Human rights and development - Wikipedia
Or has there been valuable mutual learning with development The last 20 years have seen a growing engagement between development and human rights practitioners. consultation and accountability in development projects. and Macro-Financial Linkages · Moving Past the Commodity Supercycle. “Human development and human rights are close enough in motivation and concern to be compatible and congruous, and they are different enough in strategy. Though the struggle of the project affected persons hitherto The violation of Human Rights by development can be sort out in the following grounds: . and Resettlement, Need to Link Displacement and Development.
These views will sometimes be coupled with arguments that human rights are properly the purview of more openly political entities whose mandates provide explicitly for human rights.
The narrow definition of institutional mandates may also rest on a vision of the specificity of tasks in a global context and the correct distribution of responsibility between international institutions. Political resistance and value-based objections Beyond the formal legal constraints, or particular definitions of mandates, human rights is not a concept around which there can be said to be consensus, and at an international level it is one of inescapable political sensitivity, with states fiercely protective of their human rights records and resistant to rankings, assessments and censure.
For these reasons, human rights is widely perceived as a controversial subject in development agencies and IFIs, and viewed cautiously because of its divisive potential, including at the level of governing bodies.
There may be widely differing viewpoints between members from the North and the South, or between donors and partners; but there may equally be variances between donors, and between partners. Some resist a current broadened understanding of human rights possibly favouring particular domestic definitions or regional understandings, or an emphasis on one or other category of right.
Others resist being dictated to on human rights through the lending instruments or development assistance generally, and many oppose what they perceive as double standards and hypocrisy when the dictates come from countries with economic power rather than exemplary human rights records. It is also worth acknowledging the disproportionate impact human rights-related conditionalities might have on certain member countries — that is, beyond the disproportionate impacts on borrowing countries with no concomitant pressure on lenderscertain countries may be able to resist such human rights oversight by refusing to borrow from institutions that consider or impose human rights standards, while others, usually the poorest and least powerful, may not have that freedom.
Disciplines and approaches The practice and policy that has evolved around development and human rights is governed by divergent discourses at least in part due to the predominance in each of different disciplines and methodologies see Seymour and Pincus, At some fundamental level therefore, there is a perceived incompatibility between the approaches and language of each, making cohesion between them very challenging.
Development has traditionally been the purview of economists, social scientists and sectoral or technical experts, while the human rights framework is predicated towards legal norms and rules, which have been largely drafted and interpreted by lawyers. Development institutions tend to rely on evidence-based approaches, while human rights organs operate from normative precepts. This has resulted in different discourses based on distinct disciplines, traditions and institutional cultures which enjoy no obvious affinity.
Thus, development practitioners may approach issues in programmatic, forward-looking terms, predicated towards practical solutions, trade-offs and the rendering of technical assistance, whether at a country, sector or project level. Human rights practitioners likely start from a more explicitly normative baseline driven by principles like indivisibility and universality.
They possibly adopt a retrospective outlook, from which responsibility for non-realization of human rights may be assigned and where poverty is viewed as a denial, or even violation of human rights. Practical problems of bridging these disciplines arise in the absence of a solid evidence base demonstrating how rights-based approaches have succeeded, and where or how they have been successful in generating more sustainable development.
This may link to practical difficulties of assessing, measuring and mainstreaming human rights, or to subtle forms of skepticism based on cultural relativism and the difficulties of identifying and promoting human rights norms in international contexts.
Some development institutions may simply not have clear operational entry points in their policies and instruments to mainstream or integrate human rights considerations. This is compounded by the absence of operational entry points in their policies and instruments, and the existence of certain ingrained institutional imperatives and internal incentive structures.
Institutional arrangements Cleavages in disciplines and approaches are sometimes reflected in institutional arrangements or the structures within governments. Human rights and development cooperation may be handled by separate teams within ministries of foreign affairs, or development cooperation may be managed by a separate aid agencies altogether. In the field this may be reflected in individual donors having human rights and policy dialogue conducted by their embassies and development programs by their development agencies.
