Italian unification Cavour Garibaldi unification Italy essay
The role of Cavour and Garibaldi in the Making of Italy. The outbreak of the Crimean War between France and Britain on one side and Russia on the other. Italian Unification, Prophet of Italian Nationalism, Mazzini, Garibaldi, the Congress of Vienna of divided the country among themselves. Giuseppe Garibaldi was an Italian general and nationalist. A republican, he contributed to the Italian unification and the creation of the Kingdom of Italy. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's " fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, . Between and , Garibaldi defended Montevideo against.
Napoleon III pressed for plebiscites to take place in Savoy and Nice in the hope that these territories would agree to come under French sovereignty, as his price for consenting to Piedmont-Sardinia gaining territory in the Italian peninsula.
Cavour and Victor Emmanuel had shown themselves prepared to exploit Italian Nationalist sentiment in pursuit of annexations of territory to Piedmont-Sardinia. Savoy and Nice were dear to Italian sentiment, indeed Garibaldi, one of Italian Nationalism's populist leaders was actually a Nizzard and was less than pleased by Nice becoming French. Garibaldi actually sent an associate to King Victor Emmanuel to bluntly inquire if it was true that Nice had been ceded to France and asking for an answer "yes or no".
In reply Victor Emmanuel, whose dynasty had originally held territorial sovereignty as the Dukes of Savoy, insisted that Garibaldi be advised that not only Nice but Savoy also had been ceded.
Similarly about one half of the "Italian" people, some 11, persons, lived within the Kingdom ruled by Victor Emmanuel. Garibaldi would actually have preferred that there should be an Italian Republic but on balance fell in with the establishment of an Italian Kingdom. This acceptance was based on the practical usefulness of Piedmont-Sardinia as a focus of military power capable of challenging the Austrian Empire. In late March elections were held to return an "Italian" parliament which was to convene in early April in King Victor Emmanuel's capital city - Turin.
As part of his first speech to the new parliament King Victor Emmanuel spoke of Italy: In relation to Savoy and Nice King Victor Emmanuel spoke of the necessity of some sacrifice "for the good of Italy" even though the relinquishment of these territories "cost my heart dear".
Garibaldi actually planned to intervene in Nice in the hope of disrupting a plebiscite that was intended by the French authorities to endorse the transfer of Nice to France but was prevailed upon to reconcile himself to the alienation of his personal homeland and to involve himself instead in an ongoing Sicilian revolt.
To this end Garibaldi applied to Cavour for the supply of large quantities of firearms which he subsequently received, with Cavour "turning a blind eye", from the National Society. In early May Garibaldi led a seaborne expedition from Genoa, some one thousand strong and of a wide range of agesto Sicily.
Notwithstanding his effective co-operation in the supply of firearms Cavour publicly opposed this expedition, by Garibaldi, to the south.
Units of the Sardinian navy meanwhile, were ordered to provide a discrete "escort" to the expedition.
Cavour was quite prepared to see Piedmont-Sardinia play as full a role as possible in any Confederation of Italian States and would actually have been content with the probably future of Piedmont-Sardinia, with its recent additions of territory, as a free and constitutional state and might not have not sought to risk what had been achieved by looking yet more of Italia to be integrated with Piedmont-Sardinia. A major worry being that too great a growth in the potential power of Piedmont-Sardinia, or too great a challenge to the power or sovereignty of the Papacy being offered, could well lead to foreign intervention in events.
Nevertheless Cavour found it politically impossible for a variety of reasons to actually prevent the expedition. Garibaldi for his part, and to the disgust of some avowed republicans amongst the Thousand, announced that the expedition's war-cry would be "Italy and Victor Emmanuel. In August with Sicily almost completely won from the control of Francis II Garibaldi decided to carry the revolt to the Neapolitan mainland and his forces were joined by many persons variously committed to challenging Bourbon rule or to securing further changes in the overall situation of the Italian Peninsula.
The armies of Francis II proved unable to prevent the city of Naples from falling to the effective control of Garibaldi by early September. Garibaldi hoped to present the territories that he and his followers had won to the Kingdom of Italy but intended that those territories should include the city of Rome where, incidentally, "Italian" enthusiasm was increasingly evident.
