Native North Americans - The National Archives
Native Americans and European Settlers had good times and bad times. They fought and the Europeans had a lot of diseases. But they also. When Europeans first explored western Virginia in the late s, they discovered Indians fought among themselves over hunting rights to the territory but the. From the evidence so far, how would you describe the relationship between the Europeans and the Natives? Make sure you explain your ideas – use the.
The owners of the land actually lived hundreds of miles away-not on the land they owned in Dedham.
Seeing no activity on the land, the natives believed they were free to hunt, trap, fish, build houses, and cultivate gardens there. This attitude was not far removed from that of the philosopher John Locke, who so strongly influenced the thinking of the fathers of the American Revolution. He wrote that one could own the land only with which one mixed one's labor and could actually use. But the colonists were amassing great estates on which they might eventually establish business enterprises, and they strongly objected to the presence of the natives on land that they now owned.
Similar quarrels began to occur throughout the colonies, leading to armed hostilities. There were many conflicts between settlers and natives throughout the colonial period.
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One of the first major conflicts occurred in The New England colonies raised a militia and waged war against the Pequot for a solid year.
On June 5,a militia destroyed a large Pequot village at Stonington, Connecticut, and a little over a month later a military force made up of soldiers from three New England colonies tracked down the survivors of the Stonington village at a place near New Haven and slaughtered all they could find. Other Pequot men and boys who were eventually captured were sold into slavery in the West Indies. The women and girls became slaves to white settlers in New England.
With their numbers decimated, their main villages burned, their stored food and supplies stolen, the few Survivors in this tribe left for the west.
Native American Clashes with European Settlers
This was the end of the entire tribe's presence in New England. Although for forty years after this incident, there was no open warfare between settlers and natives, relations between them were hardly cordial.
Individuals from both camps were guilty of murders and thefts, and the English continued to gobble up land. Land disputes continued, the one at Dedham in and being one of the most prominent. There were also quarrels with the Narraganset in Rhode Island where Massachusetts Bay businessmen, under the Atherton Company, began commandeering immense amounts of Indian land.
In this case, the European settlers of Rhode Island sided with the natives against the settlers of Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut. After the embittered Narragansett caused property damage near some Connecticut plantations, the New England Confederation demanded that the natives either pay a fine, which was too large for them to meet, or forfeit all their lands to the business corporation. Immediate disaster was averted when the king of England, Charles II, intervened at Rhode Island's request to side with the Narraganset and voided the claims of the Atherton Company.
Still, the company tried to ignore the king's dictate and continued appropriating Narraganset land. Throughout the s and s, the General Courts of the Massachusetts Bay or Plymouth Colony made a habit of hauling tribal sachems before them to quiz them on rumors of conspiracies or allegiances with tribes or nationals that the bay considered unfriendly.
Once these hearings were over, the court would present the defendant with a bill for court costs, as it did the Wampanoag chief, King Philip, in The reason for the disintegration of relations and the buildup of hostilities was simple: King Philip had historically been friendly with the settlers, but suspicions mounted, rumors raged on, and the English demanded that various tribes surrender their weapons.
For four years, King Philip and other sachems inwardly seethed over the humiliation. Finally, in Juneafter Plymouth Colony's execution of three of King Philip's men for the murder of an informant, the Indian chief began his raids on settlements in a year-long war in which many native tribes sided with the settlers. Some fifty towns along the frontier were burned. Bythe English had lost about 2, people, and the natives had lost about 4, in battle. With the decisive defeat of King Philip's forces in King Philip himself was killed, drawn and quartered, and his head brought to Boston for display came the virtual end of the native tribes in New England.
[Indian] Relationships With The Europeans
All Indian land was now up for confiscation as the settlers dictated the terms for takeovers and appropriated Indian land as the spoils of war. Prisoners of war were executed by the scores, most without trial and many of whom had been friendly to the settlers. Immediately, however, New England businessmen realized the cash value of the prisoners, so many more were sold into slavery and shipped to the West Indies, Spain, and the Mediterranean.
Those deemed less dangerous became bound servants in the colonies to alleviate the perpetual labor shortage. Natives, who fifty years earlier had called the whole New England area their home, to be held in common with their brothers, were restricted to reservations. The more fortunate of them were allowed to be tenant farmers or to work as hired hands. In the s, they had numbered around 75, people. Their people had lived in New England for thousands of years.
By the s, decimated by disease, alcohol, and wars with the settlers, their numbers had dropped to 20, only half the number of the new European settlers. One further notorious clash between Native Americans and settlers in the colonial period occurred on February 29,during a time when many tribes had sided with the French in the fight between French and English over the domination of northern New England.
Write your own journal entry describing your first contact with the Natives. Look at the source to get an idea of a journal entry. Make sure you cover: InEnglish colonists attempted to settle at a place called Roanoke. The settlement lasted only for a short time. After initial friendly relations, fighting broke out with the Native Americans when they refused demands for food from English soldiers.
On May 14,the first lasting English settlement in North America was established. Captain Newport led the expedition, staying until June 22nd, when he sailed back to England for supplies. The source material in this Snapshot comes from the time between May and June, when Newport was in America.
American History: A New World Clash of Cultures
These settlers were unprepared, and did not even plant the right crops or eat the right foods. They soon encountered starvation and famine, despite stealing food from the Native Americans. Thousands of Native Americans were also killed, either in fighting or by outbreaks of European diseases to which their bodies had no immunity.
Those settlers that survived, together with new arrivals, began to cultivate the land, growing tobacco.