Islamic Golden Age - Wikipedia
Relations among Muslims, Jews, and Christians have been shaped not only by the aspects of Arab culture to the religion of Islam and Israeli culture to Judaism . What is important to remember is that the historical interactions of Muslims, Jews, and Arabs were recruited into the armies of both sides, providing horse and. The typical expression of Muslim art is the arabesque, both in its of Arabic belles lettres, contrasting them with the Islamic religion, which The first attempt at a philosophy of history, Ibn Khaldūn's They thus created the wonderful fabric of Islamic culture that was so much admired in the Middle Ages by. Today, the term Islamic art describes all of the arts that were produced in the to describe religious art or architecture but applies to all art forms produced in the Islamic art is not a monolithic style or movement; it spans 1, years of history and the Dome of the Rock and the Aqsa Mosque—both in Jerusalem)—and the.
Avicenna was an important commentator on the works of Aristotlemodifying it with his own original thinking in some areas, notably logic.
This was particularly the case in Pariswhere so-called Arabic culture was proscribed inthough the influence of his psychology and theory of knowledge upon William of Auvergne and Albertus Magnus have been noted.
Dante Aligheri argues along Averroist lines for a secularist theory of the state in De Monarchia. Monfredo de Monte Imperiali Liber de herbis, 14th century. He notes that dictation was a necessary part of Arabic scholarship where the vowel sounds need to be added correctly based on the spoken wordand argues that the medieval Italian use of the term "ars dictaminis" makes best sense in this context.
He also believes that the medieval humanist favouring of classical Latin over medieval Latin makes most sense in the context of a reaction to Arabic scholarship, with its study of the classical Arabic of the Koran in preference to medieval Arabic.
Latin translations of the 12th century and Science in the medieval Islamic world A page from Frederick Rosen's edition of Al-Khwarizmi 's Algebra alongside the corresponding English translation. During the Islamic Golden Age, certain advances were made in scientific fields, notably in mathematics and astronomy algebraspherical trigonometryand in chemistryetc. The method of algorism for performing arithmetic with Indian-Arabic numerals was developed by the Persian al-Khwarizmi in the 9th century, and introduced in Europe by Leonardo Fibonacci — Christian-Muslim Relations in Europe The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and the emergence of newly demarcated states in the Middle East, the retreat of colonialist powers around the world, the creation of the states of Pakistan and Israel, the rise of the Islamic republic in Iran, postcolonial conflicts in Southeast Asia and parts of Africa, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the breakup of Yugoslavia and consequent ethnic cleansing—these and many other factors have led to large numbers of Muslims moving to western Europe.
Some have come as refugees, some simply seeking a better life. Following the ties developed through Western colonialism Muslims have come from Turkey to Germany, from North Africa to France, from Indonesia to the Netherlands, from the Indian subcontinent to Britain.
Islamic arts | omarcafini.info
More recently, refugees have arrived, and continue to arrive, from Syria, Iraq, Palestine, Somalia, and elsewhere. Some 30 million Muslims now make their home in Europe. The great rise in Muslim immigration in the last several decades is perhaps the single most important factor influencing the ways in which Europeans view Muslims.
Muslims are arriving in virtually all the countries of Europe from all over the world, looking for work, education, and a better life. Europeans, for their part, see Muslims not only as part of a generally foreign religion that has been viewed as both repellant and seductively attractive through the decades of the last century or more, but now also as neighbors and even competitors for employment and the services of the state.
This, of course, creates a dramatically new situation for Christian-Muslim relations. Some very specific events in different parts of Europe have led to outrage by Muslims and thus to rising tensions between the two communities. Particularly noteworthy were the so-called cartoon controversies, which started with the publication in a Danish newspaper on September 30,of a series of some twelve cartoons, most deprecating the prophet Muhammad.
The cartoons were reprinted in more than fifty newspapers worldwide, as a result of which hundreds of thousands of Muslims took to the streets to protest and riot, leading to incidents of brutality and killing.