As news of Garibaldi's successes filtered north and word arrived from France assuring him of non-interference, Cavour felt able to call the exploits of Garibaldi and his followers as "the most poetic fact of the century". That being said Cavour feared that an attack on Rome by Garibaldi would lead to French intervention in support of the continued Temporal Power of the Papacy. Cavour also considered that Garibaldi and Mazzini might attempt to set up a Republic in the South of Italy.
Cavour and Piedmont had hitherto "led" and "controlled" the movement towards "Italian" territorial integration - future marked successes by Garibaldi's irregular forces had the potential to somewhat compromise Piedmontese-Sardinian perceived leadership of events.
Cavour arranged for some unrest to take place within Umbria and the Marches territories of the Church to the south of the Romagna as a cover for the movement of a Piedmontese-Sardinian army into these Church territories "to restore order.
During the course of moving across the territories of the Church the Piedmontese-Sardinian forces clashed with forces recently formed in the service of the Pope but were not thereby prevented from proceeding south.
The Piedmontese-Sardinian forces could not have been prevented, but voluntarily refrained, from advancing on Rome at this time. Caricature of Victor Emmanuel's leg filling the 'boot' of Italy with the aid of Garibaldi! As an outcome of these developments there were annexations of territory to Piedmont-Sardinia after plebiscites in Sicily, Naples and Umbria and the Marches. Astute observers held that, in the cases of Sicily and Naples, the positive vote in favour of association in the Italian Kingdom was, in part, due to there being no more locally acceptable alternative put on the table for endorsement.
Sicily had long seen itself as being an unwilling colony of Naples and had a tradition of separatist aspiration - the fact that the earlier stages of the most recent uprising against Bourbon rule in Sicily had also featured a strong socio-political challenge by the local peasantry directed against the Sicilian propertied classes caused many influential Sicilians to discount separatism and to look to Victor Emmanuel and nascent "Italy" as offering some potential support against future socio-political unrest.
Cavour's agents not above stimulating demonstrations against Garibaldi's government gained support for annexation from middle and upper class groups petrified at the danger of rural and urban insurrection. When a plebiscite took place in October annexation won by an overwhelming margin. A barely imagined Italy became a reality as the outcome of a complex game of class conflict, fear, ambition, uncertainty, and military force.
What had begun as a home-grown popular insurrection and democrat-led guerrilla warfare ended as an effective royal conquest supported by the island's social elite under the guise of a well-managed plebiscite. Garibaldi, for his part, voluntarily withdrew from the scene returning to his island home of Caprera ostensibly to resume life as a cultivator of the soil and livestock farmer.
Victor Emmanuel was proclaimed as King of Italy "by the grace of God and the will of the people" by an Italian Parliament in session in Turin in March, Cavour made speeches in which he asserted that Rome was the only Italian city to which all others could yield precedence and that, as such, Rome must become the capital of Italy. He held however, that this accession to Rome must be by moral means with the assent of the Papacy itself and of France. Cavour further envisaged that with Rome as the Italian capital the Papacy would not exercise temporal power and that there would be a separation of church and state.
A "Boncompagni" bill, approved by the chamber of deputies shortly thereafter recognised Rome, still garrisoned as it was by French soldiers in support of the traditional Papal position, as the capital of Italy. Massimo D'Azeglio, Cavour's predecessor as prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia suggested, in the first meeting of the parliament of the newly united Italian kingdom, famously suggested that "Italy is made, We still have to make Italians.
Most people spoke regional dialects that were often unintelligible in other parts of the Italian peninsula. The historic linguistic diversity of the Italian peninsula had come to be seen as being something of an obstacle to the fulfilment of Italian-National aspirations. Of these, French alone is generally intelligible. A speech in Genoese or Piedmontese would be generally unintelligible to two-thirds of the Assembly.