Similarly, participation in IFIs, multilaterals and development initiatives may be dealt with separately from engagement with international human rights bodies.
Even within the United Nations, this is manifest in human rights matters related to treaties being separate from those related to the Millennium Development Goals MDGs or the right to development 11 or in the UN General Assembly, with second and third standing committees handling sustainable development and human rights, respectively.
Within development institutions, human rights may be recognized as an issue of cross-cutting relevance, but may lack a dedicated institutional home and staff responsible exclusively for it. Consequences of the divergent discourse of development and human rights The consequences of this varied relationship between human rights and development is an uneven recognition of human rights in development discourse, policy and operational frameworks and an underemphasizing of their binding nature.
This may also result in lost opportunities for human rights treaties to positively inform development processes and programming and provide relevant input where specific rights are in issue in the planning or assessment of particular activities.
The programmes promoting property rights tend to go together with measures to formalize, commodify, and individualize landholdings, and that these three processes often intensify the dispossession of women who may have had access to land under informal arrangements or customary law.
The promotion of property rights from an economic perspective may well undermine the social rights of women in developing countries. Legal conceptions of property, treat property not as a mere resource but as a set of relations between individuals and groups. This approach may highlight otherwise unforeseen distributive consequences for women, moving from an informal property regime to a formalized and individualized one.
Mason and Carlsson  note that, unless gender inequality in land holding is taken into account when implementing land tenure reforms, improved land tenure security may diminish women's land holdings.
A variety of factors can lead to this result, including discriminatory inheritance laws, the application of an androcentric definition of 'the head of household', and inequalities in women's capacity to participate in the market for land. Costa Rica and Colombia land reforms were undertaken in a way that improved women's ownership of land. Women who own the land they work have greater incentives to raise their labour productivity, and women who earn more income are more likely than men to invest in the household and in their children's education and nutrition stressing the importance of applying a human rights lens such that norms of non-discrimination and equal property rights are required when implementing economic reforms.
Children's rights The fourth MDG is to reduce child mortality. A human rights approach emphasizes the State's obligations regarding the availability of functioning health systems and making sure that all groups can effectively access them by addressing obstacles like discrimination. The target here is the reduction of two-thirds of the mortality rate of children under five by  comparable to the Right to life.
Around 17, fewer children are dying each day, yet 6. In sub-Saharan Africa, one in ten children dies before the age five. Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia accounted for 5. The first month, particularly the first 24 hours, are the most dangerous in a child's life.
Over the past two decades in Bangladesh UNICEF has supported local efforts training community health-care workers leading to a decline in maternal and child mortality. Infant mortality declined from deaths per 1, live births in to 33 deaths per 1, live births in The development goal is related to Child Labour.
Rights advocates regard child labour as a violation to numerous rights of a child such that it must be eradicated to ensure children's human rights are ends themselves while development economics views child labour as an inter-generational loss of potential income.
Children suffer diminished human capital where reductions in health and education affect their future productivity. Betcherman  demonstrates the important insights that economic analysis can provide in understanding how best to reduce child labour. Factors contributing to child labour can be seen in terms of incentives that encourage child work, constraints that compel children to work, and decisions that may not be made in the best interests of the children.
HRBA Portal - What is the relationship between human rights and development?
Other factors must also be considered, direct books, transport and indirect poor quality, loss of household labour costs of education leading parents to regard education as not providing sufficient immediate returns to the household or child.
Elizabeth GibbonsFriedrich Huebler and Edilberto Loaiza consider how, at the level of statistical analysis, the application of the human rights principle of non-discrimination can affect our understanding of child labour. Existing methods of calculating the extent of child labour under report the degree of work done by girls, because the measures exclude household chores. By failing to consider 'female work' within the definition of child labour, the impact of child work on the educational and health attainment of girls is made invisible.