The Islamic world in the Middle Ages
Christians were shocked, Muslims were angry and hurt, and interfaith relations suffered a serious setback. Acts of terror on the part of Muslims, including the bombings in New York, Madrid, and London, have helped to polarize European responses to Muslims and Islam. Events that are mainly about political power or economic resources nonetheless may be identified with the religion of the perpetrators. Negative stereotyping by the press and media promote fear among the general public.
Muslims, meanwhile, wonder why Europeans can so often fail to relate their own subjugation of native Muslim populations through the various means of Western imperialism and colonization to subsequent acts of violence on the part of Muslims.
Many immigrants experience a kind of continuation of colonialist treatment in various European countries, some feeling marginalized, disaffected, and economically passed over. Instead of the wonderful new life they dreamed of they find inferior educational opportunities, unemployment in some European cities up to 70 percent of the Muslim population is unemployedand poor housing. For some immigrants these disparate conditions lead to violence, crime, drug use, and increasing radicalization, especially of youth.
The relative ease of travel to home countries may, in some cases, encourage immigrants to identify with radical elements of Islam. In Sweden, for example, which is a fairly new host to Muslim immigrants, journalists attest to the presence of some 1, Islamic extremists.
A second generation of Muslims is now fully established as citizens of respective European countries, doubling in the last decade. Islam is growing in many European countries not only because of immigration, but also because of high rates of birth as well as conversion. Convert women are among the most active in participating in interfaith discussions and in explaining Islam to non-Muslims. Issues such as wearing of the hijab, public call to prayer and building of mosques with visible minarets, availability of halal meat, participation of Muslim girls in some public school activities, and a host of other issues must be faced by Europeans.
Some among the Muslim population, perhaps growing, want nothing to do with Western life and values, leading to feelings of marginalization and economic disadvantage.
Conversations between Muslims and other Europeans are also difficult because of the high level of anti-Muslim prejudice, encouraged by the press and other forms of media. Changes in European churches have made it difficult to bring Christians and Muslims together for conversation.
As Protestant churches are increasingly empty except for ritual events, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic populations are on the rise. Fortunately, some positive developments in interfaith relations are taking place. Some Protestant churches are attempting to educate their parishioners about Islam. Muslims and Christians are working together on issues of everyday life, with interaction between women on the increase.
Some efforts on the part of Christian churches to address these issues of disparity and to attempt to promote better understanding and even dialogue have proven successful. In some cases, churches and mosque communities are working together to counter the new militant atheism that is increasingly popular in Europe.
The churches themselves, however, have generally lost power and influence in most of Europe and find resources for such efforts sadly lacking. Since his installation in March Pope Francis has encouraged the Roman Catholic Church to intensify its dialogue with Islam and with Muslim leaders so that each community views the other not as the enemy but as brothers and sisters.
An important ingredient in these conversations is the understanding that the religious communities of Europe share a common history and face a united future, whether they want it or not. The World Council of Churches, which has promoted interfaith conversation among all major religious groups since the midth century, is working now to promote bilateral dialogue between Christians and Muslims in the context of multilateral events.
Christian-Muslim Relations in the United States The American Muslim community is greatly diverse, including ethnic, racial, denominational, and ideological distinctions. Among the groups that have been most amenable to dialogue in the United States are South Asians generally fluent in EnglishIranians, and certain Arabs.
The African American Muslim community began most notably with the development of the Nation of Islam in the midth century. They want to exercise their constitutional rights to free speech in expressing their objection to certain American foreign policies, at the same time that they fear the consequences of the Patriot Act and other actions they view as assaults on their civil liberties.
Meanwhile other Americans are struggling to understand that the Muslims with whom they interact in businesses, schools, and neighborhoods are different from the Muslim extremists who are calling for even more dire measures against the United States.
