports and politics have had both positive and negative implications over history. Nationalistic fervor are sometimes linked to victory or loss on sports fields. In case of India and Pakistan, cricket has frequently been the victim of poor relations between these neighbors with tours blocked for years because of bad-blood; nevertheless, it has also been used to build trust and confidence when ties are improving. Cricket diplomacy can play great role in enhancing bilateral relations of India and Pakistan but with the affirmative media presentation [ 5 ].
Cricket as an element for improving indo-pak relations Cricket has been an important element in the process of improving relations between India and Pakistan; and improvements have certainly been needed. Politics and sports are in a relatively long line of treatises that assert that it is naive and unrealistic to view the sport as separate and above social, economic, and more specifically, political activity.
Sports are linked to political socialization, formation of the political culture and development of national identity [ 6 ]. The more serious sport is to citizens, the more likely a government will use sport as a vehicle of policy and control. Sport is an essential instrument serving the national and political integration of a country. Rajdeep Sardesai, wrote in his blog13 that Indo-Pak cricket could be compared with the diplomatic relations between the two countries and believes that it suffers from acute schizophrenia and is in a state of dilemma.
InPakistani crowd were praising Indian Bowler, Balaji etc. Rajdeep believes that there is a similarity between the two for their unpredictable nature. The result of the visit of Pakistani president Pervez Mushraff, in to India to watch a cricket match between India and Pakistan which effectively turned into the summit and the both countries agreed to open up the militarized frontier dividing the disputed Kashmir region. Cricket has a long history as a platform for diplomacy and public diplomacy between India and Pakistan.
Rockower [ 7 ] supports this by saying that the highlevel cricket diplomacy is helpful and beneficial for taking diplomacy wickets, real people-to-people cricket diplomacy would do far more to lower the levels of hostility between the two sides.
Sports journalism Sports journalism is a form of journalism that reports on sports topic and events. Sports journalism is an essential element of any news media organization. There is a socio-political significance of sports journalism. As the example of cricket the stories related to it transcends the game spirit and take on socio-political significance by connecting the people of more than two countries in the common thread of entertainment and enhancing the political relations.
Journalism is mainly concerned with the reporting of events and forming the emotional attachment to events by spreading the magic of words. Sports representation by media Representations of sports in the media are key sites for political and social struggles around race and nation. Sport is often and appropriately, analyzed as being representative of broader social relations, it is an important site in its own right for the production, reproduction and transformation of social relations.
Social learning involves socialization and enduring effects on the viewer. Viewers may be more likely to internalize a media message if they think it is sponsored by someone they respect. A sponsor effect would enhance whatever message is being conveyed. The media have an impact on the attitude and behaviour of people and media helps society to bring at the peace situation [ 9 ]. Role of media in diplomacy Today media, which is found in various forms like television, radio, magazines, newspaper, and now on the information superhighway, can be said to have the power to inform the public about the truth.
The media has shaped the way society views itself and the thinks about politics, economy, religion etc. Media affects the perception of people about their leaders, shaping or formulation of policies of the country and it can even enhance or worsen the situation between two countries.
Issues are raised and projected through the salience assigned to them and how an issue is portrayed affects the way audiences look at it. Media promotes what it believes is easiest for the public to accept.
Public opinion is formed through media propaganda [ 10 ]. Propaganda unconsciously causes the public to act in ways they may not have, had they not been exposed.
After studying the media influence on public opinion during the presidential elections in the US, Mc Coombs and Shaw, suggested this theory in highlighting that media are not, according to this approach, crude agents of propaganda.
They organize public understanding. Agenda setting describes a very powerful influence of the media- the ability to tell us what issues are important. Every media organization sets an agenda to report and make the vote of people for a particular issue.
Print media It is one of the oldest and most basic forms of mass communication. Print media are the earliest form of modern mass media in India.
The real reason Pakistan keeps losing to India at cricket - Sport - omarcafini.info
It includes newspapers, weeklies, magazines, monthlies and other forms of printed journals. The contribution of print media is providing information and transfer of knowledge is remarkable. Even after the advent of electronic media, the print media has not lost its charm or relevance [ 11 ].
Print media have the advantage of making a longer impact on the minds of the readers, with more in- depth reporting and analysis [ 12 ].
