Metabolic syndrome is defined as a group of coexisting metabolic risk mass index (BMI) in patients with metabolic syndrome in relation with. We investigated the associations between BMI/metabolic syndrome categories It has been proposed that the association between BMI and the development of. The prevalence of overweight (body mass index [BMI] 25 to ) and obesity The relationship of the metabolic syndrome to CKD also was recently examined.
It is also uncertain at what age the screening programs should be introduced, if at all. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in adults worldwide was estimated to be 4. The major part of this numerical increase will occur in developing countries from 84 million to million individuals. Figures forestimate that the prevalence of diabetes in the African region is 1. T2DM is a common disease with substantial associated morbidity and mortality [ 8 ].
Most adverse diabetes outcomes are a result of vascular complications, both at a macrovascular level coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral vascular disease and a microvascular level retinopathy, nephropathy, or neuropathy [ 8 ]. Hypertension has been identified as the most common cause of heart failure, stroke, chronic renal disease and spontaneous sudden deaths in Ghana [ 4 ].
It is also suspected that many Ghanaians living with the disease are unaware that they have the condition. Obesity which is defined as the excess of body fat in relation to lean mass has been shown to be both an independent direct risk factor for cardiovascular disease and an indirect risk factor because of its effects on diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidaemia [ 10 ].
However, the effect of obesity on risks for hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia has been shown to be more pronounced in individuals aged 20 to 45 years than among those aged 45 to The BMI is a simple reproducible measurement commonly used to classify adults as obese.
Some studies in elderly populations have also shown a correlation between body weight or body mass index BMI and severe blood pressure, particularly in men [ 10 ]. Few data are available from elderly minority populations, particularly Asians. Studies from China showed that BMI is significantly associated with BP in young and middle-aged lean populations [ 9 ].
Although different anthropometric indices of obesity are generally connected with hypertension and diabetes [ 411 ], the mechanisms and independent roles of these indices are not clear. The most commonly used anthropometric index of obesity is the body mass index BMI. BMI is a height-adjusted measure of overall body heaviness that is highly correlated with adiposities measured by computerized tomography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and doubly labeled water [ 12 ].
However, BMI has been found to lack sufficient explanatory power for many cardiovascular disorders. The regional body habitus most commonly linked to obesity are waist girth and skinfolds, such as subscapular and triceps. Waist-to-hip ratio WHR is also sometimes used as an anthropometric measure of abdominal fat accumulation [ 12 ]. However, WHR is not universally useful as a surrogate for predicting the visceral amounts of adipose tissue that are most metabolically responsible for the obesity-related disease risk or incidence of disease.
Hypertension and T2DM are interrelated metabolic disorders that strongly predispose an individual to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ASCVD and to renal failure [ 12 ]. Most diabetes mellitus and hypertension data depend on self-reports [ 13 ] and the estimated prevalence of diabetes and hypertension may be affected by an increase in the proportion if diagnosed.
Besides most of the time data on these conditions are urban centered. The people of Kumasi used to be mainly subsistent farmers, traders and industrial workers with a very simple diet. In recent years the city of Kumasi has grown enormously and the population now mostly uses public transport and other forms of transportation. Walking which represented one of the main forms of exercise is now rarely practiced.
Associated with this economic development and increasing urbanization is obesity and physical inactivity [ 14 ]. Hypertension shares many of the risk factors of diabetes.
Impact of BMI and the Metabolic Syndrome on the Risk of Diabetes in Middle-Aged Men
There is enough evidence suggesting the increase in hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in Ghana. Metabolic syndrome which has these conditions as risk factors has seen very little exposure in Ghana; hence there is very little data on metabolic syndrome.
It is therefore of importance that whiles looking at the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes in the Kumasi metropolis metabolic syndrome is given an attention, hence the need for this project to ascertain the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Kumasi metropolis. This study therefore aims to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among the people of Kumasi in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.
Blood pressure, fasting glucose level and waist circumference will be used as the 3 criteria to confirm the diagnoses of metabolic syndrome. Cholesterol level will also be measured and relating it to metabolic syndrome instead of triglycerides.
The participation of the respondents was voluntary and informed consent was obtained from each of them. Sample collection and preparation Venous blood samples were taken from subjects after an overnight fast 12 — 16 hours.
About 5 ml of venous blood was collected and dispensed into fluoride oxalate tubes and plain tubes without anticoagulant for separation into plasma and serum respectively. This was then taken to the laboratory and centrifuged at 1, g for 15 minutes at room temperature; the plasma was then used for the assay of glucose and the serum for cholesterol determination. Anthropometric variables Mercury sphygmomanometer was used to estimate the blood pressure.
Participants were made to rest for about 10 minutes and the pressure taken in a sitting position. Tape measure was used for the measurement of hip and waist circumference, while a tape measure on a wall was used for the height measurement.