Gibbons, Huebler, and Loaiza also investigate some factors affecting school attendance; labour and household poverty are generally constraints on attendance but a mother's educational attainment correlates positively with school attendance, revealing the inter-generational payoff from investments in girls' education.
Household wealth and the level of education of the primary caretaker also have a significant effect on educational attainment In India the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act  has led to the inclusion of a justiciable right to education in relation to children between the ages of 6 and 14 and provides an impetus to government to address critical problems in the provision of education.
The idea of education as a 'fundamental right' focuses local political action and agitation among oppressed communities, who rely on the new constitutional provision as a way of pressing demands on local and regional government. Maternal health[ edit ] The fifth MDG is to improve maternal health.
The target is to reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio and to achieve universal access to reproductive health by  comparable to right to life and health. Complications during pregnancy or childbirth are one of the leading causes of death for adolescent girls, million women worldwide married or in civil union would like to delay or avoid pregnancy, but have no access to family planning.
Maternal mortality is lower in countries where levels of contraceptive use and skilled attendance at birth are high. Education for girls is vital to reducing maternal mortality. The risk of maternal death is 2. Hundreds of nurses have upgraded their knowledge with practical and theoretical training. In India more than two-thirds of maternal deaths occur in impoverished states due to the inability to get medical care in time.
UNICEF and its partners are working to avoid these preventable maternal deaths through innovative schemes such as a conditional cash transfer programme for women who deliver in health facilities. Furthermore, UN Women is implementing a joint programme in Central African Republic, Chad, Guinea, Haiti, Mali, Niger and Togo highlighting links between violence against women and maternal health, promoting funding and training midwives and health workers.
Multidrug-resistant TB is a major global challenge and the rate of people accessing treatment is slow. Inreports appeared that malaria parasites in Cambodia and Thailand were resisting artemisinin, the most effective single drug to treat malaria. The countries launched a joint monitoring, prevention and treatment project in seven provinces along their shared border, with support from WHO.
In Thailand more than volunteer village malaria health workers were trained to provide free services to test for malaria and directly observe the treatment of patients.The corporate responsibility to respect human rights: Damiano de Felice at TEDxLSE 2013
Use of a smart phone to capture data on patients and to monitor treatment has accelerated progress. An electronic malaria information system e-MIS uploaded on the health workers' mobile devices shows malaria volunteers where to find patients, the status of their treatment, the situation and trends.
Environmental sustainability[ edit ] The seventh MDG is to ensure environmental sustainability. A human rights approach to sustainable development emphasizes improving accountability systems, access to information on environmental issues, and the obligations of developed States to assist more vulnerable States, especially those affected by climate change. There are four targets in this goal 1 To integrate principles of sustainable development into country policies and reverse the loss of environmental resources comparable to a Right to environmental health; 2 to reduce biodiversity loss by achieving a significant reduction in the rate of loss; 3 to halve bythe proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation comparable to the Right to water and sanitation and 4 to achieve, bya significant improvement in the lives of at least million slum dwellers,  comparable to the Right to adequate housing.
Human rights and development
Of note a staggering 2. Open defecation is a practice that poses serious health and environmental risks and stopping it is a key factor in the progress of sanitation goals. InUN Member States adopted the Sanitation for All resolution  calling for increased efforts to improve access to proper sanitation. The number of slum dwellers however continues to grow, due to the fast pace of urbanization.
The number of urban residents living in slum conditions was estimated at million incompared to million in and million in Species are moving towards extinction at an ever-faster pace, and reduced biodiversity has serious consequences for the ecosystem services upon which all people depend.
Deforestation threatens global sustainability and the progress towards hunger and poverty reduction as forests provide food, water, wood, fuel and other services used by millions of the world's poorest. Brazil's northeast the most densely populated semi-arid region in the world has limited rainfall and cyclic drought forcing many of the 22 million residents to resort in illegal charcoal productionstripping the region of forests.