Except the Savoyards, who sometimes use French, the deputies all speak in Italian; but this is to them a dead language, in which they have never been accustomed even to converse. They scarcely ever, therefore, can use it with spirit or fluency. Cavour is naturally a good speaker, but in Italian he is embarrassed. You can see that he is translating; so is Azeglio; so are they all From a letter by Marchioness Arconati to Nassau William Senior, 6th November A dynastic "House of Savoy" ruled in Piedmont where it upheld, linguistically, a principally French and Piedmontese court and administration despite having originated north of the Alps in the Duchy of Savoy where there was a Savoyard dialect!
Thus late-nineteenth century Risorgimento "nation building" in the Italian peninsula, as keenly supported by the rising middle class and artisan would-be "Italian" political nation, occurred against a background of the historic existence of many languages and dialects including French, Piedmontese, Genoan, Sicilian, Sardinian and Ligurian. The processes of "making Italians" ultimately included an acceptance of Florentine-Tuscan "Italian" as the desired official language of the newly unified state.
Quite apart from linguistic issues there were also problems of establishing a shared "Italian" civic consciousness and identification against the background where the multiplicity former states had been mainly been administered by reactionary statesmen and clerics and where the majority of the people had lived materially impoverished rural lives.
The population of the Kingdom of Italy in was some 22 million, of whom 8 million lived in the former Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and of whom 17 million were illiterate.
Due to restrictive clauses in the Statuto constitution only about one-half million persons were eligible to vote, and of that half million onlyactually voted.
Unredeemed Italy - hence irredentism were Venice and Rome. Venice, where there was a strongly established Venetian dialectwas under the control of the powerful Austrian Empire and unlikely to become easily available to Italian annexation.
Cavour warned the Italian parliament that Italy could not make war on Austria single-handed, he still hoped that Venice would be joined into Italy but told the chamber that it was a "secret of providence" whether such a "deliverance" would come "by arms or diplomacy".
The former King Naples and Sicily in these times was living in exile in Rome and followed a policy of somewhat encouraging "brigandage" in Naples and Sicily in the hope that it would facilitate his own return to the throne of the Two Sicilies.
The Italian kingdom had to keep tens of thousands of troops in the south in efforts to firmly maintain order and stamp out such "banditism". A French army still defended Rome in the Papal interest. The French forces present in Rome attempted police action against groups, based in the Roman territories, that were actively engaged in such disruptive endeavours to the south in formerly Neapolitan territory.
The French were however obliged to hand over any persons so arrested to the Roman authorities - it appeared to the French commanders that there own efforts in this regard were frustrated by the Roman authorities tending to release such prisoners to once again attempt to cause disruption in the south.
France had a long tradition of European power and had long history or regarding itself as being the "Eldest daughter of the Church". Napoleon III in his own day found himself on the horns of a dilemma: He himself once famously said that "the occupation of Rome will be the mistake of my reign".
I wish for the independence of Italy, but I must maintain the authority of the Pope in which one hundred and fifty million of consciences are interested; and I am resolved to maintain order in Rome. Whilst many Italian nationalists might consider that "without Rome for its capital Italy cannot be constituted" it was also the case that sincere Roman Catholics in Italy and beyond regarded the Temporal Sovereignty of the Popes as being beyond question.
It was held that much of the territories over which the Papacy was Temporally Sovereign had been awarded to the church centuries previously by such renowned Emperors as Constantine and Charlemagne and it was also held that it was inherently most undesirable that the head of the Church should be the subject of any Temporal Prince. In parliamentary speeches of late March,Cavour had uttered such sentiments as: That is, we must go to Rome, but the true independence of the Pontiff must not be lessened.
We must go to Rome, but civil authority must not extend its power over the spiritual order We believe that the system of liberty has to be introduced into all aspects of religious and civil society He offered a recognition of a nominal papal sovereignty over all papal territories in a situation where King Victor Emmanuel would, however, have "exercise of the government. In the event negotiations were broken off early in after the pope refused to exchange his temporal power for any guarantee of independence saying: Christ has given it to me.
I will give it up to him alone. In in a manner reminiscent of the way "Garibaldi and the Thousand" had proceeded to Sicily some two years previously a force again led by Garibaldi unsuccessfully attempted to win more territory for Italy by assailing Calabria then part of the remaining territories of the Church. Alongside the earlier anti-Clerical measures passed by the former Kingdom of Sardinia relations with the Papacy had not been improved by a forced sale inin the cash strapped Sardinian states interest, of monastic lands.
