# Relationship between average variable cost and marginal

In business, both the fixed and variable costs are used to determine the cost of production. Marginal costs measure the change in production expenses for. When comparing the marginal cost curve and the average variable cost curve, production planners use each differently. Business owners use marginal cost to. Relationship between Average Cost, Average Variable Cost, and Marginal Cost in Short-Run. Article shared by. It has been seen that the AC and MC curves are.

As an example, a bottled water producer creates cases of bottled water. With each successive case, the producer evaluates changes in total cost.

This gives the producer a curve of the costs for the next case, or marginal case, of water. Initially, costs will fall as efficient levels are reached.

However, costs of aquiring additional water, more bottles, and additional labor tend to rise as quantity produced rises: Average Variable Cost Curve Average variable cost gives a representation of the average cost at a specific production level by comparing two entries, variable cost divided by quantity. The average variable cost curve is a representation of costs at specific quantities.

Visually, the average variable cost curve is concave up but starts higher and is much flatter than the marginal cost curve.

### Relationship between Average Cost, Average Variable Cost, and Marginal Cost in Short-Run

Continuing our example, lets assume that labor is our only variable cost and evaluate it at increasing production levels. Initially, labor can produce cases more efficiently. However, as production increases, labor will pass an efficient point and slow down or more labor will be needed. As a result average variable costs will rise. Curves Compared There are two main reasons that these curves cannot be the same.

The new flipped curve shows variable input as a function of output. At Q1, for example, the slope of the tangent to TVC simply indicates the amount of additional variable cost required to produce one more unit of output at Q1.

The numerical value of this slope is called marginal cost MC and is plotted on the graph below.

Then, MC increases after the inflection point. Thus, the inverted S-shaped TVC generates a U-shaped MC The U shape of MC is a reflection of first increasing returns followed by decreasing returns as more and more variable input is combined with the short-run fixed input.

Whereas MC is the slope of the tangent at that point. Afterwards, the slope of rays from the origin to TVC starts to increase Because TFC is a horizontal straight line, the slope of rays from the origin will uniformly decrease as output increases.

## Living Economics

AFC is therefore a decreasing curve. Here is the side-by-side comparison. These two methods generate identical ATC's.