The Indian press has always enjoyed an exalted position and has been seen as a watchdog of the nation and its institution and same is the case with neighbouring country Pakistan. This is an achievement despite its limited reach and spread.
There are only about 57 million copies of newspapers of all periodicity, for the population of million. In other words there is only one newspaper for every 15 persons Newspapers help in shaping public opinion and influence decision making. Credibility is the central theme of media writing. So the journalists and editors also realize their responsibility and the need to be fair and just, in informing honestly and earnestly, because their readers comprise a large amorphous and heterogeneous audience [ 13 ].
Mass media can produce a change not only in attitudes but also in behavior and maintains a well designed media campaign aimed specifically at influencing behavior can play a crucial role by creating a positive social environment conducive to behavioral change. For example both India and Pakistan media presenting the opposite team in positive frame can affect the behaviour and attitude of people in two nations.
Objectives Keeping in consideration the area under study, following objectives have been framed for the study: The purpose and significance of the study The study aims to analyze the print media portrayal of cricket between India and Pakistan and how it can be used to shape the public and political agenda. The objective of the study is to examine the role of newspapers in bilateral relations in the perspective of cricket. The aim behind this investigation is to draw the conclusions from the media presentation of the matches before the audience.
Research will try to find out that whether print media is playing a significant role while presenting the content regarding the cricket diplomacy between India and Pakistan or the presentation of media is negative? After studying the presentation and importance given by the print media of both the countries, it will be further analyzed that is there any role of media in enhancing or worsening the relations between nations?
It will provide the path for the full fledged research on the topic to explore the significance of cricket diplomacy and media presentation.
India–Pakistan relations - Wikipedia
Methodology To achieve the objectives of this research study, following methodology was applied and an attempt was made to analyze the sample in a qualitative and quantitative manner. For this purpose, content analysis was used to check the coverage in terms of the variables of frequency, perspectives and other aspects and framing also formed an important tool in this study as these are more suited for this kind of research and assessment as the results defined the objectives set for this study.
Content analysis Content Analysis or textual analysis is a method in the social sciences for studying the content of any media message. Identify the different purposes that Content analysis is used for including determining the trends in portrayals in media texts, policies and aims of the news producers, assessing the representation of particular issues, drawing inferences about media effects while comparing the media content with the real world.
Researchers quantify and analyze the presence, meanings and relationships of chosen variables or codes, then make inferences about messages within the texts, the writer sthe audience and even the culture and time of which theses are a part. Framing Is the social construction of a social reality by mass media sources or specific political or social movements or organizations?
Framing is a process of constructing or deconstructing an issue or event using different elements and media texts. A frame defines the packaging of an element of rhetoric in such a way as to encourage certain interpretations and to discourage others.
Framing may be of two types; positive or negative and due to the advancement of the world neutral framing is also included. The decision, however, cost New Delhi dearly. Maulana, who is believed to be hiding in Karachilater became the leader of Jaish-e-Mohammedan organisation which has carried out several terrorist acts against Indian security forces in Kashmir.
The Fort houses an Indian military unit and a high-security interrogation cell used both by the Central Bureau of Investigation and the Indian Army. The terrorists successfully breached the security cover around the Red Fort and opened fire at the Indian military personnel on duty killing two of them on spot. The attack was significant because it was carried out just two days after the declaration of the cease-fire between India and Pakistan.
The attack was carried out on 25 Septemberjust few days after state elections were held in Jammu and Kashmir. Two identical letters found on both the terrorists claimed that the attack was done in retaliation for the deaths of thousands of Muslims during the Gujarat riots.
Though no terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attacks, Mumbai Police and RAW suspected Lashkar-e-Toiba 's hand in the twin blasts. Before the terrorists could reach the main disputed sitethey were shot down by Indian security forces. One Hindu worshipper and two policemen were injured during the incident.
This was the first major military standoff between India and Pakistan since the Kargil War in The military buildup was initiated by India responding to a Indian Parliament attack and the Jammu and Kashmir legislative assembly attack.