They refused to consider reform of the administration of the remaining territories of the church until such a restoration was brought about. In the mean time Britain had been the first foreign power to extend recognition to the Italian Kingdom. By mid France had also offered recognition to the Kingdom of Italy whilst officially deploring that Kingdoms retention of church territories, By mid those supportive of a restitution of Romagna, Umbria and the Marches to Papal Sovereignty were discomfited by the further recognition of the Italian Kingdom by Russia and Prussia.
This marriage took place despite the fact that, inKing Victor Emmanuel had actually been pronounced to be excommunicated because of his "Italian" policies!!! Napoleon III did not really relish his role as protector of the traditional Papal sovereignty over Rome and its environs - yet had he not sought to fulfil this role it would lead to serious consequences in terms of relations with the powerful clericalist support his government enjoyed in France.
In an attempt to lessen the awkwardness of his position he entered into an agreement, without the consent of the Papacy, with the Italian Kingdom known as the Convention of September whereby Italy would herself guarantee the Papal territories against attack and Napoleon III would withdraw the French garrison within two years.
It was accepted that the Pope could recruit an army of ten thousand from the catholic countries of Europe in the interests of the security of the territories of the church. A secret clause endorsed the transfer of the seat of the Italian government away from Turin to Florence within six months.
As French control of Savoy gave them unrestricted access to certain key Alpine passes the recent cession of Nice and Savoy had in any case left Turin somewhat strategically vulnerable from the north-west.
There was serious rioting in Turin, involving some fifty fatalities, when the news of the relocation of the seat of government was announced. The population there could, after all, depict itself as having contributed very greatly to the move toward Italian Unification. This move did seem however to let Napoleon III out of his difficult position as protector of the Papacy and to allow the French an opportunity, from their own point of view, to depict the Italian Kingdom as having decided upon a new and long term capital.
Late in Pope Pius IX, having become increasingly convinced that modern secular ideas presented a real threat to the Church issued an Encyclical of Papal Letter to which was attached a "Syllabus of Errors" which condemned "the principal Errors of our time.
Garibaldi agreed, feeling that his political goals were, for the moment, unreachable, and he could at least earn his own living. However, the funds for purchasing a ship were lacking. While in New York, he stayed with various Italian friends, including some exiled revolutionaries.
He attended the masonic lodges of New York inwhere he met several supporters of democratic internationalism, whose minds were open to socialist thought, and to giving Freemasonry a strong anti-papal stance.
Garibaldi was not satisfied with this, and in April he left New York with his friend Carpanetto for Central America, where Carpanetto was establishing business operations. They went first to Nicaraguaand then to other parts of the region. Garibaldi accompanied Carpanetto as a companion, not a business partner, and used the name Giuseppe Pane. At Lima, Garibaldi was generally welcomed. A local Italian merchant, Pietro Denegri, gave him command of his ship Carmen for a trading voyage across the Pacific.
Garibaldi took the Carmen to the Chincha Islands for a load of guano. Garibaldi arrived in Boston, and went on to New York. There he received a hostile letter from Denegri, and resigned his command. Garibaldi, already a popular figure on Tynesidewas welcomed enthusiastically by local working men-though the Newcastle Courant reported that he refused an invitation to dine with dignitaries in the city. He stayed in Huntingdon Place Tynemouth for a few days,  and in South Shields on Tyneside for over a month, departing at the end of April During his stay, he was presented with an inscribed sword, which his grandson Giuseppe Garibaldi II later carried as a volunteer in British service in the Second Boer War.
Using an inheritance from the death of his brother, he bought half of the Italian island of Caprera north of Sardiniadevoting himself to agriculture. Inthe Second Italian War of Independence also known as the Austro-Sardinian War broke out in the midst of internal plots at the Sardinian government. Garibaldi was appointed major generaland formed a volunteer unit named the Hunters of the Alps Cacciatori delle Alpi.
Thenceforth, Garibaldi abandoned Mazzini's republican ideal of the liberation of Italy, assuming that only the Piedmontese monarchy could effectively achieve it. He and his volunteers won victories over the Austrians at VareseComo, and other places.
