Population and natural resources have a strong relationship with one another. The growth and decline of population affects the availability of. What is at issue is whether population growth is detrimental to or beneficial explaining the relation between population and economic growth. Population growth rates during varied considerably, from 3 .. such as the relationship between a key group like women and the environment (to the .
Indicators of severe environmental stress include the growing loss of biodiversity, increasing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing deforestation worldwide, stratospheric ozone depletion, acid rain, loss of topsoil, and shortages of water, food, and fuel-wood in many parts of the world.
Page 6 Share Cite Suggested Citation: With current technologies, present levels of consumption by the developed world are likely to lead to serious negative consequences for all countries.
This is especially apparent with the increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide and trace gases that have accompanied industrialization, which have the potential for changing global climate and raising sea level. In both rich and poor countries, local environmental problems arise from direct pollution from energy use and other industrial activities, inappropriate agricultural practices, population concentration, inadequate environmental management, and inattention to environmental goals.
- Looking for other ways to read this?
When current economic production has been the overriding priority and inadequate attention has been given to environmental protection, local environmental damage has led to serious negative impacts on health and major impediments to future economic growth. Restoring the environment, even where still possible, is far more expensive and time consuming than managing it wisely in the first place; even rich countries have difficulty in affording extensive environmental remediation efforts.
The relationships between human population, economic development, and the natural environment are complex. Examination of local and regional case studies reveals the influence and interaction of many variables.
For example, environmental and economic impacts vary with population composition and distribution, and with rural-urban and international migrations. Furthermore, poverty and lack of economic opportunities stimulate faster population growth and increase incentives for environmental degradation by encouraging exploitation of marginal resources.
Population growth and consumption.
Both developed and developing countries face a great dilemma in reorienting their productive activities in the direction of a more harmonious interaction with nature. If all people of the world consumed fossil fuels and other natural resources at the rate now characteristic of developed countries and with current technologiesthis would greatly intensify our already unsustainable demands on the biosphere.
Yet development is a legitimate expectation of less developed and transitional countries.
However, in the last decade food production from both land and sea has declined relative to population growth. A Potential population-supporting capacities: B Population pressure, poverty and environmental degradation: UNFPA can support policy-relevant research to clarify the relationship.
Population growth and consumption.
C Population and food security: UNFPA "can help clarify this important issue by, for example, supporting studies of national food production capability under different population growth and density scenarios", especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
It can also support country studies on: D Population and the growth of cities: But urbanization also creates its own management problems. UNFPA can support research on e. E Population and deforestation: UNFPA can support research to clarify the role of those causes, particularly population factors. F Population and desertification: The extent of desertification taking place in these areas is likely to be caused by a multiplicity of factors of which population pressures, density and migration play a role that should be clarified by careful research".
G Population and water scarcity: UNFPA can support research that will provide a solid basis for the design of informed policy options and effective strategies to reach sustainable levels of water use".
H Population and environmental migration: UNFPA "can support research on the causes and consequences of environmental refugees, particularly in relation to their reproductive health needs".
I Gender, population and environment: In many societies they produce most of the food and care for the land [ They] are also the major caretakers of health and the main providers of water for domestic uses, which makes it critical to involve them in the decision-making process".
UNFPA "can provide support for research [on] the nature and importance of the roles of men and women, and the ways in which those roles [affect] attempts to promote sustainable development". Since the integration of population and environmental factors cannot be pursued without appropriately trained personnel--particularly in the public sector--capacity building is crucial.
UNFPA should "support relevant training in population and the environment for persons from appropriate agencies in the public sector" and "from accredited national, regional and international NGOs".
The need for advocacy is also recognized, for "sustained support for viewing environmental issues in a population context will depend on [the] creation of awareness and the dissemination of understanding of the links between population and environment are important steps in the sustainable development process.
UNFPA should "support activities to inform, educate, and communicate on the nature of the issues involved [as well as] actively support community efforts and the production and dissemination of relevant information material".