Right-wing evangelical rhetoric against Islam has been fueled by incidents of international terrorism involving Muslims. Analysts sometimes identify what they call the Islamophobia industry in America, which produces anti-Muslim material at an estimated worth of more than 40 million dollars each year. Christian-Muslim dialogue in the United States has taken a number of forms. Until recently, most of it has been initiated by Christian denominations, organizations, and churches.
Since some Muslim groups have become interested in opening conversations with Christian and Jewish neighbors to help explain that theirs is a religion of peace and not one of hatred and violence as it is often portrayed by the media.A brief history of religion in art - TED-Ed
Some dialogues are highly academic, featuring religious professionals from the ranks of clergy or university professors. Other conversations are more informal, with both sides attempting simply to learn a little about each other. Rather than the traditional interfaith conversations about theology, newer efforts are being made to find topics of mutual interest and contemporary relevance. One example is the dialogue focused on a shared approach to decisions about moral and ethical matters, such as questions related to family and gender relations, ecology, or the consequences of new technologies and scientific advancements.
This can mean not only discussing, but also observing, and even, in some cases, participating in the rituals of the other. On rare occasions it may take the form of specially designed interfaith worship. Many of the formal dialogues held in America have been sponsored by national religious organizations.
Conference of Catholic Bishops for well over a decade has organized dialogues among religious leaders, primarily priests and imams, held on both coasts and in the Midwest.
The National Council of Churches recently began a nationwide dialogue focused on issues of human rights and on countering stereotypical portrayals of Muslims and Islam in the media. A number of Christian denominations, most notably the Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Baptists, and United Church of Christ, have been creative in developing new forms of engagement with Islam.
Until recently most national Muslim organizations have not been proactive in developing dialogue with Christians. This situation is changing, however, and national groups such as the Islamic Society of North America, the Islamic Council of North America, the Muslim American Society, and the Muslim Political Action Committee have added concern for building better interfaith relations to their agendas.
Muslims are starting to understand that they must develop their own language of encounter. Both cultural and linguistic gaps must be overcome. Within the Muslim community itself certain asymmetries serve to further complicate efforts at communication with other faith communities. African Americans may be further marginalized insofar as problems they may consider most salient, such as poverty or racism, are not usually broached as subjects of interfaith dialogue.
Of major concern to both Muslims and Christians is finding ways in which to involve young people in interfaith engagement. Along with activities that involve action rather than conversation, youth are attracted by the growing use of social media and networking to foster interfaith engagement.
Efforts are currently underway to develop social media as a new channel for interreligious and intercultural discussion. Most colleges and universities provide comprehensive lists of interfaith organizations on their respective campuses. It began with yet another incident interpreted by Muslims as an insult to their religion. Response to that incident led to an unprecedented Muslim invitation to dialogue.
Muslims were deeply offended by the apparent insult to their religion and their Prophet Muhammad, and again violence broke out. The pope publicly apologized for his remarks and insisted that the words of the Byzantine emperor in no way reflected his own feelings. Nonetheless, the speech was taken by Muslims as a reiteration of ancient diatribe by Christians against Islam, portraying it as a violent and irrational religion.
During the Renaissance, there was no unified Italy; it was a land of independent city-states. Each city developed a highly local, remarkable style. At the same time, there are certain underlying themes or similarities that unify the art and architecture of these cities and allow scholars to speak of an Italian Renaissance. Themes Similarly, there are themes and types of objects that link the arts of the Islamic world together. Calligraphy is a very important art form in the Islamic world.
Quranic verses, executed in calligraphy, are found on many different forms of art and architecture. Likewise, poetry can be found on everything from ceramic bowls to the walls of houses. Likewise, certain building types appear throughout the Islamic world: However, their forms vary greatly. View of the minarets of the Blue Mosque, Istanbul photo: Graham Bould One of the most common misconceptions about the art of the Islamic world is that it is aniconic; that is, the art does not contain representations of humans or animals.
Badawy The study of the arts of the Islamic world has also lagged behind other fields in art history. There are several reasons for this.