Garibaldi was, however, very displeased, as his home city of Nice Nizza in Italian had surrendered to the French in return for crucial military assistance. In the following years, Garibaldi with other passionate Nizzardo Italians promoted the Italian irredentism of his Nizza, even with riots in Campaign of [ edit ] See also: Immediately after the wedding ceremony, she informed him that she was pregnant with another man's child and Garibaldi left her the same day.
He gathered about a thousand volunteers — called i Mille the Thousandor, as popularly known, the Redshirts — in two ships named Il Piemonte and Il Lombardo, and left from Genoa on 5 May in the evening and landed at Marsalaon the westernmost point of Sicily, on 11 May. Battle of Calatafimi Swelling the ranks of his army with scattered bands of local rebels, Garibaldi led volunteers to victory over an enemy force of on the hill of Calatafimi on 15 May.
He used the counter-intuitive tactic of an uphill bayonet charge. He saw that the hill was terraced, and the terraces would shelter his advancing men. Though small by comparison with the coming clashes at Palermo, Milazzo and Volturno, this battle was decisive in establishing Garibaldi's power in the island.
An apocryphal but realistic story had him say to his lieutenant Nino BixioQui si fa l'Italia o si muore, that is, Here we either make Italy, or we die.
In reality, the Neapolitan forces were ill guided, and most of its higher officers had been bought out. He advanced to the outskirts of Palermo, the capital of the island, and launched a siege on 27 May. He had the support of many inhabitants, who rose up against the garrison—but before they could take the city, reinforcements arrived and bombarded the city nearly to ruins.
At this time, a British admiral intervened and facilitated an armistice, by which the Neapolitan royal troops and warships surrendered the city and departed. Historians Clough et al. The support given by Sicilian peasants was from patriotism, but from their hatred of exploitative landlords and oppressive Neapolitan officials. Garibaldi himself had no interest in social revolution, and instead sided with the Sicilian landlords against the rioting peasants. He gained worldwide renown and the adulation of Italians.
Faith in his prowess was so strong that doubt, confusion, and dismay seized even the Neapolitan court. Six weeks later, he marched against Messina in the east of the island, winning a ferocious and difficult battle at Milazzo. By the end of July, only the citadel resisted.
Garibaldi's progress was met with more celebration than resistance, and on 7 September he entered the capital city of Naplesby train. Despite taking Naples, however, he had not to this point defeated the Neapolitan army.
Garibaldi's volunteer army of 24, was not able to defeat conclusively the reorganized Neapolitan army about 25, men on 30 September at the Battle of Volturno. This was the largest battle he ever fought, but its outcome was effectively decided by the arrival of the Piedmontese Army. Following this, Garibaldi's plans to march on to Rome were jeopardized by the Piedmontese, technically his ally but unwilling to risk war with France, whose army protected the Pope.
The Piedmontese themselves had conquered most of the Pope's territories in their march south to meet Garibaldi, but they had deliberately avoided Rome, capital of the Papal state.
Garibaldi chose to hand over all his territorial gains in the south to the Piedmontese and withdrew to Caprera and temporary retirement. Some modern historians consider the handover of his gains to the Piedmontese as a political defeat, but he seemed willing to see Italian unity brought about under the Piedmontese crown.
The meeting at Teano between Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel II is the most important event in modern Italian history, but is so shrouded in controversy that even the exact site where it took place is in doubt. To an extent, he simply mistrusted Cavour's pragmatism and realpolitikbut he also bore a personal grudge for Cavour's trading away his home city of Nice to the French the previous year. On the other hand, he felt attracted toward the Piedmontese monarch, who in his opinion had been chosen by Providence for the liberation of Italy.
Garibaldi rode into Naples at the king's side on 7 November, then retired to the rocky island of Caprerarefusing to accept any reward for his services. Army through the letter from Secretary of State William H. Minister at Brussels, July 17, He [Garibaldi] said that the only way in which he could render service, as he ardently desired to do, to the cause of the United States, was as Commander-in-chief of its forces, that he would only go as such, and with the additional contingent power—to be governed by events—of declaring the abolition of slavery; that he would be of little use without the first, and without the second it would appear like a civil war in which the world at large could have little interest or sympathy.
