The Differences Between Data, Information and Knowledge :: Infogineering - Master Your Information
Goal of this work is not to study and analyze relationships between data, information and knowledge, (it is beyond my competences) but to. Learn how data, information and knowledge are defined and related, and examples of the huge amount of data that managers may receive. We frequently hear the words Data, Information and Knowledge used as if they are the For example, one of the frequent mistakes was that they lost “data.
The implications of this are: However, the use of a single design task for all subjects might have resulted in a task that was too easy for no occurrences observed. Categories related to the design process are discussed in expertise; or too difficult for a novice designer.
The All the observations and interviews were audio recorded designers would generate a decision and then immediately and transcribed, resulting in 51 pages of transcripts. No implement this decision. The results of the implementation categorisation of data was determined prior to the observations.
If rejected, the process was repeated. This summarise the designers thoughts and actions.
Categories were process of trial and error was observed many times with novice created to summarise all these thoughts and actions. A few designers and only once with experienced designers.
Smith and additional categories were required in the analysis of later Leong found a similar difference in their observations of transcripts to accommodate all the data. The final transcripts students novices and professional engineers [Smith, ]. This may explain the need to Twenty-one categories of thoughts and actions were generated implement a decision before evaluating to determine if this from the analysis of the observations.
They were also observed undertaking tasks to gain a better understanding of the problem. Occurrences of Thoughts and Actions number of occurrences observed: Experienced designers were aware of the experienced of the novice designers with two and a half years reasons behind a particular component or a specific experience. He was occasionally observed considering issues, manufacturing process that was used in a particular design. This They assessed the reasons and their applicability to the typical behaviour of experienced designers.
If the component or process was not necessary and leaving it out would help solve the problem at hand, the component or process would be removed or modified. This illustrates how the boundaries of the Generate Implement Evaluate problem solution space could be expanded.
A specific example was the use of a cold expansion process, which caused difficulty in manufacturing. The designer was aware of the stress conditions that required this additional manufacturing process, and was confident that Reject these conditions would not occur. He therefore decided that this process was no longer required.
Data Information and Knowledge
Designers often referred to past Experienced designers were observed to adopt a different projects when deciding to modify or remove a process or pattern. They generated decisions and then evaluated the component, as described above.
They would also refer to consequences before their implementation. If this first past projects to ensure consistency. A specific example evaluation indicated that the implementation of the decision was ensuring notes on drawings were consistent between was not feasible, it would be rejected there and then.
This question was asked in would the decision be implemented and then re-evaluated. For example, the experienced designers would question whether reducing the weight of a Generate Evaluate Implement Evaluate component is worth pursuing, if only a small reduction was feasible.
Experienced designers questioned data provided to them. For example, how models were loaded was questioned before accepting the results of stress analysis. The experienced designers would reject an option, if it unnecessarily limited later options in Figure 2. However, they kept rejected options in the back of their minds in case they needed them later. Experienced designers were aware process of trial and error. Experienced designers also carried that many decisions are based upon compromises.
For out a number of activities that the novice designers did not. Their awareness of issues and how they related led to trade-offs. Experienced designers considered the effects of implementing a decision on manufacturing, assembly, maintenance, etc. They would reject a decision, 3.
These definitions provide arose. The experienced designers were not hesitant in insight into the differences between experienced and novice requesting information. When asked for advice experienced designers. The definitions are operational in that they can help designers often referred to a different knowledge source.
Baird to define the required support. Furthermore, a clear and Marsh also observed the expert as a pointer to other understanding of these terms is necessary to interpret the knowledge sources [Marsh,Baird, ]. The novice designers expressed the need to talk to an expert, noting this down. This maybe due to a preference to 4. Novice designer number 3 in This section discusses the relationship between data, Tables 1 and 2 was more confident in asking questions.
He information and knowledge to help shed light on the was the most experienced of the novice designers. He kept a differences between experts and novices.
He felt that he was more 4. He attributed this to having more become inconsistent when examined in relation to one knowledge and, hence, being more likely to understand the another.
During his interaction with colleagues, Data are often described as information in numerical form he was observed asking for the reason for a particular [Benyon, in Court, ] or as one or more symbols component and process. He was obviously aware that he which represent something [Court, ]. Information is needed to know this. Nonaka and Takeuchi describe information as the flow of messages 3.
Confusion arises because definitions of data The results are tentative and further observations and and information often refer to each other. Knowledge is related to human actions and is apply this knowledge and approach depends on the existing created from a flow of messages [Nonaka, ].
Yes No Knowledge Information Figure 3.
Journal of Knowledge Management Practice,
Terms such as knowledge-based systems, data for some users and knowledge for others. Wigg It is concluded that data, information and knowledge are suggests knowledge can indeed be possessed outside of the relative concepts and that these cannot be defined in absolute human mind and also suggests agents are capable of beliefs and terms. The distinction between these terms depends upon the judgements [Wigg, ].
A third example taken from the observations is used information and knowledge as an important one, e. Hubka to illustrate this. From the definitions in the literature, the following In general, the definitions given tend to be absolute characteristics related to data, information and knowledge were definitions. These definitions are not useful for our purposes identified: These are used to because they do not take into account what happens when a help understand the distinction between the terms.
Two stages are proposed to differentiate between data, information and knowledge: During the awareness stage, Defining data, information and knowledge in absolute an observer becomes aware of the data.
If the observer is also terms implies data is always data, information is always aware of the context of the data, the data has meaning to the information, and knowledge is always knowledge. Defining in observer and hence is information. Stress Analysis of a Compressor Blade meaning. If the observer is unaware of the context, the data has no meaning and hence remains as data see Figure 3. If the observer is of a maintenance manual for a gas turbine engine written in able to interpret the information, the information can become Japanese refer to Figure 3.
During the awareness stage, the knowledge. An observer is able to interpret if the observer can observer is aware of the existence of the data, in this case a understand the language and the concepts, e. If this volume is picked up by a technician who technical drawing, able to understand Japanese, etc.
If the is unaware that this is a gas turbine engine manual unaware of observer can not interpret the information, it remains context and does not recognise Japanese, the symbols on the as information, but has the potential to become knowledge if page remain data as they have no meaning. The same data becomes information in the mind of this user. If she is aware that she is looking at a maintenance manual written in Japanese aware of context. For the manual to provide knowledge, the manual needs to be translated.What is the difference between data, information and knowledge?
In this data, e. The difference between these of the context and knowledge of carrying out maintenance on novices and experienced designers becomes apparent during a gas turbine can be gained. For this reason a Hence, information is dependent on an awareness of the third stage is added, i. Knowledge is what is learnt after 4. The signal high-pressure compressor blade see Figure 5. For example, take yourself. You may be 5ft tall, have brown hair and blue eyes. You have brown hair whether this is written down somewhere or not.
We can perceive this data with our senses, and then the brain can process this. Until we started using information, all we could use was data directly. If you wanted to know how tall I was, you would have to come and look at me. Our knowledge was limited by our direct experiences. Information Information allows us to expand our knowledge beyond the range of our senses.
We can capture data in information, then move it about so that other people can access it at different times. Here is a simple analogy for you. If I take a picture of you, the photograph is information. But what you look like is data. I can move the photo of you around, send it to other people via e-mail etc. So, in the case of the lost tax records, the CDs were information.
Mrs Jones still lives at 14 Whitewater road, and she was still born on 15th August The Infogineering Model below explains how these interact… Why does it matter that people mix them up?