Hi everyone. Could someone help please help me out with my assighnment please? The qeustion is: Explain the relationship between CADD. Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) uses geometrical design data to control automated machinery. It was this source that resulted in the linkage between CAD and CAM. weight, tensile strength, flexibility, and so on—into CAD software. By including this and other information, the CAD system could then " know" what. In practice, CAD refers to software for the design of engineering and system is 2-D and maps images directly to the points (pixels) of the hardware device. the CAD system maintains a set of relationships between the components of an to be used in CAM systems, or shared with other CAD designers using a variety of.
Feature representation helps the user define parts. It also simplifies CAD software design because features are easier to parameterize than explicit interactions. Objects built from features are called parts. Since a product being designed is composed of several parts, many CAD systems include a useful assembly model, in which the parts are referenced and their geometric and functional relationships are stored.
CAD models can be manipulated and viewed in a wide variety of contexts. They can be viewed from any angle and perspective desired, broken apart or sliced, and even put through simulation tests to analyze for strengths and defects of design. Parts can be moved within their coordinate systems via rotation operations, which provide different perspectives of a part, and translation, which allows the part to move to different locations in the view space.
What relationship exists between CAD and other software and hardware used in manufacturing
In addition, CAD systems provide valuable dimensioning functionality, which assigns size values based on the designer's drawing. The movement of these images is a form of animation. Often, CAD systems include virtual reality technology, which produces animated images that simulate a real-world interaction with the object being designed. For example, if the object is a building, the virtual reality system may allow you to visualize the scene as if you were walking around the inside and the outside of the building, enabling you to dynamically view the building from a multitude of perspectives.
In order to produce realistic effects, the system must depict the expected effects of light reflecting on the surface as it moves through the user's view space. This process is called rendering. Rendering technology includes facilities for shading, reflection, and ray tracing. This technique, which is also used in sophisticated video games, provides a realistic image of the object and often helps users make decisions prior to investing money in building construction. Some virtual reality interfaces involve more than just visual stimuli.
In fact, they allow the designer to be completely immersed in the virtual environment, experiencing kinesthetic interaction with the designed device. Some CAD systems go beyond assisting in parts design and actually include functionality for testing a product against stresses in the environment. Using a technique called finite element method FEMthese systems determine stress, deformation, heat transfer, magnetic field distribution, fluid flow, and other continuous field problems.
Finite element analysis is not concerned with all design details, so instead of the complete solid model a mesh is used.
Can someone explain the relationship between CAD and other software/hardware used in manufacturing?
Mesh generation involves computing a set of simple elements giving a good approximation of the designed part. A good meshing must result in an analytical model of sufficient precision for the FEM computation, but with a minimum number of elements in order to avoid unnecessary complexity. In addition to FEM, some CAD systems provide a variety of optimization techniques, including simulated annealing and genetic algorithms borrowed from the field of artificial intelligence.
These methods help to improve the shape, thickness, and other parameters of a designed object while satisfying user-defined constraints e. CAD systems allow for a design process in which objects are composed of sub-objects, which are composed of smaller components, and so on. Thus CAD databases tend to be object-oriented. The capability to convert from one file format to another is called data exchange, and is a common feature of many CAD software packages.
Modern CAD systems offer a number of advantages to designers and companies. For example, they enable users to save time, money, and other resources by automatically generating standard components of a design, allowing the reuse of previously designed components, and facilitating design modification.
Such systems also provide for the verification of designs against specifications, the simulation and testing of designs, and the output of designs and engineering documentation directly to manufacturing facilities.
While some designers complain that the limitations of CAD systems sometimes serve to curb their creativity, there is no doubt that they have become an indispensable tool in electrical, mechanical, and architectural design.
CAM SYSTEMS The manufacturing process includes process planning, production planning involving tool procurement, materials ordering, and numerical control programmingproduction, quality control, packaging, marketing, and shipping. CAM systems assist in all but the last two steps of this process. In CAM systems, the computer interfaces directly or indirectly with the plant's production resources.
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Process planning is a manufacturing function that establishes which processes and parameters are to be used, as well as the machines performing these processes. This often involves preparing detailed work instructions to machines for assembling or manufacturing parts.
Computer-aided process planning CAPP systems help to automate the planning process by developing, based on the family classification of the part being produced, a sequence of operations required for producing this part sometimes called a routingtogether with text descriptions of the work to be done at each step in the sequence. Sometimes these process plans are constructed based on data from the CAD databases. Process planning is a difficult scheduling problem.
For a complex manufacturing procedure, there could be a huge number of possible permutations of tasks in a process requiring the use of sophisticated optimization methods to obtain the best process plan. Techniques such as genetic algorithms and heuristic search based on artificial intelligence are often employed to solve this problem.
The most common CAM application is numerical control NCin which programmed instructions control machine tools that grind, cut, mill, punch, or bend raw stock into finished products. Often the NC inputs specifications from a CAD database, together with additional information from the machine tool operator.
The MCU includes a data processing unit DPUwhich reads and decodes instructions from a part program, and a control loop unit CLUwhich converts the instructions into control signals and operates the drive mechanisms of the machine tool. These systems differ from older forms of numerical control NC in that geometrical data are encoded mechanically.
Since both CAD and CAM use computer-based methods for encoding geometrical data, it is possible for the processes of design and manufacture to be highly integrated.
The first source of CAD resulted from attempts to automate the drafting process. These developments were pioneered by the General Motors Research Laboratories in the early s. One of the important time-saving advantages of computer modeling over traditional drafting methods is that the former can be quickly corrected or manipulated by changing a model's parameters.
The second source of CAD was in the testing of designs by simulation. The use of computer modeling to test products was pioneered by high-tech industries like aerospace and semiconductors.
The third source of CAD development resulted from efforts to facilitate the flow from the design process to the manufacturing process using numerical control NC technologies, which enjoyed widespread use in many applications by the mids.
The development of CAD and CAM and particularly the linkage between the two overcame traditional NC shortcomings in expense, ease of use, and speed by enabling the design and manufacture of a part to be undertaken using the same system of encoding geometrical data. This innovation greatly shortened the period between design and manufacture and greatly expanded the scope of production processes for which automated machinery could be economically used.
Computers are also used to control a number of manufacturing processes such as chemical processing that are not strictly defined as CAM because the control data are not based on geometrical parameters.
Using CAD, it is possible to simulate in three dimensions the movement of a part through a production process. This process can simulate feed rates, angles and speeds of machine tools, the position of part-holding clamps, as well as range and other constraints limiting the operations of a machine.
Software, hardware and links to manufacturing industry by Ruth Peacock on Prezi
The continuing development of the simulation of various manufacturing processes is one of the key means by which CAD and CAM systems are becoming increasingly integrated.
This is of particular importance when one firm contracts another to either design or produce a component. For example, designs can be altered without erasing and redrawing.
CAD systems also offer "zoom" features analogous to a camera lens, whereby a designer can magnify certain elements of a model to facilitate inspection. Computer models are typically three dimensional and can be rotated on any axis, much as one could rotate an actual three dimensional model in one's hand, enabling the designer to gain a fuller sense of the object.
CAD systems also lend themselves to modeling cutaway drawings, in which the internal shape of a part is revealed, and to illustrating the spatial relationships among a system of parts. CAD systems have no means of comprehending real-world concepts, such as the nature of the object being designed or the function that object will serve. CAD systems function by their capacity to codify geometrical concepts. Thus the design process using CAD involves transferring a designer's idea into a formal geometrical model.
Efforts to develop computer-based "artificial intelligence" AI have not yet succeeded in penetrating beyond the mechanical—represented by geometrical rule-based modeling.