A project by the International Fund for Agricultural Development IFAD  to promote agro-ecology is showing farmers how to make a living from the land while conserving the environment. Nearly one-third of marine fish stocks have been overexploited and the world's fisheries can no longer produce maximum sustainable yields due to continuing expansion of the fishing industry in many countries. The reserves prevent desertification, testing sustainable economies and integrating local communities.
Defined as 'freedom from hunger', the right to food may be seen as a right to 'nutrition'. Nutrition is achieved not through food alone but with clean water, health-care, hygiene, and other inputs. Development activities also violate human rights in India.
Human Rights and Development
Development and Human Rights violation in India: Though Human Rights are violating in several sectors but it is important to give a brief look at the violation of Human Rights in India by development activities. As India is a developing nation it has been going through a period of transition. This development and transition had resulted in Human Rights violation.
All these issues, if pursued in all earnest, relate to an alternative approach towards the development projects, policies and the paradigm itself. Though the struggle of the project affected persons hitherto emphasized the demand for a more humane and equitable resettlement of late, particularly after in Narmada, Subannarekha, Koel-Karo, and scores of such projects the struggle have evolved a set of promises regarding the resettlement and displacement which may pave way for alterative paradigm and policy of development.
Anthropogenic activities are polluting and depleting this finite wellspring of life at a startling rate. Industrialization, intensive agriculture, toxic dumping, deforestation and construction of large dams have damaged the earth's surface water in an unreplenishable way. Quite simply, unless we change our ways and practices the world will be living with fresh water shortages in the coming future. Keeping in view the increasing demand for water the government of India brought out a new National Water Policy, which states water is a prime natural resource, a basic need and a precious national asset.
Planning development and management of water resources need to be governed by national perspectives National Water Policy, While there exists excellent literature on different alternatives to water management, the national perspective guiding water resource development in India, since independence, has focused on the supply based paradigm of large water resource development projects as the only alternative to meet water needs for such diverse purposes as irrigation, drinking water, sanitation, industrial water and other uses in a sustainable manner.
The policy decision announced by the government of India on the interlinking river project for managing fresh water resources in the twenty-first century is based on the national perspective plan of a linear model of decision-making and its subsequent stages of implementation.
This top down solution to India's growing water needs has stirred a controversy and debate in one of the largest democracies of the world. The paper addresses the challenges inherent in the Indian policy decision of interlinking of rivers on the contested terrain of large water resource development projects vis-a vis human rights. The experience of development in last six decades has clearly indicated how it has led to violation of Human Rights. The violation of Human Rights by development can be sort out in the following grounds: Industry and human rights violation: Industry is a major source of development.
Development is generally determined with industrialization. But this industrialization has led to major human rights violation in all over the world and especially in India. In India establishment of industry has polluted the nation, displaced the people and also led to violation of workers rights. In industries child are employed, workers are exploited, thousands of raw materials are over used.
Industrialization led to the violation of human rights in India on the following grounds: In India because of industrialization environmental pollution took place. It occurred by emission of poisonous gas, water from industries. In India industrialization also has been effecting environment by noise pollution, by its waste materials etc.
Industrialization also led to displacement of people in India. Many industrial projects in India had displaced several local people. For example we can point out to Tata Nano project. Another aspect of human rights violation in India by industrialization is Global Warming.
Because of set up of several industries the humidity level increases in India. Industrialization has caused in global warming which violates human rights not only in India but all over the glob. Another human rights violation in India by industrialization is child rights violation. It is noticed that now a day industries are using many under aged workers as they are cheap and easily available. So it also seen that industrialization has also led to human rights violation. In these ways industrialization in India has led to human rights violation in several grounds.
Dams and human rights violation: Another aspect of development is constructions of dams in several parts of the nation which also results in human rights violation. In Arunachal Pradesh because of Dam several people are going to be displaced. It will also lead to flood problem in Assam.
In this way construction of Dams violates human rights. Construction of dams has led to human rights violation on the following grounds: