Impact of Nuclear Arsenals on India-Pakistan Relations
equation between India and Pakistan is stable, India has begun to widen the political gap between them. he India–Pakistan relationship cannot be fully. nuclear weapons would preclude a limited conflict between India and a shift in India's strategy will have on bilateral relations with Pakistan. Despite the shared cultural, historic, geographic, and economic ties between the two nations, the India-Pakistan relationship has been marked by aversion and.
A car bomb exploded near an armoured Indian Army vehicle in the famous Church Lane area in Srinagar killing four Indian Army personnel, one civilian and the suicide bomber. Terrorist group Hizbul Mujahideenclaimed responsibility for the attack. A terrorist attack on 29 July at Srinigar 's city centre, Budshah Chowk, killed two and left more than 17 people injured. Most of those injured were media journalists. No Terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attack.
A terrorist attack by four heavily armed terrorists on 18 Septembernear the town of Uri in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, killed 18 and left more than 20 people injured. It was reported as "the deadliest attack on security forces in Kashmir in two decades".
India blamed Pakistan for carrying out the attacks, an allegation which Pakistan strongly denied and one that brought both nations to the brink of a nuclear confrontation in — However, international peace efforts ensured the cooling of tensions between the two nuclear-capable nations. The plane was hijacked on 24 December approximately one hour after take off and was taken to Amritsar airport and then to Lahore in Pakistan.
After refueling the plane took off for Dubai and then finally landed in KandaharAfghanistan. Under intense media pressure, New Delhi complied with the hijackers' demand and freed Maulana Masood Azhar from its captivity in return for the freedom of the Indian passengers on the flight.
The decision, however, cost New Delhi dearly. Maulana, who is believed to be hiding in Karachilater became the leader of Jaish-e-Mohammedan organisation which has carried out several terrorist acts against Indian security forces in Kashmir. The Fort houses an Indian military unit and a high-security interrogation cell used both by the Central Bureau of Investigation and the Indian Army. The terrorists successfully breached the security cover around the Red Fort and opened fire at the Indian military personnel on duty killing two of them on spot.
The attack was significant because it was carried out just two days after the declaration of the cease-fire between India and Pakistan.
The attack was carried out on 25 Septemberjust few days after state elections were held in Jammu and Kashmir. Two identical letters found on both the terrorists claimed that the attack was done in retaliation for the deaths of thousands of Muslims during the Gujarat riots.
Though no terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attacks, Mumbai Police and RAW suspected Lashkar-e-Toiba 's hand in the twin blasts. Before the terrorists could reach the main disputed sitethey were shot down by Indian security forces. One Hindu worshipper and two policemen were injured during the incident.
This was the first major military standoff between India and Pakistan since the Kargil War in The military buildup was initiated by India responding to a Indian Parliament attack and the Jammu and Kashmir legislative assembly attack. At least 68 people were killed, mostly Pakistani civilians but also some Indian security personnel and civilians.
The sole surviving gunman Ajmal Kasab who was arrested during the attacks was found to be a Pakistani national. This fact was acknowledged by Pakistani authorities. Islamabad resisted the claims and demanded evidence. India provided evidence in the form of interrogations, weapons, candy wrappers, Pakistani Brand Milk Packets, and telephone sets.
They also said that, given the sophistication of the attacks, the perpetrators "must have had the support of some official agencies in Pakistan". India and weapons of mass destructionPakistan and weapons of mass destructionand nuclear race India has a long history of development of nuclear weapons. InIndia's nuclear program was aimed at the development of nuclear weapons, with Indira Gandhi carefully overseeing the development of weapons.
Starting preparations for a nuclear test inIndia finally exploded its first nuclear bomb in Pokhran test range, codename Smiling Buddhain No official announcements of such cold tests were made by Pakistan government. Ina mutual understanding was reached between the two countries in which each pledged not to attack nuclear facilities. Agreements on cultural exchanges and civil aviation were also initiated, also in Pokhran-II which invited Pakistan to follow the latter's step and performed its own atomic tests see: Talks and other confidence building measures After the war, Pakistan and India made slow progress towards the normalisation of relations.