Waist circumference was measured at the lowest point of the costal margins and hip circumference at the widest point of the hip. Other data like age, sex, and other personal data were obtained by the use of a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics are given as mean values and standard deviations. Bivariate analysis in the form of Pearson Correlation was carried out to determine the sex and age distribution of the respondents as well as the pattern of disease.Osamu Yokoyama - Metabolic Syndrome and LUTS - ICS 2016 Tokyo
The data were grouped into 7 age classes with class interval of 8. The class interval or age group and the number of classes were arrived at using Sturges Rule. The class ranged from, up to and those above 65 years. A total of respondents took part in the exercise from Bantama, Old Tafo and Santasi all suburbs of Kumasi. Cholesterol levels between patients with a different number of comorbidities in cohorts of patients with a primary diagnosis of type 2 diabetics, hypertension and diabetes with hypertension.
The potential morbidity conditions for diabetic patients included hypertension and hypercholesterolemia; those for hypertensives included diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia; and those for hypercholesterolemics included diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The lower and upper margins of the box represent the 25th and 75th percentiles, with the extended arms representing the 10th and 90th percentiles, respectively.
The median is shown as the horizontal line within the box. Outlying points are shown individually. Comparisons of body mass index and waist circumference between patients with a different number of comorbidities in cohorts of patients with a primary diagnosis of type 2 diabetics, hypertension and dyslipidaemia.
The potential morbidity conditions for diabetic patients included hypertension and dyslipidaemia; those for hypertensives included diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia; and those for dyslipidaemics included diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Metabolic Syndrome MS is normally diagnosed by the presence of any 3 of the following parameters — elevated blood pressure, raised blood fasting glucose, elevated waist circumference, elevated serum triglycerides, reduced HDL-C and insulin resistance.
There has not been any comprehensive study so far into the incidence and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in any part of Ghana, yet the national prevalence have been estimated at about This study therefore seeks to provide relevant data by estimating the prevalence of metabolic syndrome using Waist Circumference WCBlood Pressure and Fasting Blood Glucose. In this study a report on anthropometric measures of overall and central obesity as predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension risk in Kumai is made.
The mean age was This is followed by the age group of years with The least was in the age group of years representing 5. This study produced an overall prevalence rate of 8. The percentage obtained for females showed an increase over the overall prevalence rate while males showed a decrease with respect to the overall prevalence.
A similar study done by Rquibi and Belahsen [ 17 ] among Moroccan Sahraoui women reported a prevalence of Another study also carried out in Tunisia by Bouquerra et al. The low prevalence obtained for our study is basically due to the drawback of this study in the use of 3 parameters in the diagnosis of the condition whiles insulin resistance, reduced HDL-C or elevated triglycerides were not considered in this study.
These other parameters if combined with the three parameters used may alter the prevalence. A similar study by Isezuo and Ezunu [ 20 ] in Nigeria among type 2 diabetic patients produced a prevalence of These are not a population based study and are likely to give a higher prevalence.
In all these studies the MS was more prevalent in obese individuals with central obesity appearing to be the key determinant. Ghanaians generally associate fatness with beauty and wellbeing especially in females and it is not surprising that the prevalence of the females far exceeds that of males.
Predictive value of body mass index to metabolic syndrome risk factors in Syrian adolescents
This indicates the tendency for females in the metropolis to develop metabolic syndrome. In most parts of the world, there is an increasing trend of obesity [ 21 ]. The mean BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio for this study were These values are similar to that reported in a section of the Ghanaian population by Amoah [ 22 ]. Table 11 shows that There were 19 individuals representing This is in conformity with our findings and other reports on the use of WC instead of BMI as a factor of metabolic syndrome.
Essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes share certain common predisposing risk factors, for example overweight and obesity, resulting from the effects of a sedentary lifestyle, excessive consumption of refined carbohydrate and fatty foods, increased alcoholic consumption and cigarette smoking.
MS is characterized by obesity, hyperlipidaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance, hypertension and glucose intolerance and clearly demonstrates a possible common aetiologic basis for type 2 diabetes and essential hypertension Table Ghanaians also appear to be taking exercise less regularly. In the past, people walked long distances sometimes miles to work and to school. Nowadays, more and more Ghanaians are walking less frequently and are using a tro cheap means of public transport in the city or car at the slightest opportunity, sometimes for journeys of less than a quarter of a mile.
In addition, many more families now own a car and so are more likely to drive than walk. Even individuals who do not have television in their homes will often congregate around television sets belonging to their neighbors. In the s, television was very uncommon in most homes; homes with television had only one channel that was available at The stage is thus set for an obesity epidemic in Ghana.