At least 68 people were killed, mostly Pakistani civilians but also some Indian security personnel and civilians. The sole surviving gunman Ajmal Kasab who was arrested during the attacks was found to be a Pakistani national. This fact was acknowledged by Pakistani authorities. Islamabad resisted the claims and demanded evidence. India provided evidence in the form of interrogations, weapons, candy wrappers, Pakistani Brand Milk Packets, and telephone sets.
They also said that, given the sophistication of the attacks, the perpetrators "must have had the support of some official agencies in Pakistan". India and weapons of mass destructionPakistan and weapons of mass destructionand nuclear race India has a long history of development of nuclear weapons. InIndia's nuclear program was aimed at the development of nuclear weapons, with Indira Gandhi carefully overseeing the development of weapons.
Starting preparations for a nuclear test inIndia finally exploded its first nuclear bomb in Pokhran test range, codename Smiling Buddhain No official announcements of such cold tests were made by Pakistan government. Ina mutual understanding was reached between the two countries in which each pledged not to attack nuclear facilities.
Agreements on cultural exchanges and civil aviation were also initiated, also in Pokhran-II which invited Pakistan to follow the latter's step and performed its own atomic tests see: Talks and other confidence building measures After the war, Pakistan and India made slow progress towards the normalisation of relations.
They signed the Simla Agreementby which India would return all Pakistani personnel over 90, and captured territory in the west, and the two countries would "settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations.
The Prime Ministers of Pakistan and India met twice and the foreign secretaries conducted three rounds of talks. In Junethe foreign secretaries identified eight "outstanding issues" around which continuing talks would be focused. The conflict over the status of Kashmir, referred by India as Jammu and Kashmiran issue since Independence, remains the major stumbling block in their dialogue.
It however refuses to abide by the previous part of the resolution, which calls for it to vacate all territories occupied. In Septemberthe talks broke down over the structure of how to deal with the issues of Kashmir, and peace and security.
Pakistan advocated that the issues be treated by separate working groups. India responded that the two issues be taken up along with six others on a simultaneous basis. Attempts to restart dialogue between the two nations were given a major boost by the February meeting of both Prime Ministers in Lahore and their signing of three agreements. A subsequent military coup in Pakistan that overturned the democratically elected Nawaz Sharif government in October of the same year also proved a setback to relations.
The talks fell through. On 20 Junewith a new government in place in India, both countries agreed to extend a nuclear testing ban and to set up a hotline between their foreign secretaries aimed at preventing misunderstandings that might lead to a nuclear war.
Manmohan Singh become prime minister of India in Maythe Punjab provincial Government declared it would develop Gahhis place of birth, as a model village in his honour and name a school after him. There are two main reasons for this: Moreover, coming under intense international pressure, Islamabad was compelled to take actions against the militants' training camps on its territory. Inthe two countries also agreed upon decreasing the number of troops present in the region.
Under pressure, Kashmiri militant organisations made an offer for talks and negotiations with New Delhi, which India welcomed. India's Border Security Force blamed the Pakistani military for providing cover-fire for the terrorists whenever they infiltrated into Indian territory from Pakistan. Pakistan in turn has also blamed India for providing support to terrorist organisations operating in Pakistan such as the BLA. InPakistan's information minister, Sheikh Rashid, was alleged to have run a terrorist training camp in in N.
The Pakistani government dismissed the charges against its minister as an attempt to hamper the ongoing peace process between the two neighbours. Both India and Pakistan have launched several mutual confidence-building measures CBMs to ease tensions between the two. These include more high-level talks, easing visa restrictions, and restarting of cricket matches between the two.
The new bus service between Srinagar and Muzaffarabad has also helped bring the two sides closer. Pakistan and India have also decided to co-operate on economic fronts. Some improvements in the relations are seen with the re-opening of a series of transportation networks near the India—Pakistan border, with the most important being bus routes and railway lines.
A major clash between Indian security forces and militants occurred when a group of insurgents tried to infiltrate into Kashmir from Pakistan in July The same month also saw a Kashmiri militant attack on Ayodhya and Srinagar. However, these developments had little impact on the peace process. An Indian man held in Pakistani prisons since as an accused spy walked across the border to freedom 3 Marchan unconditional release that Pakistan said was done to improve relations between the two countries.
The idea was that Indian and Pakistani children would make pen pals and write friendly letters to each other. The idea was so successful in both countries that the organisation found it "impossible to keep up".