They signed the Simla Agreementby which India would return all Pakistani personnel over 90, and captured territory in the west, and the two countries would "settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations. The Prime Ministers of Pakistan and India met twice and the foreign secretaries conducted three rounds of talks.
In Junethe foreign secretaries identified eight "outstanding issues" around which continuing talks would be focused. The conflict over the status of Kashmir, referred by India as Jammu and Kashmiran issue since Independence, remains the major stumbling block in their dialogue.
It however refuses to abide by the previous part of the resolution, which calls for it to vacate all territories occupied. In Septemberthe talks broke down over the structure of how to deal with the issues of Kashmir, and peace and security.
Pakistan advocated that the issues be treated by separate working groups. India responded that the two issues be taken up along with six others on a simultaneous basis. Attempts to restart dialogue between the two nations were given a major boost by the February meeting of both Prime Ministers in Lahore and their signing of three agreements.
A subsequent military coup in Pakistan that overturned the democratically elected Nawaz Sharif government in October of the same year also proved a setback to relations. The talks fell through.
- Nuclear neighbours: The India-Pakistan arms race
- Impact of Nuclear Arsenals on India-Pakistan Relations
On 20 Junewith a new government in place in India, both countries agreed to extend a nuclear testing ban and to set up a hotline between their foreign secretaries aimed at preventing misunderstandings that might lead to a nuclear war. Manmohan Singh become prime minister of India in Maythe Punjab provincial Government declared it would develop Gahhis place of birth, as a model village in his honour and name a school after him.
There are two main reasons for this: Moreover, coming under intense international pressure, Islamabad was compelled to take actions against the militants' training camps on its territory.
Inthe two countries also agreed upon decreasing the number of troops present in the region. Under pressure, Kashmiri militant organisations made an offer for talks and negotiations with New Delhi, which India welcomed. India's Border Security Force blamed the Pakistani military for providing cover-fire for the terrorists whenever they infiltrated into Indian territory from Pakistan. Pakistan in turn has also blamed India for providing support to terrorist organisations operating in Pakistan such as the BLA.
InPakistan's information minister, Sheikh Rashid, was alleged to have run a terrorist training camp in in N.
Nuclear neighbours: The India-Pakistan arms race | India | Al Jazeera
The possession of nuclear weapons by both India and Pakistan marked the second distinct nuclear rivalry in the world, after that of the United States and the former Soviet Union. To the horror of the world, India and Pakistan entered the Kargil War in May ofagain over insurgency in Kashmir.
This conflict, while ending peacefully a month after its inception, is the only example of direct warfare between two nuclear states. However, a much more serious incident occurred when two Pakistani terrorist groups opened a gunfire attack on the Indian Parliament on December 13, Twelve casualties including the five gunmen from the terrorist attack spurred India to increase military presence on the India-Pakistan border, prompting Pakistan to respond with an equal buildup Hewitt.
While martial casualties were never the result of direct warfare and rather resulting from artillery fire, the India-Pakistan standoff proved significant due to the speculation of nuclear backlash.
Borders were vacated and nuclear tensions eased following a series of diplomatic talks in Octoberthus ending the standoff Stolar.
Only the Cuban Missile Crisis eclipsed this incident of nuclear tension in world history. Indian soldiers after battle in Kargil War Since then, relations between India and Pakistan have been inching ever so slowly to a more peaceful existence, with reduced hostility relative to years past.
However, the territorial rivalry remains, and is likely to remain for far longer than we can speculate. India and Pakistan act as two roadblocks on the road to disarmament. No two nuclear nations are entwined as tightly as the two in discussion. Pakistan has claimed that it will not disarm weapons until major steps towards personal disarmament are taken by the United States, and has gone even further to claim that it will remain nuclear for as long as India does Harris.
India refuses to answer to what it considers hypocrisy — Western leaders pleading with nations such as China, India, and North Korea to disarm while taking no steps to do so for their own nations. However, hope for a future free of weapons of mass destruction remains. India, despite many failures of policy, still supports the negotiation of a worldwide disarmament policy that is universal, non-discriminatory, and verifiable, and continues to be one of the foremost leaders in international organizations in nonproliferation advocacy.