It has been observed that an increase in the prevalence of obesity within a population is often noted before a rise in the occurrence of chronic non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease and some forms of cancer [ 26 ]. With the increasing rate of obesity, the stage is thus set for non-communicable diseases to emerge and threaten the health of Ghanaians. Already we are seeing an increase in the prevalence of some of these diseases.
In view of the non-random nature of the selection, our findings may not be generalized easily. Given the small sample size, and the fact that the sample subjects were all members of a Penteco-Charismatic church where smoking and alcohol intake are preached against in the presence of regular fasting sessions.
Nonetheless, in this cohort of Pentecost Charismatic Ghanaian subjects with an age-range of 18—85 years, the similar increasing trends of cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities across ascending BMI, WC, and WHR categories were generally observed Table The association with parameters of body composition may be strong for some metabolic risk factors but weak for others.
While there is a close association between WC and blood pressure systolic and diastolicthese associations are weaker for total cholesterol and blood sugar Table Abstract Metabolic syndrome is defined as a group of coexisting metabolic risk factors, such as central obesity, lipid disorders, carbohydrate disorders, and arterial hypertension.
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It is responsible for the development of insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to demonstrate a correlation between waist circumference WC and body mass index BMI in patients with metabolic syndrome in relation with hypertension, lipid disorders, and carbohydrate disorders.
A cross-sectional two-site study was conducted in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship for 24 months. The study group consisted of patients with diagnosed metabolic syndrome: Introduction of primary prophylaxis in those people to limit the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular diseases should be considered.
Introduction Metabolic syndrome is defined as a group of coexisting metabolic risk factors, such as central obesity, lipid disorders, carbohydrate disorders, and arterial hypertension [ 1 — 5 ]. Those factors increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases of atherosclerotic etiology and diabetes mellitus type 2 [ 15 — 9 ], which are the main cause of premature deaths among most of the European and US population [ 10 ].
The number of patients with metabolic syndrome increases with age. Abdominal obesity is the major disorder constituting a base for the development of metabolic syndrome. BMI is the simplest, most practical, and most widely used system of indexing body weight. It is defined as body weight in kilograms divided by the square of body height in metres. The index divides patients into appropriate categories: Even though BMI is commonly used for monitoring the occurrence of obesity in the population, it has numerous limitations.
It does not provide any information on the distribution of the adipose tissue in the organism. BMI is a calculated statistical value which does not take into consideration physiological differences in the proportions between the adipose, osseous, and muscular tissues [ 11 ].
Besides, its value is affected by sex, age, constitution, and training. Evidence from the conducted studies has revealed that abdominal obesity assessed based on the waist circumference plays a very important role in the development of metabolic disorders and in the assessment of cardiovascular risk. It is responsible for the development of insulin resistance which decreases the levels of the HDL-cholesterol fraction, increases the levels of triglycerides, and leads to the development of arterial hypertension.
All of the above-mentioned disorders contribute to metabolic syndrome and are related to the development of type 2 diabetes and ischaemic heart disease. Due to the limitations of BMI methodology, current reports by the World Health Organization and other organizations suggest combining the measurements of BMI and abdominal obesity [ 11 ]. The conducted studies have revealed that it is necessary to determine the adipose tissue distribution in the organism. The aim of our study was to demonstrate a correlation between waist circumference WC and body mass index BMI in patients with metabolic syndrome in relation to hypertension, lipid disorders, such as atherogenic dyslipidaemia, and carbohydrate disorders, such as impaired fasting glucose or diabetes mellitus type 2.
Materials and Methods A cross-sectional two-site study was conducted in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship for 24 months. General characteristics of the study group. Anthropometric measurements height, weight, and waist circumference were taken in all subjects. Body mass index BMI was calculated as body weight in kilograms divided by the square of body height in metres.
Demographic factors age, sex, and obesity and lifestyle factors smoking habits, physical activity, and alcohol consumption were determined. The main analysis was performed using the revision of the International Diabetes Federation IDF definition, requiring the presence of the following criteria: All subjects granted their informed consent for participation in the study.
Study group characteristics are presented in Table 1. Metabolic syndrome was identified based on 3 traits in The characteristics of the study group according to each component of metabolic syndrome are presented in Table 2.
Characteristics of the study group according to the components of metabolic syndrome. The results were considered as statistically significant at. Bilateral test was used to determine the significance of the differences between correlation coefficients. Results In the study group, waist circumference was found to be significantly correlated with BMI. The correlation was more pronounced among women than among men Table 3: Correlation between BMI and waist circumference was analysed according to each component of metabolic syndrome.
Groups with Arterial Hypertension and Normal Arterial Blood Pressure A group of patients with arterial hypertension was compared with a group of patients with normal values of arterial blood pressure. It was determined that in the group with arterial hypertension ;