For a time Garibaldi settled down in Nice with Anita whom he had married in and their three children, but his resolve to help free Italy from foreign rule was stronger than ever. He was confirmed in his purpose by his belief—which he and only a handful of others shared with Mazzini—that the many Italian states, though often engaged in internecine warfare, could nonetheless be unified into a single state. When Pius IX, threatened by liberal forces within the Papal Statesfled from Rome toward the end ofGaribaldi led a group of volunteers to that city.
There, in Februaryhe was elected a deputy in the Roman Assembly, and it was he who proposed that Rome should become an independent republic.
In April a French army arrived to restore papal government, and Garibaldi was the chief inspiration of a spirited defense that repulsed a French attack on the Janiculum Hill. In May he defeated a Neapolitan army outside Rome at Velletri, and in June he was the leading figure in the defense of Rome against a French siege.
There was no chance at all of holding the city, but the gallantry of the resistance became one of the most inspiring stories of the Risorgimento. Refusing to accept defeat, Garibaldi led a few thousand men out of Rome and through central Italy in Julymaneuvering to avoid French and Austrian armies, until he reached the neutral republic of San Marino.
Italian Unification: Role of Mazzini, Garibaldi and Cavour - Glimpses Of History
Retreat There Garibaldi found himself surrounded and decided to disband his men. Soon afterward, he was pursued by the Austrians as he tried to escape. Although Anita died, Garibaldi successfully crossed the Apennines to the Tuscan coast. The retreat through central Italy, coming after the defense of Rome, made Garibaldi a well-known figure.
Only in was he allowed to return to Italy. In the following year, Garibaldi bought part of the island of Caprera off the Sardinian coast, which remained his home for the rest of his life. In he tried to lead an expedition to release political prisoners held by the Bourbon kings of Naples, but it came to nothing.
In he received an invitation from Cavour to help prepare for another war against Austria. His task was to lead an army of volunteers from other Italian provinces, and he was given the rank of major general in the Piedmontese army.
When war broke out in Aprilhe led his Cacciatori delle Alpi Alpine Huntsmen in the capture of Varese and Como and reached the frontier of the south Tirol. This war ended with the acquisition of Lombardy by Piedmont. In Septemberafter peace had returned to northern Italy, Garibaldi transferred his attention to central Italy, where a revolutionary government had been established in Florence. There, on several occasions, he had private meetings with King Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont-Sardinia, and it was agreed that he should prepare to invade the Papal States; the king would support his venture if it succeeded but disown him if it failed.
At the last moment, however, the king realized that the undertaking was too dangerous and asked him to give up the idea. Garibaldi agreed, though reluctantly. He was ready at any moment to revive this kind of unwritten agreement with Victor Emmanuel, but it became increasingly clear that their aims were not identical.
Though both men were patriots, Garibaldi was already working for the unification of Italy. The king was more prudent, concerned foremost with expanding Piedmont.
Garibaldi was especially furious when, early inCavour and Victor Emmanuel gave his hometown of Nice back to France it had become Piedmontese inand he made one of his rare appearances in parliament to protest this violation of the national principle.
In January he married Giuseppina, the daughter of the Marchese Raimondi, but abandoned her, within hours of the marriage, when he discovered she was five months pregnant, almost certainly by one of his own officers.
Twenty years later, he was able to obtain the decree of nullity that enabled him to legitimize his children by Francesca Armosino, his longtime companion. This time he had no government backing, but Cavour and Victor Emmanuel did not dare to stop him, for he had become a popular hero. They stood ready to assist, but only if he proved successful, and he accepted this unwritten arrangement, confident that he could thus force Cavour to support a new move toward the unification of the Italian peninsula.
Sailing from near Genoa on May 6 with about 1, men, he reached Marsala in Sicily on May 11 and in the name of Victor Emmanuel proclaimed himself dictator.
A popular revolution in Sicily helped him considerably, for his personal charm was irresistible, and many of the peasants thought him a god intent on freeing them from slavery and feudalism.